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Mathematics for Elementary School Teachers, Fourth Edition, by Phares O'Daffer, Randall Charles, Thomas Cooney, John Dossey, and Jane Schielack. Published by Addison Wesley. Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter Perspective

Mental computation and estimation techniques are valuable components in doing and using mathematics. For example, a biologist studying penguins might need to estimate a particular penguin population. Many mental calculation and estimation techniques are based on the properties of whole numbers and ideas of place value. Mental computation and estimation require a solid understanding of numeration, a mastery of the basic facts, good number sense, and an ability to utilize mathematical reasoning. In this chapter, you will develop techniques for mental computation and estimation and explore paperand-pencil procedures for adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing whole numbers.

Big Ideas

For a given set of numbers there are relationships that are always true, called properties, and these are the rules that govern arithmetic and algebra A given number, measure, expression, equation, inequality, or function can be represented symbolically in more than one way, where each representation has the same value. There are multiple interpretations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of rational numbers and each operation is related to other operations. There is more than one algorithm for each of the operations with rational numbers. Most common algorithms for operations with rational numbers, both mental math and paper and pencil, use place value together with notions of equivalence to break calculations into simpler ones. Estimates or mathematical approximations are required for some mathematical situations. Numerical calculations can be estimated by replacing numbers with ones that are close and easy to compute with mentally.

The NCTM Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (2000) recommend that the mathematics curriculum at grades PreK8 include the study of estimation and computation techniques so students can develop and use strategies to estimate computations involving whole numbers, fractions, decimals, and integers; select appropriate methods and tools for computing with whole numbers, fractions, and decimals from among mental computation, estimation, calculators or computers, and paper and pencil. develop and analyze algorithms for computing with whole numbers, fractions, decimals, and integers and develop uency in their use (p. 214).

In grades PreK2, children develop exibility in working with numbers by composing and decomposing numbers. They are introduced to mental calculation and estimation techniques and computational techniques for whole numbers. In grades 35, mental calculation techniques, estimation techniques, and computational algorithms are extended to greater whole numbers and to fractions and decimals. In grades 68, mental calculation techniques, estimation techniques, and computational algorithms are extended to integers.

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Mathematics for Elementary School Teachers, Fourth Edition, by Phares O'Daffer, Randall Charles, Thomas Cooney, John Dossey, and Jane Schielack. Published by Addison Wesley. Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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Section

3.1

When to Use Mental Computation Mental Computation Techniques

The commutative, associative, and distributive properties enable numbers to be rearranged and broken apart in ways that change some whole-number calculations into ones that are easy to do mentally. Representing numbers and numerical expressions in equivalent forms can make some whole-number calculations easy to do mentally.

In this section, we examine six techniques for mental computation. We also look at the role of the basic properties of whole numbers and place value in these techniques. We stress the importance of understanding numeration and mastering basic facts. Mini-Investigation 3.1 will help you think about the mental computation techniques you already use and should demonstrate that there is more than one way to do a mental computation.

Write an explanation of the thinking you used to arrive at each answer.

M I N I - I N V E S T I G AT I O N 3 .1

Most of us have heard someone say, I just did it in my head, when explaining how a calculation was done. This process of doing it in your head, usually with the help of counting, numeration ideas, or basic properties, is what is meant by mental computation.

Mental computation is the process of nding an exact answer to a computation mentally, without pencil, paper, calculator, or any other computational aid.

Most people are aware of the paper-and-pencil procedures they use for doing calculations, but often arent aware of the procedures they use to do calculations mentally. Moreover, as Mini-Investigation 3.1 may have shown, not everyone uses the same technique when doing a particular calculation or uses a specic technique in the same way.

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

Mathematics for Elementary School Teachers, Fourth Edition, by Phares O'Daffer, Randall Charles, Thomas Cooney, John Dossey, and Jane Schielack. Published by Addison Wesley. Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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F I G U R E 3 .1

Contrary to the cartoon shown in Figure 3.1, people are never required to use mental computation. That is, there are no set rules about when to use mental computation. Rather, individuals compute mentally when they feel condent that they can do so. Mental computation can be used to nd exact answers and to estimate answers. Both situations call for examining the numbers involved and deciding whether the mental tasks can be carried out accurately.

Understanding some specic mental computation techniques can help you efciently and accurately carry them out. The techniques developed in this section are commonly used in mental computation. Count On and Count Back. The count on technique is an efcient method for adding when one of the addends is 1, 2, or 3; 10, 20, or 30; or 100, 200, or 300; and so on. For example, in the calculation 45 + 30, you can start at 45 and count on by tens to get the sum: 45, 55, 65, 75. To count on, start by saying the larger addend and then count on to nd the sum. The count back technique is an efcient method when subtracting 1, 2, or 3; 10, 20, or 30; and so on. For the calculation 871 - 2, you can start with the larger number, 871, and count back: 871, 870, 869. Most people can accurately count on or count back three numbers. Counting errors become common when people count on or back more than three numbers.

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Procedure for Using the Count On and Count Back Techniques When You Might Use These Techniques Use this technique if one of the numbers to be added or subtracted is 1, 2, or 3; 10, 20, or 30; or 100, 200, or 300; and so on. How to Use These Techniques 1. Begin by saying the larger number. 2. Count on to add or count back to subtract 1, 2, or 3; 10, 20, or 30; 100, 200, or 300; and so on.

Example

3.1

a. A credit card shows that a person owes $8,800 on a car loan and has $3,100 in credit card debt. What is this persons total debt for these two items? b. Expenses at a health fair last year were $1,155. This years committee was able to trim expenses by $200. What is the new cost for expenses?

SOLUTION

a.

Find 8,800 + 3,100. First, add the thousands. Start at 8,800 and count on by 1,000 three times: 8,800, 9,800, 10,800, 11,800. So 8,800 + 3,000 = 11,800. Now start with 11,800 and count on by 100: 11,800, 11,900. The total debt is $11,900.

b. Find 1155 - 200. Start at 1,155 and count back by 100 twice: 1,155, 1,055, 955. The new cost for expenses is $955.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Find the exact value of each expression by counting on or counting back. Explain the process you used in each case. a. 286 + 30 b. 18,200 + 2,300 c. 962 - 3

Reect: Why is counting on or back usually not effective with more than three numbers? Choose Compatible Numbers. Some number combinations may be easy to add, such as 25 and 175, and others may be easy to multiply, such as 28 * 10. Numbers that are easy to compute mentally are called compatible numbers. The choose compatible numbers technique involves selecting pairs of compatible numbers to perform the computation, usually involving a basic fact. Most people can add and subtract multiples of 10 or 100 mentallyfor example, 70 + 20 = 90 and can multiply by multiples of 10 and 100for example, 34 * 100 = 3,400. However, beyond a few obvious cases, people must decide which numbers are compatible for them. Most people nd that with some practice they have more compatible numbers at their disposal than they realized.

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Procedure for Using the Choose Compatible Numbers Technique When You Might Use This Technique Use this technique if one or more pairs of numbers can be easily added, subtracted, multiplied, or divided;

or Use this technique if numbers can be combined to produce multiples of 10, 100, or other numbers that make calculations easy.

How to Use This Technique 1. Look for pairs of numbers that are easy to calculate for the operation required. Do these calculations rst. 2. Look for the other number combinations that can be calculated easily.

Example 3.2 demonstrates the use of the choose compatible numbers technique in a multiplication situation. Note how mastery of basic facts is needed in all of these calculations.

Example

3.2

Look for compatible numbers to nd the exact value for the computation (2 * 8) * (5 * 7).

SOLUTION

Tonys thinking: I saw that 2 times 5 equals 10, and multiplying by 10 is easy. Then, 8 times 7 is 56 and 56 times 10 is 560. The product is 560. Albas thinking: I saw that 8 times 5 is 40. Then, 40 times 2 is 80 and 80 times 7 is 560. The product is 560.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Look for compatible numbers to nd the exact value for the following expressions: a. (25 * 9) * (11 * 4) b. (5 * 15) * (20 * 3) Reect: What are some combinations of numbers that are compatible in multiplication? Example 3.3 illustrates the use of the choose compatible numbers technique in addition.

Example

3.3

Suppose that you want to buy a new racing bike for next weeks race. How much money would you need if your costs are

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

$715 67 15

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SOLUTION

You need to nd (715 + 67) + 15. Start with 715 and 15, which are easy to add mentally and produce another number that is easy to use: 715 + 15 = 730. Now 730 and 67 can be added mentally by counting on in the tens place: 730 + 67 = 797. You need $797.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Look for compatible numbers to nd the exact value for each expression. Explain the process you used. a. 4 * 16 * 25 b. 63 + 18 + 27 + 12 c. 120 + 385 + 115 + 280 Reect: Explain why compatible numbers are helpful in doing calculations. Give an example of a calculation in which it would be difcult to nd compatible numbers. The properties of whole numbers discussed in Chapter 2 provide the tools for proving that mental calculations associated with using compatible numbers work. For the bicycle cost in Example 3.3, the properties can be used to prove the mental manipulations: Statements (715 + 67) + 15 = = = = (67 + 715) + 15 67 + (715 + 15) 67 + 730 797. Reasons Commutative property of addition Associative property of addition Addition Addition

If we use a, b, and c instead of 715, 67, and 15, we can produce a general proof that (a + b) + c = b + (a + c) and that choosing compatible numbers in this type of situation works. Mini-Investigation 3.2 provides an opportunity to use the properties of multiplication to verify that a mental computation technique works.

Write a proof showing that Tonys use of the choose compatible numbers technique in Example 3.2 works.

MINI-INVES TIG ATION 3.2

What basic properties of whole numbers would you use to prove that Tonys use of the choose compatible numbers technique in Example 3.2 works?

The formal justication of mental calculation techniques using basic properties is generally not part of the PreK8 instructional program. Attempting to teach mental calculation techniques through the use of formal methods interferes in the learning of these techniques. Rather, mental calculation techniques should evolve from the natural ways that students operate with numbers. However, teachers need to be familiar with the properties of whole-number operations in order to be able to assess whether the techniques that students use are valid.

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Break Apart Numbers. The break apart numbers technique involves breaking the numbers in a computation into manageable parts to permit the use of the basic commutative, associative, and distributive properties. This technique also draws on a rm understanding of numeration. Some exibility in thinking about large numbers is needed in order to break them apart for doing calculations mentally. For example, a number such as 134 can be thought about in many different ways, among which are 100 + 30 + 4, 100 + 34, and 13 tens + 4 ones. You can use your understanding of numeration and place value to break apart numbers in ways that make the computations easier. For example, think about the problem 345 + 130 as follows: 300 + 45 + 100 + 30 400 + 75 = 475. Note that the associative and commutative properties of addition allow the sums (300 + 45) + (100 + 30) to be calculated in vertical form and give the same answer. Another way to break apart 345 and 130 for adding is 300 + 40 + 5 + 100 + 30 400 + 70 + 5 = 475. Breaking apart numbers is also useful in subtraction involving a 0. For example, in the case of 605 - 14, think about 605 as 60 tens and 5 ones. Then, subtract 1 ten from the 60 tens and 4 ones from the 5 ones. In this situation, crossing out the 6 and writing 10 above the 0, as in the traditional paper-and-pencil procedure, shouldnt be necessary.

Example

3.4

Find the exact value for each expression by using the break apart technique. Explain the process you used. a. 3 * 42

SOLUTION

b. 305 - 24

a.

You can break 42 into 40 and 2. 3 * 40 = 120 and 3 * 2 = 6; 120 + 6 = 126. So, 3 * 42 = 126.

b. Think of 305 as 30 tens and 5 ones. 5 - 4 = 1 and 30 tens - 2 tens = 28 tens. So, 305 - 24 = 281.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Find the exact value of each expression using the break apart technique: a. 6 * 72

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b. 215 - 93

Reect: Can the break apart technique be used for addition calculations like 346 + 287? Explain.

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Procedure for Using the Break Apart Numbers Technique When You Might Use This Technique Use this technique if simple calculations involving basic number facts result when the numbers are broken apart according to the place value of the digits. How to Use This Technique 1. Think about each digit in a number according to its place value. 2. Do calculations with each ones value, tens value, hundreds value, or combinations of these values. 3. Recombine the parts to get the nal answer.

Use Compensation. With the use compensation technique, rst substitute a compatible number for one of the numbers so that you can do the calculation mentally. Then adjust the answer to compensate for the change made in the original calculation. Suppose, for example, that you wanted to buy two packages of computer disks that cost $10.95 each. Adding $11 twice is easy, $22, but thats too much. Adding 5 to $10.95 two times requires compensating by taking away 10. The exact answer to the original calculation is $21.90.

Procedure for Using the Use Compensation Technique When You Might Use This Technique Use this technique when a calculation can be chosen that is close to the original one and that is easy to do mentally. How to Use This Technique 1. Change the original calculation to one that is easy to do mentally. Changing only one number usually makes the adjustment at the end easier. 2. Keep track of how you adjusted the original calculation. 3. Find the answer to the original calculation by compensating the answer to the adjusted calculation.

Example

3.5

Find the exact value for each expression by using compensation. Explain the process you used. a. 9 * 12 b. 65 + 38 c. 18 * 5

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SOLUTION

a.

Multiplying by 10 is easy, so rst nd 10 * 12 = 120. But this calculation used 1 group of 12 too many: 120 - 12 = 108. So 9 * 12 = 108.

b. Nicoles thinking: Ill add 65 and 40 to get 105. I then have to subtract 2 to get 103 because I added 2 too many. c. Johans thinking: Ill add 65 + 35 to get 100. Then I have to add the remaining 3 to get 103. d. Multiplying by 20 is easy, so 20 * 5 = 100. But, there are only 18 groups of 5, so subtract 2 groups of 5 or 2 * 5 = 10. 100 - 10 = 90 so 18 * 5 = 90.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Find the exact value for each expression by using compensation. Explain the process you used. a. 487 + 298 c. 908 - 39 Reect: b. 19 * 6 d. 28 * 50

The mental manipulations in Example 3.5(b) may also be veried with basic properties. We use the idea of substitution followed by applications of properties. Here is a proof of Nicoles thinking: Statements 65 + 38 = = = = 65 + (40 - 2) (65 + 40) - 2 105 - 2 103. Reasons Substitute (40 - 2) for 38 Associative property of addition Adding Subtracting

Here is a proof of Johans thinking: Statements 65 + 38 = = = = 65 + (35 + 3) (65 + 35) + 3 100 + 3 103. Reasons Break apart 38 Associative property of addition Adding Adding

Use Equal Additions. A technique called use equal additions is based on the idea that the difference between two numbers doesnt change if the same number is added to both of the original numbers. The key is to select the best number to add to the others. For example, we know that 7 - 2 = 5. Note that the difference remains the same if we add the same number to both 7 and 2: 12 - 7 = 5. 17 - 12 = 5. 107 - 102 = 5.

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

Adding 5 to each number Adding 10 to each number Adding 100 to each number

Thus we can use equal additions to nd, say, 93 - 38. We know that the answer is the same if we add 2 to each number, so we obtain the answer by nding 95 - 40, or 55.

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Procedure for Using the Equal Additions Technique When You Might Use This Technique Use this technique when one of the numbers in a subtraction calculation (usually the number being subtracted) can be changed so that it results in a computation that is easy to do mentally. How to Use This Technique 1. Identify a number that can be added to one of the numbers in the original calculation to give a new computation thats easy to do mentally. 2. Add this number to both numbers in the original calculation. Compute.

Example 3.6 further illustrates the use of the equal additions technique.

Example

3.6

Find the exact answer to each difference using the equal additions technique. Explain the process you used. a. 64 - 28 b. 145 - 77

SOLUTION

a.

Subtracting a multiple of 10 is easy, so add 2 to both numbers. The result is 66 - 30 = 36. Thus 64 - 28 = 36.

b. Adding 23 to each number changes the expression to 168 - 100 = 68. Thus 145 - 77 = 68.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Find each difference by using the equal additions technique. a. 83 - 29 b. 1,456 - 397 Reect: Can a kind of equal additions method be used to solve 78 + 26? (Hint: Think of using addition and subtraction.) Procedure for Choosing a Mental Computation Technique. Example 3.7 illustrates a problem-solving situation that requires deciding which of the mental computation techniques are useful in solving a problem. The problem-solving strategy choose an operation is used in the example and relies on an understanding of the meanings of the operations. To solve the problem, we had to decide which operation or operations to use and in which order. We also had to decide whether some of the calculations could be completed mentally. Several steps are involved so we had to identify subproblems that needed to be solved to give answers needed in working toward the nal solution.

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Example

3.7

Marta and her husband Jay run together for 1 hour every other day. They run at an 8-minute-per-mile pace for the rst 30 minutes and then slow to a 10-minuteper-mile pace for the last 30 minutes. Jay weighs 140 pounds and Marta weighs 110 pounds. Use the following chart to determine who will burn more calories during the hour. How many more?

Exercise Guidelines Calories Burned by Running for 30 minutes A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Weight (lb) 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 B 10 minutes 240 265 290 315 345 365 385 410 480 540 C Pace in Minutes per Mile 9 minutes 260 290 315 345 370 405 430 440 500 550 8 minutes 290 325 345 390 415 440 480 500 530 580 D

Understand the problem What does the situation involve? What has to be determined? What are the key data and conditions? Two people exercising Who will burn more calories and how many more? Marta and Jay run 30 minutes at an 8-minute-mile pace and then 30 minutes at a 10-minute-mile pace. They burn calories as shown in the above chart. Assume that the data in the chart apply correctly to Marta and Jay. Choose an operation. Find the number of calories that Marta would burn during the hour. Find the number of calories Jay would burn during the hour. Then compare those answers. The problem suggests that an exact answer is needed. Most of the calculations seem to be ones that can be done mentally. Use the addition operation and mental computation techniques. Marta: 265 + 325; 200 + 300 is 500 by counting on; 65 and 25 are compatible numbers and 65 + 25 = 90. So 265 + 325 = 590. Jay: 345 + 415; 300 + 400 is 700 by counting on; 45 and 15 are compatible numbers and 45 + 15 = 60. So 345 + 415 = 760. What is the answer?

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What are some assumptions? Develop a plan What strategies might be useful? Are there any subproblems?

Should the answer be estimated or calculated? What method of calculation should be used? Implement the plan How should the strategies be used?

The answer is 760 - 590 + 170, or Jay burned 170 more calories. The correct data were used. The problem asked for two answers: Who burned more and how many more? Both answers are given. Yes. All calculations are correct.

Look back

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To see whether 170 calories is reasonable, look at the data for a 10-minute mile. The difference is 80 for 30 minutes or 160 for an hour, so 170 seems reasonable. Yes. We could subtract the calories burned for each half-hour, and then add the two differences.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Reading scores tend to drop as children watch more TV. The following chart shows a national reading assessment for eighth-graders.

TV, POOR READING SKILLS LINKED Sources reflect the average reading proficiency of eighth graders on a reading scale that ranges from 0 to 500, by amount of television watched per day in 1992. 270 250 230 210 One hour or less Two hours Three hours Four to five hours Six hours or more

Reading score

About how many fewer points in reading prociency might an eighth-grade student who watches 4 to 5 hours of TV per day have than one who only watches 1 hour or less per day? Reect: What subproblems had to be solved in the example? Can you think of another way to determine that the answer seems reasonable? Explain.

Use compensation to nd the exact answer mentally for each expression in Exercises 1316. 14. 132 - 41 13. 75 - 39 15. 19 * 8 16. 29 * 60 Find the exact answer mentally for each expression by using a basic property. Identify the property you use in each case in Exercises 1720. 17. (85 + 18) + 12 18. (28 * 5) * 2 19. (18 * 6) - (15 * 6) 20. (186 + 67) + 33 21. The owner of a large sporting goods store looks at the years sales totals and wants to compare the four highest selling categories of goods and the four lowest selling categories. (See table next page.) How much more is the total value of the highest four categories than the total value of the lowest four categories in the report?

Look for compatible numbers to nd the exact answer mentally for each expression in Exercises 14. 1. 12 + 46 + 18 + 64 2. 5 * 26 * 4 3. 25 * 28 * 4 4. 60 + 140 + 39 + 51 Break apart numbers to nd the exact answer mentally for each expression in Exercises 58. 5. 2,579 - 372 7. 48 * 20 6. 132 * 3 8. 367 + 532

Count on or count back to nd the exact answer mentally for each expression in Exercises 912. 9. 848 - 300 11. 648 + 32 10. 458 + 20 12. 1,027 - 30

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T A B L E F O R E X E R C I S E 21 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Basketball Huntingfirearms Golf Archery Scuba and skin diving Bowling Baseball and softball Tennis Snow skiing (alpine) Runningfootwear Camping Runningapparel Exercise B $ Thousands 100 130 135 193 208 244 275 300 479 700 850 900 930

I thought of 11 as 10 + 1. I multiplied 10 by 25, which is 250, and then added 25 more for 275.

Give another way to nd the exact value of this expression mentally. 38. Consider Carlys thinking:

To nd 126 - 38, Ill rst subtract 40 from 126, which is 86. Then I have to compensate by subtracting 2 more. The exact difference is 84.

Is her thinking correct? If so, use basic properties to prove her work. If not, explain the error in her thinking. 39. Consider Carries thinking:

To nd 45 + 63 + 25 + 17, Ill rst add 45 and 25. Then Ill add 63 and 17. I can add those sums to get the nal answer.

22. Using data in the table in Exercise 21, how much less is spent on baseball and softball than the total spent on running footwear and apparel?

Show how the commutative and associative properties justify Carries thinking. 40. Give an example of a multiplication calculation that might be easy to do mentally. Then give an example of a multiplication calculation that is not easy to do mentally. Explain your choices.

41. Has the actual dollar amount increased the most from 198586 to 200506 for private colleges or public colleges? Use mental math to nd the exact dollar amount of increase for both.

B. Deepening Understanding

Find the exact value of each expression in Exercises 2332. Use any mental calculation technique you choose. Name the technique you use in each case. 23. 12 * 40 * 5 24. 7 * 14 + 3 * 14 25. 53 + 26 26. 45 * 5 27. 24 + 39 + 76 28. 9 * 17 29. 147 - 38 30. 30 + 488 31. 455 - 26 32. 6 * 22 * 5 For Exercises 33 and 34, the two problems in each item were completed by the same student. Analyze the errors and look for patterns. Describe the error pattern. 33. Counting Back 410 - 30 is 410, 400, 390 So, 410 - 30 = 390 2100 - 300 is 2,100, 2,000, 1,900 So, 2100 - 300 = 1,900 34. Using Compensation 124 - 68 is about 124 - 70 = 54 54 - 2 = 52 So, 124 - 68 = 52 401 - 103 is about 401 - 101 = 300 300 + 2 = 302 So, 401 - 103 = 302 35. Write an expression for which the exact sum might be found mentally by using compatible numbers. 36. Write an expression for which the exact sum might be found mentally by breaking apart numbers. 37. One way to compute 11 * 25 mentally is described in the following solution:

A graduated increase

College costs have nearly doubled in the past 20 years. Average cost of tuition, fees, room and board at four-year institutions, in 2005:

Private colleges

200506

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42. In 200506, how much more are the costs at a private college than the costs at a public college? Use mental math to nd the answer. Then explain how you used mental math. 43. The data on the next page show the medal count before the 2006 Olympics. What is the total number of medals won by these countries? Use mental math to decide.

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Countries with the most Olympic long-track speedskating medals all time:

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Amount ($) 36 56 81

76

72

67 59 59

How much more per week does an average 19-year-old spend than an average 12-year-old? State whether an exact answer or an estimate is needed for each of the following situations in Exercises 4752. Then identify the calculation method that you would use to nd the answer. Explain your choices. 47. In 1994, a communitys summer program elded 28 soccer teams. Each team was lled to capacity with 21 players. Was the total number of players in the 1994 summer program more than the 500 players in the summer program of 1987? 48. A CD system that regularly costs $365.25 was on sale for $48.89 off the regular price. What was the sale price of the CD system, not including tax? 49. Attendance at student council meetings has been surprisingly high. Attendance at the last four meetings was 34, 46, 52, and 38. What was the total attendance for those four meetings? 50. A secretary ordered 30 boxes of pencils for school supplies. Each box contains 150 pencils. How many pencils did she order altogether? 51. A TV ad said that tires were on sale for $49.99 each, including tax. About how much would four new tires for your car cost? 52. A scale on a map said that 1 inch corresponds to 10 miles. On the map Kara measured three segments between cities and 1 3 obtained 3 1 4 in., 2 2 in., and 2 4 in. What actual total distance corresponded to those that Kara measured on the map?

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44. The Mattress Problem. The advertisement below shows the sale prices of different makes and sizes of mattresses. What is the most that you would pay altogether for one queen-sized 2-piece set and one twin-sized 2-piece set? Assume that there is no sales tax.

53. Create a real-world problem in which an exact answer is needed and the calculations might be done mentally. 54. Making Connections. Success with mental calculation depends greatly on a persons understanding of place value. Use the examples in this section to illustrate how a person with poor understanding of place value would have difculty doing mental computations. Share your results with a small group of classmates. 55. Give examples of the types of calculations for which you use a calculator or computer. Give examples of the types of computational task that you do mentally. How do you decide which method to use? Historical Pathways. The Roman numeration system is essentially a base-ten system, although, as we showed in Chapter 2, it uses some other values: 5, 50, 500, and so on. For the following calculations, explain how the use of such values might make mental computation easier: 56. 42 + 39 57. 2,935 - 1,495

45. Use the data in the ad in Exercise 44 to determine how much you would save by buying one twin set and one queen set produced by W.S. Manufacturing rather than those produced by Royalty Premier. 46. Teen Spending Problem. A survey of 1,000 students aged 1219 showed that the average amount spent each week increases by age, as shown in the following table:

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Section

3.2

Computational Estimation Techniques Technique

Choosing an Estimation

In this section, we examine four estimation techniques. They draw on an understanding of numeration and knowledge of basic facts. Like the techniques for mental calculation described in Section 3.1, they also involve decisions about whether an estimated answer is acceptable for a given situation and which technique should be used to arrive at the estimate. Mini-Investigation 3.3 will help you think about estimation techniques that you already use and should demonstrate that there is more than one way to estimate an answer.

All numerical estimation techniques involve replacing numbers with ones that are close and that are easy to calculate with mentally. The numbers and estimation technique used determine whether an estimate is an underestimate or an overestimate. The real-world context determines whether an exact answer or an estimate is needed to solve a problem.

Write an explanation of the thinking you used to arrive at each estimate.

Estimate the answers to the following expressions: a. 478 + 223 b. 8 * 26 c. 578 + 603 + 614 + 582 d. 36,563 - 8,180

There are three main types of estimation techniques:

1. Estimating a Quantity Finding how many students, days, lunches, classes, and so on 2. Estimating a Measure Finding how much length, area, volume, time, and so on 3. Estimating an Answer (Computational Estimation) Finding a sum, difference, product, or quotient

In this section, we develop techniques for the third type, computational estimation.

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Computational estimation is a process for nding a number reasonably close to the exact answer for a calculation.

In this section, we look at four computational estimation techniques: rounding, substitution of compatible numbers, front-end estimation, and clustering. We focus on using these techniques in estimations that involve mental calculations. In most situations that call for an estimate, we can calculate the estimate mentally. Rounding. Recall that the process of replacing a number or numbers in a calculation with the closest multiple of 10, 100, 1,000, and so on, is called rounding. Rounding is based on locating the point halfway between consecutive multiples of 10, 100, 1,000, and so on. For example, the number line below shows that the halfway point between 200 and 300 is 250. Numbers to the left of 250, that is, less than 250, round down to 200 because they are closer to 200 than to 300. Numbers to the right of 250, that is, greater than 250, round up to 300 because they are closer to 300 than to 200. By agreement, the usual rule for numbers exactly halfway between is to round up even though they are the same distance from the endpoints of the interval. Since 217 is less than halfway, 217 rounds to 200. Similarly, the other number line shows why 589 rounds to 600. To estimate 589 + 217, we round 589 to 600 and 217 to 200, and mentally calculate 600 + 200 to get the estimate 800.

500 550 589 600

200 217

250

300

Procedure for Using the Rounding Technique When You Might Use This Technique Use this technique when rounded numbers produce a calculation that can be done mentally. How to Use This Technique 1. Find the digit in the place value to which you want to round. This is the key digit. 2. Identify the digit in the place value to the right of the key digit.

If that digit is less than 5, round downthat is, keep the key digit and replace all digits to its right with zeros. If that digit is 5 or greater, round upthat is, add 1 to the key digit and replace all digits to its right with zeros.

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Example

3.8

Using rounding, estimate the value of each expression, and explain your thinking. a. 16,942 - 7,540 b. 23,562 , 809

SOLUTION

a.

Rounding might be used in several ways for this task. We can round each number to the nearest thousand: 17,000 - 8,000 = 9,000. We can also round each number to the nearest hundred and get a closer estimate: 16,900 - 7,500 = 9400.

b. The choice of the place value in which to round each number should be made so that an easy calculation results. Rounding each to the nearest hundred doesnt give an easy calculation. Rounding the rst number to the nearest thousand and the second to the nearest hundred results in using a basic fact, 24 , 8, to obtain the estimate: 24,000 , 800 = 30. Thus the quotient is about 30.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Estimate the value of each expression by rounding: a. 456 + 277 b. 78 * 145 c. 825 , 79 d. 12,045 - 3,907 Reect: For which of the practice calculations was your estimate an overestimate of the exact answer? Can you decide without nding the exact answer? How? Part (b) in Example 3.8 shows that both numbers do not have to be rounded to the same place value when rounding is used to estimate. Whenever we use the rounding technique, we should look at the numbers in the calculation and decide which numbers we can easily use to calculate mentally and round to the place values that produce those numbers.

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Rounding was the only estimation technique taught in elementary schools for many years. As in the case of mental calculations, estimation techniques are now part of most instructional programs. Estimation techniques are developed as part of the work with adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing whole numbers, fractions, and decimals. The PreK8 instructional program should include explorations of a variety of estimation techniques.

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Draw a number line to prove that your answers are correct. Technology Extension: If you are using technology, determine the options, if any, that your calculator or computer software has for rounding numerical values. Share this information with your classmates.

Solving a Problem

What is the greatest whole number and what is the least whole number that, when rounded to the nearest 1,000, round to 20,000?

Substitution of Compatible Numbers. In Section 3.1, we examined the mental calculation technique of looking for compatible numbers in a calculation and using them to calculate the answer mentally. In estimating, we use the substitute compatible numbers technique, which involves replacing some or all of the numbers in a computation with numbers that are easy to compute mentallythat is, compatible numbersin order to obtain an estimate. Suppose that a used car was selling for $3,469, with tax and title fees of $334. To estimate the total cost for this car, we might substitute $3,475 for the price and $325 for the tax and fees. The substituted numbers are close to the original numbers and easy to compute mentally. The estimated total price would be the sum of $3,475 and $325, or $3,800.

Procedure for Using the Substitute Compatible Numbers Technique When You Might Use This Technique Use this technique if numbers close to the numbers in the original calculation would make the estimate easy to do mentally. How to Use This Technique 1. Identify the number or numbers in the original calculation that can be replaced by others to result in an estimate that is easy to do mentally. 2. Calculate with the new numbers to obtain the estimate.

Example 3.9 illustrates the use of the substitute compatible numbers estimation technique in subtraction. Example 3.10 demonstrates its use in multiplication.

Example

3.9

A local department store is having a special one-day sale on all TV sets. The one that youve been wanting to buy costs $358 at the regular price and is on sale for $144. About how much will you save if you buy that TV set during the sale?

SOLUTION

Multiples of 10 are easy to subtract, so one way to substitute compatible numbers is 350 - 150 = 200. You will save about $200.

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The fth-grade students work below shows how this student estimated 324 + 791. The student was asked to estimate the sum and explain how he found the estimate. Is the process this student used to estimate the sum correct? If not, explain what this student did wrong. Do you think this students work is based on understanding? Explain.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Another TV set regularly costing $483 can be purchased during the special sale for $399. Use the substitute compatible numbers technique to estimate the savings on this TV set. Reect: Could you have used other compatible numbers in the practice problem? Explain.

Example

3.10

Estimate the value of 524 * 33 by substituting compatible numbers. Explain your thinking.

SOLUTION

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

Multiples of 100 and 10 are easy to use, so one way to substitute compatible numbers is 500 * 30 = 15,000. The product is about 15,000.

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YOUR TURN

Practice: Estimate the value of each expression by substituting compatible numbers, and then explain your thinking: a. 7,243 + 815 b. 326 * 47 c. $1.54 * 12 d. 815 - 144 Reect: What makes numbers compatible? Give an example of a calculation involving multiplication whose answer can be estimated by substituting compatible numbers. Note that the approach used in Example 3.9 is not the same as rounding. That is, $358 does not round to $350 and $144 does not round to $150. In Example 3.10, the computation task that resulted from substituting compatible numbers, 500 * 30, is the same as rounding. Although the symbol manipulation looks identical, the thinking used is different. Front-End Estimation. The simplest way to use the front-end estimation technique involves calculating with the leftmost, or front-end, digit of each number as if the remaining digits were all zeros. For example, suppose that we want to estimate the number of people who went to the local theater production on the opening weekend (Friday through Sunday nights). We know that the numbers of tickets sold for each of the three evenings were 219, 313, and 278. Using front-end estimation, we think 200 + 300 + 200, so our estimate is that about 700 people came to the play on the opening weekend. In this situation, the exact answer is greater than our estimate because 278 is quite a bit larger than 200, yet we used 200 in the calculation. We can adjust estimates obtained by using only the front-end digits to give an estimate closer to the exact answer. In this example, we might reason that the difference between the

Procedure for Using the Front-End Estimation Technique When You Might Use This Technique Use this technique when an estimate is needed quickly and a rough estimate is acceptable. How to Use This Technique 1. Assume that all digits except the leading or front-end digit(s) in the numbers in a calculation are 0. 2. Do the calculation with the new numbers. 3. If you want a closer estimate, adjust the rst estimate by using other digits or numbers for those assumed to be 0 and estimate again.

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actual numbers and the numbers we used, 19 + 13 + 78, is about 100 and so adjust our estimate for the sum to 800. Using front-end estimation with adjustment, we can often obtain an estimate that is very close to the exact answer, as illustrated in Example 3.11.

Example

3.11

Estimate the value of 569 + 375 by using front-end estimation with adjustment. Explain your thinking.

SOLUTION

Adding the front-end digits, we get 500 + 300 is 800. The numbers that remain are 69 + 75, or about 150. Thus 569 + 375 is about 950.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Estimate the value of each expression by using front-end estimation with adjustment. Explain your thinking. a. 809 - 367 b. 655 , 388 c. 12,108 + 4,589 + 23,547 Reect: Will front-end estimation with adjustment always produce an underestimate of the exact answer? Explain. Mini-Investigation 3.5 explores some of the difculties involved with using front-end estimation with adjustment to estimate a product.

What is your estimate for 38 * 26 when you use front-end estimation with adjustment?

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Clustering. In some addition calculations, the numbers tend to be approximately the samethat is, to cluster around a common number. When estimating in such situations, you can use the clustering technique. This technique involves looking for the number about which the addends cluster and then multiplying by the number of addends. For example, a salesperson recorded the number of customers that visited the store between 9 and 11 A.M. on weekdays. The numbers48, 55, 47, 52, and 53all cluster around the same number, 50. The estimated total number of customers that came into the store between 9 and 11 A.M. during the week is 5 * 50 = 250.

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Procedure for Using the Clustering Technique When You Might Use This Technique Use this technique to estimate sums when the addends in the calculation cluster around the same number. You can also use it in a similar manner for some products. How to Use This Technique 1. Identify the number that each of the addends is close to and that is easy to compute with mentally. 2. Replace each addend with the same number. 3. Use multiplication to estimate the sum for the original addition calculation.

Example

3.12

The number of blood donors at a local hospital has been about the same for the rst 4 months of the year: Month January February March April Number of Donors 145 154 148 153

If the pattern continues, estimate the number of donors that might be expected for the year.

SOLUTION

Each number is close to 150. We want to estimate the total for 12 months, so we think 12 * 150 is about 10 times 150, or 1,500. The number of donors might be about 1,500 for the year.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Suppose that the donors for other periods of time are as shown. Use clustering to estimate the indicated totals. a. The donors for a 4-month period are September, 97 November, 89 October, 120 December, 106

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About how many donors gave blood during these four fall months? b. The number of donors for the rst 6 months of a year are 126, 124, 125, 127, 129, and 123. About how many donors are there for the 6-month period?

The estimation techniques developed in this chapter are often developed in the intermediate and middle school grades. Instruction at these grades encourages students to use these techniques exibly. That is, students are encouraged to look at the numbers in the calculation and choose an appropriate technique rather than always using the same technique regardless of the numbers. Figure 3.2 shows a page from a fth-grade textbook where different estimation techniques were used by two students to do the same calculation. Why is an estimate all that is needed for the opening word problem? What two estimation techniques were used by these students? How could front-end estimation be used for this calculation? What are the answers to the Talk About It questions at the bottom of the student page?

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FIGURE 3.2

Source: Scott ForesmanAddison Wesley Math, Grade 5, page 68. 2005 Pearson Education. Reprinted with permission.

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Reect: Does clustering always give the same estimate as rounding? Use the example and part (a) of the practice, with numbers rounded to the nearest 10, to test your conclusion. Clustering may also be used to estimate products. For example, to estimate the product 9 * 13 * 8 * 12, we observe that the numbers cluster around 10. We mentally nd the product of 10 * 10 * 10 * 10, or 10,000, to arrive at the estimate.

The problem in Example 3.13 requires making decisions about what calculations to estimate, what estimation technique to use, and whether giving the answer as a range estimate, where both a low and a high estimate are given to indicate a range, would be appropriate. The problem-solving strategy choose an operation and the use of mental calculation techniques also play a role in the solution.

Example

3.13

The sellers of a home told the potential buyers that their average monthly cost for gas was $65 and that their average monthly cost for electricity was $38. What might the buyers estimate for the total gas and electric costs for the year?

Understand the problem What does the situation involve? What has to be determined? What are the key data and conditions? What are some assumptions? Develop a plan What strategies might be useful? Are there any subproblems? Should the answer be estimated or calculated? What method of calculation should be used? Implement the plan How should the strategies be used? The expected cost of gas and electricity in a new home. What is the total yearly estimated cost for both utilities? The cost of gas averages $65 per month, and the average cost of electricity is $38 per month. The buyers expenditures for the utilities would be about the same as the sellers. Choose an operation for the calculations needed. Find the average yearly cost for gas and the average yearly cost for electricity. Then combine those costs to obtain the total. An estimate is all that is called for. Use multiplication and addition and try some different approaches by using mental computation and estimation techniques. Use the substitute compatible numbers technique to compute mentally the yearly cost of each utility. Gas: Substitute 70 for 68. $70 * 12 is 70 * 10 plus 70 * 2, so 700 + 140 = 840.

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so 400 + 80 = 480. Then use rounding to combine the costs mentally: 840 + 480 is about 840 + 500 = 1,340. Try another approach by using front-end estimation. Gas: 60 * 12 is 60 * 10 plus 60 * 2, so 600 + 120 = 720. Electricity: 30 * 12 is 30 * 10 plus 30 * 2, so 300 + 60 = 360. The costs are easy to combine mentally: 720 + 360 = 1,080. What is the answer? Look back Is the interpretation correct? Is the calculation correct? Is the answer reasonable? Is there another way to solve the problem? The total yearly cost for both is between $1,080 and $1,340. Rereading the problem shows that the interpretation is correct. Yes. All mental calculations are correct. The combined monthly cost rounds to about $100. As 100 * 12 is 1,200, $1,340 seems reasonable. Yes. The combined monthly cost could have been obtained rst by using the two estimation techniques and then multiplying.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Suppose that the average monthly cost for gas was $87 and the average cost of electricity was $43. What is a reasonable estimate for the total gas and electricity costs for a year? Reect: The example problem didnt call for a range estimate, but the answer was given as a range estimate. Why might a range estimate be useful in this type of situation?

11. 424 + 526 13. 23 * 8 12. 1,195 - 178 14. 430 , 6.8

Round each number in Exercises 16 to the place value of the bold digit. 1. 6,783 2. 26.09 3. 209.8 4. 2,499 5. 555 6. 749.9 Estimate each answer in Exercises 710 by rounding. 7. 4,671 + 2,509 8. 26,897 - 19,456 9. 864 * 22 10. 824 , 18

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Use front-end estimation without adjustment to nd the value of each expression in Exercises 1518. 15. 433 + 126 + 678 + 400 16. 119 * 54 17. 1,286 , 63 18. 24,865 - 11,274 Use front-end estimation with adjustment to nd the value of each expression in Exercises 1922. 19. 824 + 238 20. 23,869 + 14,198 21. 38 + 64 + 46 + 76 + 87 22. 7,653 - 2,861

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Estimate each answer in Exercises 2326 by using clustering. 23. 98 + 106 + 101 + 97 + 95 24. 76 + 71 + 76 + 74 25. 10.4 + 10.9 + 10.52 + 10.5 26. 426 + 424 + 423 + 427 Give a range estimate for each calculation in Exercises 2730. 27. 54 * 38 28. 758 + 892 29. 677 - 139 30. 24.2 * 9.8 Estimate each answer in Exercises 31 and 32 using any technique you choose. Use reasoning to decide whether the exact answer is greater than or less than the estimate. Tell how you decided. 31. 325 * 42 32. 5,678 + 2,654

53. Write a numerical expression involving addition and another numerical expression involving multiplication, each with an estimated value of 500. The next two problems were completed by the same student. Analyze the errors and look for patterns. Describe the error pattern. 54. Front-end estimation 234 + 755 200 + 700 is 900. 34 + 55 is about 100. 234 + 755 is about 800. 1,467 + 7,805 + 1,234 1,000 + 7,000 + 1,000 is 9,000. 467 + 805 + 234 is about 1,500. 1,467 + 7,805 + 1,234 is about 7,500. 55. Suppose a student claims that it is usually easier to substitute compatible numbers than it is to use rounding when dividing with multidigit numbers. Use the calculations below to explain this students claim. a. 728 , 86 b. 2,715 , 36 56. Suppose a student used the following reasoning to round 448 to the nearest hundred. Explain if this thinking is correct. If not, explain how you would address this misconception.

8 is greater than 5, so 448 rounds to 450. 5 is halfway, so 448 rounds to 500.

B. Deepening Understanding

Estimate each of the following calculations in Exercises 3340. Use any estimation techniques you want. Explain the techniques you use. 33. 765 + 824 + 799 34. 5,236 + 2,810 35. 8,095 - 4,877 36. 328 * 72 37. 532 , 92 38. 15.8 * 9.28 39. 23,765 + 18,822 + 11,008 + 8,320 40. 24 * 37 * 4.8 * 0.4 Give an estimate for each expression in Exercises 4146. Then state whether you believe that the exact answer is greater than or less than the estimate. Explain how you decided. Use a calculator to check the accuracy of your estimate. 41. 25,456 + 65,879 42. 978 * 66 43. 788 + 808 + 766 + 803 44. 54 * 23 45. 726 , 67 46. 12 * 26 47. An estimated sum is 900. One of the addends is 478. Give ve possible numbers for the other addend. 48. An estimated product is 1,500. One of the factors is 28. Give three possible numbers for the other factor. Name the estimation technique or techniques used in Exercises 49 and 50. 49. 74 + 23 + 77: I thought that 74 and 77 are about 75 and 2 times 75 is 150. Then 23 is about 20, so 150 plus 20 is 170. The sum is about 170. 50. 146 , 68: I thought that 14 and 7 are easy to divide, so I used 140 , 70, which is 2. The quotient is about 2. 51. Harvey looked at the expression 7,653 - 2,861 and said, I can tell immediately that the difference is less than 5,000. Explain how Harvey could determine this result. 52. Estimate the value for the expression 328 + 144 + 478 + 530. First, use front-end estimation with adjustment; then, use rounding. Which method do you think gives an estimate that is closer to the exact answer? Explain.

57. The Defective Bulb Problem. Past experience has shown that approximately 3% of all bulbs of a certain type installed in a gymnasium have to be replaced in 1 month. A total of 3,450 bulbs were installed. Use estimation to nd two numbers between which the exact answer falls. 58. The Garden Party Problem. Victoria was planning a fundraising garden party at her house for about 40 people. The cost per person from the caterer is $24.50. Should she overestimate or underestimate the total cost in planning for the party? Explain. 59. The Turkey Cook-Time Problem. Paul was estimating the time needed to cook a turkey. He knew the basic cooking time and the additional time needed per pound when cooking a turkey on the barbecue. No one wanted dry turkey meat. Should he overestimate or underestimate the time needed to cook the turkey? Explain. 60. The Concrete Amount Problem. Before ordering concrete for a construction project, a contractor has to estimate the number of cubic yards of concrete needed. The concrete company charges a substantial amount for each trip to the job site. Should the contractor underestimate or overestimate the amount of concrete to order? Explain.

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61. The Red Cross Problem. The local Red Cross must base its budget entirely on the contributions received from people in the community. Its nance ofcer has examined the donation data from previous years. Should she underestimate or overestimate contributions during budget preparation? Explain. 62. The Mustache Population Problem. The Unofcial U.S. Census [Heymann (1991), p. 81] reported that one in four American men, 22,251,772, have mustaches. If this gure is correct, about how many men are in the United States? 63. The Teacher Supply Problem. In 1960, there were 991,000 elementary school teachers in the United States. In 1990, there were about 1,627,000 elementary school teachers. About how many more teachers were there in 1990 than in 1960? 64. The Graduation Rate Problem. In 1940, 75.5% of the people in the United States who were 25 years old and older did not have a high school diploma. In 1988, only 23.8% of the population 25 years old and older did not have a high school diploma. What is the approximate decrease in the percentage of people 25 years old and older who did not have a high school diploma? 65. The Dog Data Problem. Suppose that you were a newspaper reporter doing a story about the age of dogs in the United States. You want to use a headline that includes some numerical data from the following graph. Use the graph to estimate numerical information for your headline.

66. About how much more square footage does the White House have than the average U.S. home?

Main Hearst Castle, San Simeon, Calif. White House NBA basketball court 4,700 Average U.S. home built in 2005 2,412

Source of data: The White House Historical Association, Hearst Castle, The Alamo; National Association of Home Builders

67. About how many times greater is the square footage of the Hearst Castle than the average U.S. home?

68. Interview some friends and ask them when they use estimating in doing calculations and how they do the estimating. Identify the technique or techniques discussed in this chapter that they use and share your ndings with a small group of classmates. 69. Making Connections. Explain in writing how the idea of compatible numbers is involved in both estimation and mental calculations. Give examples to illustrate your points. 70. For a classmate who was absent from class, write a paragraph explaining the meaning of estimation and when it should be used. If appropriate, include examples to illustrate your ideas. Compare your paragraph with those written by two other people in your class and revise your work, if necessary, to make your explanation more complete. 71. Historical Pathways. A certain 1959 elementary school fourth-grade mathematics textbook contained no estimation or mental calculation lessons. Why do you think that estimation and mental math have become more important today than in the 1950s?

25,000,000 Number of dogs 15,000,000 10,000,000 5,000,000 0

ss ye tha ar n ol 1 d ar 1 to so 5 ld ye

Age ranges

Source: The Unofcial U.S. Census by Tom Heymann, 1991 by Thomas Heymann. Reprinted by permission of author. ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

ye 5 ar to s o 10 ld 1 ye 0 ar to s o 15 ld M 15 o r ye e ar th s o an ld

Le

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Section

3.3

Developing Algorithms for Addition Developing Algorithms for Subtraction Calculator Techniques for Addition and Subtraction

In this section, we examine the step-by-step proceduresthe algorithmsfor adding and subtracting whole numbers. We focus on using models and logic to make sense of the computational procedures for nding sums and differences, regardless of the algorithm used. Mini-Investigation 3.6 asks you to analyze the paper-and-pencil computational procedures you ordinarily use.

There is more than one algorithm for adding whole numbers and more than one algorithm for subtracting whole numbers. Most common algorithms for addition and subtraction of whole numbers use notions of place value, properties, and equivalence to break calculations into simpler ones. The simpler ones are then used to give the nal sum or difference. Properties of whole numbers can be used to verify the procedures used in addition and subtraction algorithms. There are different concrete interpretations for addition and subtraction of whole numbers, and certain ones are helpful in developing addition and subtraction algorithms.

Write a detailed description of the procedure you used for nding the difference and compare it with procedures used by others.

MINI-INVES TIG ATION 3.6

Communicating

How would you complete the following subtraction calculation, using paper and pencil?

2,004 - 1,278

A model is a useful tool for explaining an algorithm. For example, the use of baseten blocks as a model to nd the sum of two numbers involves actions with the blocks that can later help illustrate the procedures used in a paper-and-pencil algorithm for addition. In this subsection, we rst look at an example that models addition. Then we develop the related paper-and-pencil algorithm. Finally, we use the properties of whole-number operations to verify that the steps in an addition algorithm are logical.

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Using Models as a Foundation for Addition Algorithms Example 3.14 shows how base-ten blocks can be used to nd a sum and thus provide models that help

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explain the addition algorithms. Remember in Chapter 2 that addition could be modeled as joining two groups and was dened as the number of elements in the union of two disjoint sets. In Example 3.14, you can think of the base-ten blocks representing 369 and the base-ten blocks representing 244 as the elements in two disjoint sets. The union of these sets is then found by joining the two sets of blocks.

Example

3.14

The two numbers shown are modeled with the base-ten blocks:

369

244

Use the base-ten blocks to nd the sum of the two numbers and then write an equation to record the addition.

SOLUTION

Lindas thinking: I started by putting together all blocks of the same type:

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8 Mathematics for Elementary School Teachers, Fourth Edition, by Phares O'Daffer, Randall Charles, Thomas Cooney, John Dossey, and Jane Schielack. Published by Addison Wesley. Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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I found the sum, 613, and recorded the addition with a vertical equation: 369 + 244 613

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Rosas thinking: I began by putting together the ones. I then regrouped 10 ones to make 1 ten and was left with 3 ones:

Next, I put together the tens. Then I regrouped 10 tens to make 1 hundred and was left with 1 ten:

Finally, I put together the hundreds, which gave me 6 hundreds, 1 ten, and 3 ones:

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8 Mathematics for Elementary School Teachers, Fourth Edition, by Phares O'Daffer, Randall Charles, Thomas Cooney, John Dossey, and Jane Schielack. Published by Addison Wesley. Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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I observed the sum, 613, and recorded the addition with the equation 369 + 244 = 613.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Use base-ten blocks to show 374 + 128. Write an equation to record the addition. Reect: When you use base-ten blocks to add, does it matter whether you combine the ones, tens, or hundreds blocks rst? Explain. Example 3.14 demonstrated two different approaches to nding the sum of two numbers with base-ten blocks. In the rst approach, the hundreds were combined, then the tens were combined, and nally the ones were combined. Following this combining, regrouping was done, starting with the tens. In the second approach, the ones were combined rst and immediately regrouped from ones to tens. Then, the tens were combined and regrouped from tens to hundreds. Finally, the hundreds were combined. These two approaches suggest that the combining and regrouping can be done in different ways when you are adding two numbers. Developing and Using Paper-and-Pencil Algorithms for Addition. Lets now look at two paper-and-pencil algorithms for addition that follow directly from the models in Example 3.14. We use the same calculation, 369 + 244, to show both of these algorithms. Along with the models in Example 3.14, these algorithms again emphasize that in mathematics even a routine task often may be done more than one way. The rst algorithm, which relates to Lindas work in Example 3.14, is the expanded algorithm in which the values of each place are added rst and later combined.

Think Write

369

+ 244

500

100 + 13 613

In the expanded algorithm, the order in which the numbers with a given place value are added doesnt matter because all partial sums are recorded. The second algorithm, called the standard algorithm, relates to Rosas work in Example 3.14 and involves starting with the ones and proceeding to add, with regrouping, from right to left.

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Think Write

11

Add the ones and regroup: Add the tens and regroup: Add the hundreds:

Whenever we use the standard algorithm and there are 10 or more ones, we regroup 10 ones as 1 ten and then add the tens. If there are 10 or more tens, we regroup 10 tens to make 1 hundred and then add the hundreds, regrouping as needed. This process continues for as many digits as there are in the addends.

The word carry was not used in Example 3.14 or in the standard algorithm. Rather, the word regroup was used to convey the action with the blocks. As related to addition and subtraction, carry and borrow are no longer used in elementary school programs. The words regroup and trade are used instead to match more closely the physical actions done with manipulative models.

Example

3.15

Use either the expanded or the standard algorithm to nd the sum 562 + 783.

SOLUTION

Leahs thinking: I add the ones, then the tens, and nally the hundreds. Each time I write the partial sum. Then I nd the total of the partial sums. 562 + 783 5 140 1,200 1,345 Rolandos thinking: I rst add the ones. Then I add the tens and regroup. Finally, I add the hundreds. I know that 13 hundreds are 1 thousand and 3 hundreds when I write my answer.

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

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YOUR TURN

Practice: Use either the expanded or the standard algorithm to nd the sum 674 + 598. Reect: Explain how Leahs thinking in the example differs from the thinking shown in the box explaining how to use the expanded algorithm. Mini-Investigation 3.7 will help you review the role of models in explaining the algorithms for addition.

Talk about how the standard algorithm used by Rolando might be viewed as a shortcut for the expanded algorithm used by Leah.

MINI-INVES TIG ATION 3.7

Making a Connection

How would you use base-ten blocks to model the algorithms used by Leah and Rolando in Example 3.15?

Using Properties of Whole Numbers to Verify Addition Algorithms. We can use mathematical reasoning to verify that the procedures used in the addition algorithms are logically correct. One such verication involves the use of the commutative, associative, and distributive properties of whole numbers, along with the properties of numeration: Statements 369 + 244 = [3(100) + 6(10) + 9(1)] + [2(100) + 4(10) + 4(1)] = [3(100) + 2(100)] + [6(10) + 4(10)] + [9(1) + 4(1)] = (3 + 2)100 + (6 + 4)10 + (9 + 4)1 = 5(100) + 10(10) + 13 = 5(100) + 10(10) + 1(10) + 3 = = = = 5(100) + 1(100) + 1(10) + 3 (5 + 1)(100) + 1(10) + 3 6(100) + 1(10) + 3 613. Reasons Writing a number in expanded form Commutative and associative properties applied repeatedly Distributive property Basic addition fact Writing a number in expanded form Multiplying 10(10) Distributive property Basic addition fact Writing in standard form

The statement-and-reason proof above can be interpreted as a verication of both the expanded algorithm and the standard algorithm. For example, on the one hand, line 3 suggests rst adding the hundreds, tens, and ones, as in the expanded algorithm. Then line 7 veries the addition of the partial sums in the expanded algorithm. On the other hand, lines 5 and 7, for example, verify the regrouping required in the standard algorithm.

Models can be used to explain algorithms for subtraction in much the same way as they are used to explain addition algorithms. We rst use models to illustrate the procedures for subtraction. Then, we use those procedures to develop pencil-andpaper subtraction algorithms. Finally, we use mathematical reasoning to justify the subtraction algorithm.

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

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163

Using Models as a Foundation for Subtraction Algorithms. Our use of baseten blocks in addition demonstrated that the procedures for nding a sum may be modeled in various ways. We also saw that the process used to join and regroup the base-ten blocks connects closely with a model of and the denition of addition given in Chapter 2. Similarly, using base-ten blocks to find differences demonstrates that many different procedures for modeling subtraction are also available. The procedures shown below for using base-ten blocks to model a procedure for subtraction embrace the take-away interpretation of subtraction as presented in Chapter 2 rather than building directly from the denition of subtraction of whole numbers also presented there.

Example

3.16

The larger number in the subtraction calculation shown is modeled with base-ten blocks:

245 18

Find the difference by using the base-ten blocks and write an equation to record the subtraction.

SOLUTION

Winonas thinking: To have enough ones to take away 8, I begin by trading 1 ten for 10 ones. I then take away 8 ones from the 15 ones, leaving 7 ones:

Next, I take away 1 ten from the 3 tens remaining and am left with 2 tens:

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8 Mathematics for Elementary School Teachers, Fourth Edition, by Phares O'Daffer, Randall Charles, Thomas Cooney, John Dossey, and Jane Schielack. Published by Addison Wesley. Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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With no hundreds to take away, I now nd the difference, 227, and record the subtraction: 245 - 18 227 Lyles thinking: I start at the hundreds place and note that there are 0 hundreds to take away. I then take away 1 ten from the 4 tens, leaving 3 tens:

I now need to take away 8 ones but have only 5 ones. I take away the 5 ones, leaving 2 hundreds and 3 tens:

Now I trade 1 ten for 10 ones and take away 3 ones, leaving 2 hundreds, 2 tens, and 7 ones:

I nd that the difference is 227 and record the subtraction with the equation 245 - 18 = 227.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Find 137 - 48 by using base-ten blocks. Show how you can use symbols to record your work. Reect: Explain how Winonas and Lyles methods are alike and how they are different. Example 3.16 demonstrates that subtraction can be done in different ways with base-ten blocks, which in turn suggests that different paper-and-pencil algorithms for subtraction exist.

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165

Developing and Using Paper-and-Pencil Algorithms for Subtraction. Lets now look at two paper-and-pencil algorithms for subtraction. We use the calculation task modeled in Example 3.16 to develop these algorithms. The rst algorithm is based on Lyles work, whereby he subtracted the values of each place beginning on the left. In this algorithm, called the expanded algorithm, we start with the greatest number and repeatedly take away as much as is possible to do mentally before moving from left to right.

Think Write

245 There are no hundreds to subtract. Subtract tens: 245 - 10 = 235 Take away 5 ones: 235 - 5 = 230 Take away 3 more ones: 230 - 3 = 277

- 18

In the expanded algorithm, subtracting could begin at any place because the order of subtracting will not change the difference. The second algorithm, based on Winonas work in Example 3.16, is called the standard algorithm and involves starting with the ones and proceeding to subtract, with regrouping, from right to left.

Think Write

3 15

Regroup, subtract the ones: Subtract the tens: Subtract the hundreds:

24 5 - 18 227 q q q

If not enough ones are available to subtract when we use the standard algorithm, we regroup 1 ten as 10 ones and then subtract the ones. If there are not enough tens to subtract, we regroup 1 hundred as 10 tens and subtract. We continue to regroup for as many digits as necessary in order to subtract. Example 3.17 illustrates the use of these two algorithms. Vikki uses the expanded algorithm but records her work differently than Lyle did in Example 3.16.

Example

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

3.17

Choose either the expanded or standard algorithm to nd the difference 635 - 248.

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SOLUTION

Vikkis thinking: 635 - 200 I began by subtracting the hundreds. 435 - 30 Then I subtracted as many tens as I had. 405 - 10 Then I subtracted 1 more ten. 395 - 5 Next I subtracted as many ones as I had. 390 - 3 Finally, I subtracted 3 more ones to get my answer. 387 Olavs thinking: I started with the ones and regrouped in each place as I went from right to left. 635 - 248 387

YOUR TURN

5 12 15

Practice: Use both the expanded and the standard algorithms to nd the difference 1,254 - 917. Reect: Explain each step in Olavs thinking.

The steps in the expanded and standard algorithms in Example 3.17 can be matched to the actions with the base-ten blocks to show that the steps make sense. Regardless of which algorithm is used for subtraction, it can be modeled with baseten blocks. Mini-Investigation 3.8 reinforces the idea that various algorithms may be used for subtraction.

Talk about the procedure used in the algorithm and how it relates to the compensation method for mental calculations.

Making a Connection

How would you explain the following algorithm, which someone used to complete the subtraction?

425 - 287 225 125 + 13 138

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

(Hint: At one stage in the algorithm, the person subtracted 100, rather than 87.)

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Using Properties of Whole Numbers to Verify Subtraction Algorithms. To verify that the algorithms presented for subtraction are logically correct, we use mathematical reasoning and the properties of whole numbers developed in Chapter 2. One such verication is given in Example 3.18.

Example

3.18

Subtract 245 - 18 by breaking apart numbers according to the place value of the digits and using properties of whole numbers. Give a reason for each step.

SOLUTION

Statements 245 = = = 18 [2(100) + 4(10) + 5] - [1(10) + 8] [2(100) + 4(10) + 5] + { - [1(10) + 8]} [2(100) + 4(10) + 5] + [ - 1(10) + ( - 8)]

Reasons Expanded notation Denition of subtraction Opposite of a sum is the sum of the opposites Commutative and associative properties, denition of subtraction Distributive property Basic fact Substituting (2 + 1) for 3 Distributive property Basic fact Associative property Basic fact Basic fact Standard form

= 2(100) + [4(10) - 1(10)] + [5 + ( - 8)] 2(100) 2(100) 2(100) 2(100) 2(100) 2(100) 2(100) 2(100) 227. (4 - 1)(10) + (5 - 8) 3(10) + (5 - 8) [(2 + 1)(10)] + (5 - 8) [2(10) + 1(10)] + (5 - 8) [2(10) + 10] + (5 - 8) 2(10) + (10 + 5) - 8 2(10) + 15 - 8 2(10) + 7

= = = = = = = = =

+ + + + + + + +

YOUR TURN

Practice: Find the difference for 238 - 62 by breaking apart the numbers and using the properties of whole numbers. Give a reason for each step. Reect: Explain. What line in the above solution shows trading 1 ten for 10 ones?

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

The elementary school mathematics program does not include proofs for addition and subtraction algorithms. However, teachers should understand that the properties of whole numbers provide the structure and proofs for the shortcuts invented in the elementary school classroom.

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Using a calculator to add or subtract when more than one step in a calculation is involved can sometimes pose a challenge. For example, consider the expression 172 - (63 - 39). This calculation can be completed in several ways, depending on the type of calculator used. We look at three of them. When using a four-function calculator or a scientic calculator, many people fail to take advantage of the calculators memory storage capability and instead complete the calculation by writing down numbers and reentering them. To use the memory storage, we rst nd 63 - 39 because the parentheses indicate that the calculation within should be done rst: Key Sequence

63 39

Display

24

We then store the difference, 24, in the calculators memory: Key Sequence

STO CE/C

We are now ready to subtract 24 from 172 to complete the subtraction: Key Sequence

172

RCL

Display

148

With a four-function calculator, we can use the parentheses keys to eliminate the need to store values: Key Sequence

172

(

Display

39

)

63

172 24 148

With most graphing calculators, not only are parentheses keys available but the screen display also shows the entire expression and the result of the calculation: Key Sequence

172

(

Display

63 39

) ENTER

172-(63-39) 148

Example 3.19 further illustrates the use of these calculator techniques to add or subtract a combination of numbers.

Example

3.19

A charitable organization with an annual budget of $150,000 recently paid out $35,000 and $28,000 to disaster victims. Use a calculator to determine how much money the organization has left for the rest of the year.

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

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SOLUTION

Find 150 - (35 + 28), where the numbers represent the number of thousands. Alishas method: I used a scientic calculator with a memory key to rst nd the sum in parentheses. I then stored that value in the memory to be able to use it to nd the difference. Key Sequence

35

STO

Display

63 87

28

CE/C RCL

150

The organization has $87,000 left to spend during the rest of the year. Tranhs method: I used a graphing calculator. Key Sequence

150

(

Display

35 28

) ENTER

150-(35+28) 87

Thus $87,000 is still available for spending. Elviras method: I used a four-function calculator with parentheses. Key Sequence

150

(

Display

150 28

)

35

YOUR TURN

63 87

Practice: Use a calculator to solve the following problem. One branch of a charitable organization paid out $28,000 of its $75,000 budget. The other branch has $36,000 left in its budget. How much money is now available in the organizations budget? Reect: What are the advantages and disadvantages of each of the three different types of calculators used in the example? Example 3.20 illustrates a geometric problem that requires a decision about which numbers to add rst in order to make efcient use of the calculator.

Example

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

3.20

Use a four-function or scientic calculator to determine how much greater the perimeter of Figure A is than the perimeter of Figure B:

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12 meters

24 meters

75 meters

30 meters 24 meters

Figure A

Figure B

SOLUTION

18

STO

Display

30 56 24 75 84 0 173 89

12

CE/C

24

18

RCL

YOUR TURN

Practice: Use a calculator to solve the following problem. How much greater is the perimeter of a triangle with sides 67 cm, 34 cm, and 95 cm than the perimeter of an isosceles triangle with base 27 cm and side 49 cm? Reect: Can another expression be used to calculate the answer in the example, and is using it on a calculator easier or more difcult than with paper and pencil? When using a calculator to add and subtract a combination of numbers, we need to be aware of which operations the calculator does rst and what grouping symbols, if any, the calculator uses. Mini-Investigation 3.9 encourages you to explore the order of operation characteristics of your calculator as they relate to addition and subtraction.

Write a short description of your calculators interpretation of order of operations involving addition and subtraction. Do your classmates calculators use the same interpretation?

How does your calculator interpret order of operations involving addition and subtraction? What grouping symbols are available on your calculator?

Solving a Multiple-Step Problem. The main value of computational algorithmswhether they are done mentally or with paper and pencil or whether they are built into a calculator or computeris that they help solve problems efciently. Addition and subtraction algorithms are used in solving problems when you must choose these operations in the process of obtaining a solution. Example 3.21 illustrates a problem of this type.

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

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171

Example

3.21

How many more medals altogether did the United States win in the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens than did the Peoples Republic of China?

Nation 1. United States 2. Peoples Republic of China 3. Russian Federation 4. Australia 5. Japan

Gold 35 32 27 17 16

Silver 40 17 27 16 9

Bronze 27 14 38 16 12

Understand the problem What does the situation involve? What has to be determined? What are the key data and conditions? What are some assumptions? Develop a plan What strategies might be useful? Are there any subproblems? Should the answer be estimated or calculated? Implement the plan How should the strategy be used? The medal count at the 2004 Olympics. How many more medals the U.S. won than China. U.S. medals: 35, 40, 27 China medals: 32, 17, 14 All medals are included in the count shown in the table. Choose appropriate operations. Find the total number of medals each country won. The question calls for an exact answer. U.S. medals: 35 + 40 + 27 = 102. China medals: 32 + 17 + 14 = 63. 102 - 63 = 39. What is the answer? Look back Is the interpretation correct? Is the calculation correct? Is the answer reasonable? The U.S. won 39 more medals than China. Yes, the problems asks to compare the total number of medals. Yes. The calculations are correct. Using estimation, the U.S. total is about 40 + 40 + 30 = 110 and the China total is about 30 + 20 + 15 = 65. 110 - 65 = 45, which is close to 30. the answer is reasonable. Yes. Find the differences for each type of medal. Then add those numbers to get the nal number.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Were there more gold, silver, or bronze medals won altogether by the top ve countries shown in the chart?

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

Reect: Can you nd the solution to the example above using mental math and the approach described in the chart for another way to solve the problem (see the last box)? Explain.

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17. Jorge solved Exercise 15 by using his graphing calculator, as shown below. He knew that the result should be less than 500. What went wrong?

1. Draw a picture that shows how you would place baseten blocks on your desk to start the task 328 + 567. 2. Draw a picture that shows how you would place baseten blocks on your desk to start the task 484 - 195. Tell whether each statement in Exercises 37 is correct or incorrect. If incorrect, rewrite it correctly. 3. (75 * 38) + (38 * 75) = 2(75 * 38). 4. (145 - 67) - 28 = 145 + (67 - 28). 5. 6[2(3.5 + 8.6)] = 12(3.5) + 2(8.6). 6. [(53 * 32) - (32 * 10)] = 32(53 - 10). 7. 5000 - (125 * 8) * 5 = [3(456 - 235)] * 0. 8. Name the property that justies each step. [(2 * 100) + (3 * 10)] + [(1 * 100) + (5 * 10)] = (2 * 100) + [(3 * 10) + (1 * 100)] + (5 * 10) = (2 * 100) + [(1 * 100) + (3 * 10)] + (5 * 10) = [(2 * 100) + (1 * 100)] + [(3 * 10) + (5 * 10)] = [(2 + 1) * 100] + [(3 + 5) * 10] = (3 * 100) + (8 * 10) = 380. property Basic facts Expanded form to standard form Identify and describe the error in each calculation in Exercises 912. 9. 10. 167 84 - 28 - 29 64 148 11. 2,345 - 238 217 12. 37 + 75 1,012 property property property

The following price list is for use in Exercises 1821. Tent Sleeping bags Stove Mats Cooking utensils Trail food Lantern Boots Rain gear $179 85 68 23 47 12 115 137 89

18. What would the tent, boots, a sleeping bag, and a lantern cost? 19. How much more would a tent and a sleeping bag cost than boots and rain gear? 20. Using the prices given above, prepare two different lists of camping supplies whose total cost is close to but less than $200. Calculate the total for each list. 21. How much change would you get from a $1,000 bill if you bought all the items listed above?

B. Deepening Understanding

22. Explain why the following approaches to subtraction make sense: 9 1 9 14 1 10 14 20 4 2 0 4 - 39 - 39 1 6 5 1 6 5

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

Evaluate each expression in Exercises 1316 on a calculator. 13. (28 + 75) + (134 - 12) 14. (910 - 635) - 129 15. 789 - (23 + 45 + 345) 16. (546 - 232) - (124 - 76)

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173

23. Find two numbers whose sum is 973 and whose difference is 277. Another way to develop the algorithm for addition is to write numbers in expanded form in Exercises 2427. 174 = 1 hundred + 7 tens + 4 ones + 448 = 4 hundreds + 4 tens + 8 ones = 5 hundreds + 11 tens + 12 ones = 5 hundreds + 12 tens + 2 ones (Regrouping 10 ones for 1 ten.) = 6 hundreds + 2 tens + 2 ones (Regrouping 10 tens for 1 hundred.) = 622. Use this method to complete each of the calculations in Exercises 2427. 24. 234 + 125 25. 548 + 276 26. 838 + 627 27. 1256 + 867 An alternative format for using expanded notation is to use powers of 10, as in the example at the bottom of the page. Use this method to complete each of the calculations in Exercises 2831. 28. 78 + 35 29. 136 + 123 30. 324 + 287 31. 1393 + 2736

equivalent for $625 + n = $1,300. Start with the smaller number and add until you get the larger number. Start with 625 and count on. Say: $625 Give: The total is $675. $650 25 $700 50 $1,200 500 $,1300 100

Use the cashiers algorithm to nd each difference in Exercises 3235. 32. $85 - $13 33. $135 - $84 34. $24 - $8 35. $55 - $32 The scratch algorithm, or low-stress algorithm, for addition only requires adding 1-digit numbers. Whenever a 10 is reached, the units digit and the 1 ten are recorded separately. Start by adding down the ones column. Each time you get a sum of 10 or more, record a 1 for the 10 in the sum a half-space below and between the ones and tens columns and record the ones digit of the sum a half-space below and to the right of the ones column, as shown. p 6 8 51 64 3 59 + 71 65 5

2

The cashiers algorithm is based on the denition of subtraction as the inverse of addition, as presented in Chapter 2. It involves thinking about subtraction as nding the missing addend. For example, to nd the difference, $1,300 - $625 = n think of the

8 + 6 = 14. Record the 1 ten and the 4 ones. 4 + 5 = 9. Record the 9 ones. 9 + 6 = 15. Record the 1 ten and 5 ones. Rewrite the 5 as the sum of the ones column and then add the tens made in the ones column, obtaining 2. Write 2 at the top of the tens column to show the 2 tens.

E X A M P L E F O R E X E R C I S E S 2 8 31

174 = 1(102) + 7(101) + 4(100) + 448 = 4(102) + 4(101) + 8(100) = 5(102) + 11(101) + 12(100) = 5(102) + [(10 + 1)(101)] + [(10 + 2)(100)] = 5(102) + [(10(101) + (1)(101)] + [(10)(100) + (2)(100)] = 5(10 ) + [(10 + 10 ) + 10 + (2)(10 )] = [5(102) + 102] + (101 + 101) + (2)(100) = 6(10 ) + (2)(10 ) + (2)(10 ) = 622.

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

2 1 0 2 2 1 1 0

Substitution Distributive property Simplifying Associative property Distributive property and adding

174 p

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6 8 5 1 1 64 3 59 + 171 65 23 5 q q

Write a headline for the campus newspaper that tells approximately how many people visited the center during the 4 days. Happy Trails Problem. Use the following map to answer the questions in Exercises 4547:

City D

Rewrite the 3 as the sum of the tens column, and then add the 1s written to the left of the tens column to obtain the tens that were regrouped to hundreds, which is 2. With no hundreds column to be added, write 2 in the hundreds place in the sum.

City A

399 375 City J City E City F City G 98 75 105 156 City H 286 244 303 376 208 City K City I 210

345

Use the scratch method to nd each sum in Exercises 3639. 36. 34 + 56 + 88 + 94 37. 67 + 75 + 75 + 48 38. 234 + 654 + 768 39. 378 + 989 + 864 + 457 Explain each approach in Exercises 40 and 41 to nding 175 + 352. Can each approach be veried by using properties of whole numbers? Explain. 40. 150 25 + 350 +2 500 27 Sum: 527 41. 75 127 + 52 + 400 127 527 42. The following algorithm gives a correct answer: 41818 + 6615 51513 Explain why the algorithm works.

45. How many routes are possible from City A to City K with no backtracking? What is the mileage for each? 46. What route of travel gives a total distance of 1,339 miles? 47. Write another problem for the same data. 48. Write a word problem for a real-world situation that can be solved by using the expression (235 + 112) - 65. Planning a Purchase. You want to buy a computer that costs $1,349. 49. How much more money do you need if you have saved $875? 50. If you can save $50 a month, in about how many more months will you be able to afford the computer? 5153. The chart shows some comparisons between the 1933 and the 2005 versions of the movie King Kong.

Kongs weight 1933Stop-motion pioneer Willis OBrien, who brought the giant gorilla to life, once guessed Kongs weight at a rather excessive 38 tons. 20058,000 pounds. Kongs budget 1933Estimated between $513,242.02 and $670,000. 2005$207 million.

Source of data: http://www.usatoday.com/life/movies/ news/2005-12-08-king-kong-facts_x.htm ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

43. The Cave-In Problem. A mining company is digging an 875-meter-long shaft. Each day workers are able to dig through 100 meters, but at night, owing to unstable ground, 50 meters of the shaft rells with rocks. At this rate, how many days will it take the workers to dig the 875-meter-long shaft? 44. Health Headlines. During a 4-day winter weekend, the following numbers of students visited the university health center complaining of cold and u symptoms: Friday Saturday Sunday Monday 245 328 197 276

51. How much more was Kongs weight in the 1933 version than in the 2005 version?

SECTION 3.3

175

52. In the 1933 movie, Kong was about 20 feet tall. In the 2005 version, he was 25 feet tall. Does the data on the weight of Kong make sense for these heights? Explain. 53. About how much more was the budget for the 2005 movie than the 1933 movie?

Then add 100 to the top number and 100 to the bottom number, which will not change the difference.

54. Explain why the words regrouping and trading are used rather than carrying and borrowing in the paper-andpencil algorithms for addition and subtraction. 55. Solve a problem by using an algorithm described in this section or one that you use for addition and subtraction, and provide a justication for the steps in the algorithm. Present your problem to another group to be solved and veried. Write a short paragraph comparing your groups work with that of the other group. 56. Historical Pathways. The equal-additions algorithm for subtraction was taught in many classrooms in the United States in the early part of the twentieth century. Heres how it works to nd the difference 204 - 139.

First add 10 to the top number and 10 to the bottom number, which will not change the difference.

2 4 2 - 1 3 9 6 5

01 4

Add 100 (10 tens) to the 0 in the tens column of the top number. Add 100 to the 1 in the hundreds place in the bottom number. Subtract the 4 from the 10 tens.

Create three subtraction calculations and use the equaladdition algorithm to nd each difference. 57. Making Connections. Recall that addition and subtraction are inverse operations. Addition undoes subtraction and subtraction undoes addition. Use examples to explain how to use this idea in checking subtraction. Find the smallest and the largest solutions possible for the following problems. 58. Smallest 59. Largest 99 88 + nn 2n n 99 88 + nn 2n n

Add 10 to the 4 ones in the top number. Add 10 to the 3 tens in the bottom number. Subtract the ones.

Section

3.4

Developing Algorithms for Multiplication Using a Spreadsheet for Multiplication Developing Algorithms for Division Using a Calculator to Evaluate Multiplication and Division Expressions

In this section, we look at algorithms for multiplication and division of whole numbers. We begin by using models to help explain these algorithms and then use the properties of whole numbers to justify the algorithms.

There is more than one algorithm for multiplying whole numbers and more than one algorithm for dividing whole numbers.

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

Most common algorithms for multiplication and division of whole numbers use notions of place value and equivalence to break calculations into simpler ones. The simpler ones are then used to give the nal product or quotient.

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Most division algorithms are based on the relationship of division to multiplication. Properties of whole numbers can be used to verify the procedures used in multiplication and division algorithms. There are different concrete interpretations for multiplication and division of whole numbers, and certain ones are helpful in developing multiplication and division algorithms.

As with addition and subtraction algorithms, models provide a physical basis for explaining algorithms for multiplication. The models used here include base-ten blocks and pictorial models that represent multiplication as nding the area of a rectangle. Using the processes suggested by the models, we develop the related paper-and-pencil algorithms for multiplication. Finally, we use mathematical reasoning along with properties of whole numbers to verify that the steps in a multiplication algorithm are logically correct.

When working with children, teachers need to remember that the purpose of using baseten blocks is not to teach an algorithm for using the blocks. Rather, the purpose is to use the blocks to help the child make sense of the steps to be done by using symbolsthat is, to make sense of the paper-and-pencil algorithm. Thus the teacher needs to use the blocks to show how to nd small products and move to other models or numbers to show how to nd larger products.

One way of modeling the procedures for nding products is to use the area of a rectangle interpretation of multiplication developed in Chapter 2. Recall that the factors are the length and width of the rectangle and the product is the area of the rectangle. Example 3.22 shows how the product of two 2-digit numbers can be obtained by using base-ten blocks arranged to form a rectangle or by drawing a rectangle on graph paper.

Example

3.22

Use an area interpretation for multiplication to show 13 * 24.

SOLUTION

We begin by using base-ten blocks to show a rectangle width and length of 13 and 24:

20 4

10

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A L G O R I T H M S F O R M U LT I P L I C AT I O N A N D D I V I S I O N

177

20 4

10

We now count the blocks to nd the area of the rectangle, or the product. There are 2 hundreds, 10 tens, and 12 ones. Regrouping the ones and tens gives 3 hundreds, 1 ten, and 2 ones, so 13 * 24 = 312. The area is 312 square units.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Use base-ten blocks (or draw a picture) and an area interpretation for multiplication to obtain the product 12 * 21. Reect: Another way to represent and nd the product of 13 * 24 is to show 13 groups of 2 tens and 4 ones but not arranged in a rectangle. How would you nd the product using blocks arranged in this manner? Which representation, blocks arranged as a rectangle or blocks in equal groups, is easier to use to nd the product? Explain. In the area model for 13 * 24 in Example 3.22, the product 312 is made up of the areas 3 * 4, 3 * 20, 10 * 4, and 10 * 20. Because these products are combined to produce the nal product, 312, we call them partial products. The idea of partial products is useful in developing paper-and-pencil algorithms for multiplication. Developing and Using Paper-and-Pencil Algorithms for Multiplication. We now use the multiplication calculation modeled in Example 3.22 to examine two paper-and-pencil algorithms for multiplication. Partial products play an important role in each. The rst algorithm based on that model involves breaking apart the numbers according to the place value of each digit and multiplying each digit according to its place value to obtain the partial products. In this algorithm, called the expanded algorithm, the partial products are added to nd the nal product.

Think Write 24 * 13 12 60 40 200 312

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Multiply 3 * 4: Multiply 3 * 20: Multiply 10 * 4: Multiply 10 * 20: Add the partial products:

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The second algorithm, called the standard algorithm, involves forming only two partial products.

Think Write

1

24 * 13 72 240 312

In this case, the rst factor is multiplied by the ones digit of the second factor and the numbers are regrouped to form the rst partial product. Then the rst factor is multiplied by the tens digit of the second factor. Example 3.23 further illustrates the use of these two algorithms.

Example

3.23

Choose either the expanded or standard algorithm to calculate the product 6 * 345.

SOLUTION

Calebs thinking: First, I multiplied the ones by 6, then the tens, and then the hundreds. Then, I added all the partial products. Here is what I came up with: 345 * 666 30 240 1,800 2,070 Makenzies thinking: First, I multiplied the ones by 6 and regrouped. Then, I multiplied the tens by 6, added the extra tens, and regrouped. Finally, I multiplied the hundreds and added the extra hundreds. Here is what I came up with: 345 * 6 2,070

YOUR TURN

23

Practice: Calculate 34 * 26 by using the a. expanded algorithm for multiplication. b. standard algorithm. Reect: Explain how the standard algorithm is a shortcut for the expanded one.

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179

Using Properties of Whole Numbers to Verify Multiplication Algorithms. Example 3.24 shows how the properties of whole numbers and properties of the base-ten numeration system can be used to verify a procedure for nding the product of two numbers. Example 3.24 uses the same multiplication task as in Example 3.22 and in the demonstrations of the expanded and standard algorithms. This common calculation shows the connections between the use of models, an algorithm for multiplying two numbers, and the reasoning involved in verifying the procedure.

Example

3.24

Multiply 24 * 13 by breaking apart numbers according to the place value of the digits and by using properties of whole numbers. Give a reason for each step.

SOLUTION

Statements 24 * 13 = (20 + 4) * (10 + 3) = (20)(10) + (20)(3) + (4)(10) + (4)(3) = 200 + 60 + 40 + 12 = 200 + 100 + 10 + 2 = 300 + 10 + 2 = 312.

YOUR TURN

Reasons Expanded notation Distributive property, twice Associative property, basic fact Associative property, basic fact Associative property, basic fact Expanded to standard notation

Practice: Multiply 12 * 18 by breaking apart numbers according to the place value of the digits and by using properties of whole numbers. Give a reason for each step. Reect: How do you know that you would get the same product for 13 * 24 as for 24 * 13?

A spreadsheet is a powerful way to nd the product of a large set of numbers and a single factor. For example, suppose you want to nd how much a 15% tip is on whole-dollar amounts ranging from $10 to $40. You can start by setting up and labeling two columns on a spreadsheet in cells A1 and B1:

A 1 Dollar Amount 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Tip B

Estimation Application

The Best Deal Estimate how much money you would save by purchasing a used car with cash rather than through the dealers loan program. Total Cost of the Deals Cash: $6,175 Loan: $198 per month for 36 months Find a way to check your estimate.

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The pages below show two fth-grade students work on a multiplication calculation. These students were shown on the board the standard multiplication algorithm developed earlier in this section. 24 * 13 72 240 312

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180

The task was to use base-ten materials to represent this situation and show where the partial products, 72 and 240, can be seen in the representation. Are both representations correct? Which representation connects better to the expanded algorithm? To the standard algorithm? Explain.

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Now follow these steps to generate the dollar amounts from 10 to 40: 1. 2. 3. 4. Enter 10 in cell A2 under Dollar Amount and press ENTER In cell B2, type = A2*0.15 then press ENTER. 1.5 will appear in B2. In cell A3, type = A2 + 1 and press ENTER. 11 will appear in A3. Select (make dark) cells A3 through A32. From the EDIT menu choose FILL DOWN. The column will now show the whole numbers from 10 to 40.

B 1.5

Follow these steps to give the tip amounts for each of the dollar amounts:

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1. Select (make dark) cells B2 through B32. 2. From the EDIT menu choose FILL DOWN. The column will now show the 15% tip amount for whole numbers.

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183

B 1.5 1.65 1.8 1.95 2.1 2.25 2.4 2.55 2.7 2.85 3 3.15 3.3 3.45 3.6 3.75 3.9 4.05 4.2 4.35 4.5 4.65 4.8 4.95 5.1 5.25 5.4 5.55 5.7 5.85 6

Example 3.25 provides an opportunity for you to use a spreadsheet to solve a real-world problem.

Example

3.25

A local hardware store is having a 25% off sale on all items. You are interested in how much the total cost of your items will be before tax. The items you want to buy and the regular prices are as follows: Paint Ladder Hose Tape

SOLUTION

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Since the sale is 25% off the original price, the sale price is 75% of the original price. These steps show how to set up the spreadsheet to nd the total cost of the items on sale:

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1. Label the columns for ITEM COST (A1) and SALE PRICE (B1). 2. In cells A2 through A5, enter 12.50, 35.49, 8.95, 6.44. 3. In cell B2 type = A2*0.75 and press ENTER. You should see 9.375. 4. Select (make dark) cells B2 through B5. Then in the EDIT menu choose FILL DOWN. The sale price of each item will show. 5. Select (make dark) cells B2 through B5. In the menu at the top of the spreadsheet, click one time on [.00 : .0]. Each of the values in column B should be given as two decimal places. 6. In cell B6 type = SUM(B2:B6) and press ENTER. You should see 47.54.

A 1 Item Cost 2 3 4 5 6 12.5 35.49 8.95 6.44 B Sale Price 9.375 26.6175 6.7125 4.83 47.535

The 47.535 rounded to the nearest cent is $47.54. This is the total cost of the items on sale.

YOUR TURN

Practice: To nd the new prices for items after a 10% price increase, multiply each item by 1.10 and round the results to the nearest cent. What would be the new prices for items now costing $24.95, $35.75, and $120.49? Reect: Step 5 in the solution to Example 3.25 gave each number to two decimal places. What did the spreadsheet do to the actual numbersround to the nearest hundredth or truncate the numbers (drop the other digits)? Lattice Multiplication. Lattice multiplication is an algorithm that reduces multidigit multiplication calculations to a series of basic multiplication facts followed by a series of simple sums. Example 3.26 shows how to use this algorithm to nd the product of two 3 digit numbers.

Example

3.26

Find 247 * 681.

SOLUTION

Step 1. Write one of the numbers above and the other to the right of the 3-by-3 chart, one digit per box. Step 2. Find the products for each cell of the chart. Use the 1-digit numbers on the outside of the chart as factors. Record each product in the cell with the tens digit of the product above the diagonal and the ones digit below. For example, the upper right cell in the chart shows 7 * 6 = 42. The lower right cell shows 7 * 1 = 7, written as 07.

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2 1 1 2 1 6 6 0 8 2 2 0 3 2

4 4

6 4 5 8 2 0 1 4 0 7 7 6 2

Step 3. Start at the lower right. Add diagonally as shown by the blue arrows. Write the ones digit of the diagonal sum below and to the left of the chart. If the sum along a diagonal is 10 or more, regroup the 10 to the next diagonal. For example, the diagonal that starts next to the 8 at the right is 6 + 0 + 4 = 10. The 0 is recorded below the chart and the 1 regrouped to the diagonal starting next to the 6. The sum for that diagonal is 2 + 5 + 2 + 0 + 2 = 11 + 1 (from the previous diagonal)=12. The 2 is recorded below the chart and the 1 carried to the next diagonal. Step 4. Read the nal product starting at the upper left digit, 1, from the top down and to the right: 168,207.

YOUR TURN

Practice: Use the lattice multiplication algorithm to nd 536 * 27. Reect: Does the order in which the products for each of the cells are calculated matter? Explain. Just as place value and properties justify the standard algorithms shown earlier, place value and properties justify lattice multiplication. Breaking apart each number using place value and then repeatedly applying the distributive property results in the following equations: 247 * 681 = (200 + 40 + 7) * (600 + 80 + 1) = (200 * 600) + (40 * 600) + (7 * 600) + (200 * 80) + (40 * 80) + (7 * 80) + (200 * 1) + (40 * 1) + (7 * 1). For each product inside parentheses in the second line above, the product of the nonzero digits is the product in the cell in the chart. For example, for 200 * 600, 2 * 6 = 12 and 12 is the number in the upper left cell of the chart. Notice there are nine product pairs in the second line above corresponding to the nine cells in the chart. Starting at the bottom right and moving left and then up, the diagonals correspond to place valuesones, tens, hundreds, and so forth. So, lattice multiplication is just another shortcut for rewriting numbers according to place value and using the distributive property to nd partial products.

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

In this section, we look at models of procedures for dividing whole numbers and then consider related paper-and-pencil algorithms. Although we used properties

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and mathematical reasoning to justify algorithms for addition, subtraction, and multiplication earlier in this chapter, justication of division is somewhat more complex and is not included in this book. Mini-Investigation 3.11 is intended to help you assess your understanding of the division algorithm.

Write a paragraph describing your groups response to the question.

M I N I - I N V E S T I G A T I O N 3 . 11

Making a Connection

What steps do you think are used in carrying out the following division task?

33 R4 8 268 24 28 24 4

Using Models as a Foundation for Division Algorithms. In Chapter 2 we examined several views of divisionrepeated subtraction, sharing, division as the inverse of multiplication, and division as nding the missing factor. Of these, division as repeated subtraction, division as sharing, and division as nding the missing factor can be used in modeling the procedures in the division algorithm. In the work with models in this section, we will focus only on the sharing interpretation for division. In Example 3.27, we use base-ten blocks to model the sharing interpretation for division. Here we start with 105 blocks and 15 groups. We must divide, or share, the blocks evenly into these 15 groups.

Example

3.27

Find 105 , 15 by using base-ten blocks and a sharing interpretation of division. Trade when necessary to obtain needed blocks.

SOLUTION

To divide 105 into 15 subsets, we again start by showing 1 hundred, 0 tens, and 5 ones with the blocks. We start at the hundreds. With only 1 hundred to divide into 15 groupswhich cant be donewe trade 1 hundred for 10 tens.

With no other tens, we still cant divide because we dont have enough tens (10) to divide them into 15 groups. So now we trade 10 tens for 100 ones. With the 5 other ones we already had, we now have 105 ones, which we can divide into 15 equal groups.

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187

YOUR TURN

Practice: Divide 647 , 3 by using base-ten blocks and a sharing interpretation of division. Trade when necessary to obtain needed blocks. Reect: What would happen in the practice problem if you began by dividing the ones, then tens, and so on?

The language that teachers use must be consistent with the interpretation of division being used. For the problem 126 , 3, the correct language to use when associating division with the repeated subtraction interpretation is, How many 3s are in 126? For the sharing interpretation, the correct language is, If we divide (or share) 126 into three groups, how many should be in each group? or How can 126 be divided into three equal groups?

Developing and Using Paper-and-Pencil Algorithms for Division. Lets now look at two paper-and-pencil algorithms for division.

Think Write 7 15 105 - 15 90 - 15 75 - 15 60 - 15 45 - 15 30 - 15 15 - 15 0 Think The number of times the divisor is subtracted, 7, is the quotient.

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Although this algorithm is simple to use, it can be quite inefcient. For example, imagine how many times you would have to subtract to divide 9,437 , 13. One way to improve the efciency of this algorithm is to subtract a greater number at least part of the time. For the 105 , 15 in the expanded algorithm box, we know that two 15s make 30 and three 30s make 90, so we could rst subtract 90 and then 15. Example 3.28 further illustrates this idea.

Example

3.28

Use the expanded division algorithm to nd 146 , 18.

SOLUTION

Bennies thinking: I know that three groups of 18 is 54, so I subtract 54 as many times as I can, and then I subtract two groups of 18 and have 2 left over: 18 146 - 54 92 - 54 38 - 36 2 three groups of 18 three groups of 18 two groups of 18

Altogether I subtract eight groups of 18, so my answer is 146 , 18 = 8R2. Luannes thinking: I know that 10 * 18 = 180, so 10 is too large. I guess that I can take away six groups of 18 and then discover that I can take away two more groups for a total of eight groups. 18 146 - 108 38 - 36 2

YOUR TURN

Practice: Use the repeated subtraction approach to division with symbols only to nd a. 234 , 17. b. 4,563 , 36. Reect: Which students thinking in the example problem is the most efcient? Why? Each of the algorithms in Example 3.28 features the repeated subtraction approach to nd the quotient, and each can produce correct results. Obviously, Luannes solution uses the fewest steps. Also note how Bennie and Luanne used multiplication and estimation. Both tried to estimate, How many 18s are in 146? Their strategy was to nd an estimate as close as possible to 146 without going over it. The second algorithm for divisionthe standard algorithmhas several steps and is based on the sharing interpretation of division. Just as we used base-ten blocks to model the sharing interpretation of division in Example 3.27, we can show how they relate to symbols in each step of the next box.

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189

Model Algorithm

2 357

Model Algorithm

Start at the left, and choose the rst place that can be divided. The 3 in the hundreds place can be divided into 2.

2 357

Model

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Algorithm

Divide the hundreds into two groups. One hundred group is left over, which cannot be divided into the two groups.

First divide in the hundreds place, writing the quotient digit above that place. Then multiply, subtract, and compare.

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Number of hundreds in each group

Number of hundreds left over (should be less than the divisor 2)

Model Algorithm

Trade the one leftover hundred for 10 tens to 15 tens. Divide the tens, placing 7 in each group and 1 ten left over.

Divide in the tens place, writing the quotient digit above that place. Then multiply, subtract, and compare.

Number of tens in each group

T

17 2 357 - 2 15 d Five tens brought down to show 15 tens - 14 d Number of tens shared 1 c

Number of tens left over (should be less than the divisor 2)

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191

Model Algorithm

Trade the leftover 1 ten for 10 ones to make 17 ones. Divide the ones, placing 8 in each group and 1 one left over.

Divide in the ones place, writing the quotient digit above that place. Then multiply, subtract, and compare.

Number of ones in each group

T

178 R 1 2 357 - 2 15 - 14 17 d 7 ones brought down to show 17 ones - 16 d Number of tens shared 1

c

Number of ones left over, called the remainder, and shown as R1 above

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Example 3.29 further illustrates the use of the standard division algorithm.

Example

3.29

Use the standard division algorithm to calculate 408 , 12.

SOLUTION

We begin by deciding where to start. Four hundreds cant be divided into twelve groups, so we start with the tens and write the rst digit in the quotient in the tens place. We estimate that 40 tens can be divided into twelve groups with three in each group. So we divide the tens, and then multiply, compare, and bring down to divide the ones. This is what we get: 444 34 12 408 66 - 36 8848 555 - 48 9990

YOUR TURN

Practice: Use the standard division algorithm to divide 897 , 39. Reect: Where is regrouping involved in the standard algorithm for division?

Evaluating complex numerical expressions on a calculator usually involves knowledge of the order in which operations are to be performed:

compute within grouping symbols rst. compute powers. multiply and divide in order from left to right. add and subtract in order from left to right.

Different types of calculators interpret order of operations in different ways. Example 3.30 describes the order of operations for an expression involving multiplication and division with three different calculators.

Example

3.30

Use a calculator to evaluate 32 + 18 + (56 * 2) 5

SOLUTION

Jeffersons method: I used a scientic calculator and began with the grouping symbols. First, I evaluated the terms within parentheses and then the numerator of the fraction because the fraction bar is also a grouping symbol.

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193

Key Sequence

56

STO

Display

112 50 10 122

2

CE/C

32

18

RCL

Natashas method: I used a four-function calculator and the following keystrokes: Key Sequence

(

Display

18

)

32 2

, 50 + 10 *2 122

5 56

(

Display

18 2

) ENTER

32 56

5

(32 18)/5 56 2 122

YOUR TURN

Reect: Can other calculator techniques be used to evaluate the expression in the example? If so, show the keying sequence and the displayed results. Some calculators are designed to give both the quotient and the remainder for a whole-number division. Mini-Investigation 3.12 challenges you to obtain the quotient and remainder without using this feature.

Write a paragraph describing the procedure you used to nd the remainder.

M I N I - I N V E S T I G A T I O N 3 .12

Technology Option

How can you use a calculator to obtain the quotient and remainder for 476 , 9 without using integer division commands?

Solving Problems Using Multiplication. Some problems involve both multiplication and divisionas well as addition and subtractionand so are solved

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by using the problem-solving strategy choose the operations. Once you have chosen the operations needed to solve a problem, you must then make two decisions: (1) whether an exact answer or an estimate is required and (2) the method of calculationmental calculation, paper and pencil, or a calculator. Although the calculations needed in most situations that call for an estimate can be done mentally, sometimes they are sufciently complex or so many calculations are called for that a calculator will come in handy. Example 3.31 uses multiplication and division and calls for an estimate. A calculator is used to solve several subproblems.

Example

3.31

About how many hours or days of your life to age 50 will you spend eating?

Understand the problem What does the situation involve? What has to be determined? What are the key data and conditions? What are some assumptions? Develop a plan What strategies might be useful? Are there any subproblems? Should the answer be estimated or calculated? What method of calculation should be used? Implement the plan How should the strategies be used? Finding the time spent eating. The total number of hours spent eating in 50 years. The total time is 50 years, and the problem statement asks for the number of hours and days. You must assume a certain number of hours of eating each day and use that in all calculations. Choose an operation. Yes. First, nd the time spent eating in 1 day. Then, extend that to 1 year and then to 50 years. An estimate is sufcient because you are to nd about how many hours per day. A calculator probably makes sense with the large numbers likely to be involved. Estimate the amount of time spent eating in 1 day. Then use multiplication to nd the total time for a year and convert it to hours. Then use multiplication to nd the total for 50 years. Then nd the number of days. An estimate for the time eating each day is 1 hour, 15 minutes, or 75 minutes. For 1 year, 75 min. * 365 days = 27,375 min. Dividing by 60 minutes in an hour gives 456.25 hours in 1 year. For 50 years, 50 yr * 456.25 hr = 22,812.5 hr. Dividing by 24 hours in one day gives approximately 951 days. What is the answer? Look back Is the interpretation correct? Is the calculation correct? Is the answer reasonable? You will spend about 22,813 hours, or 951 days, eating to age 50. Yes. The question wants to know the total for 50 years. Yes. The calculations are correct. Yes. 951 days is about 2 1 2 years out of 50 years for a ratio of about 1 to 25; 75 minutes a day is about 1 hour out of 24 for a ratio of 1 to 24. These ratios are fairly close, so the answer seems reasonable. Yes. You could have expressed the total time eating each day in hours and then multiplied by 365 to get the num-ber of hours for 1 year. You also could have expressed the amount of time spent eating each day as a fractional part of a day and used that number as the basis for further calculations.

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YOUR TURN

Practice: First estimate and then use your calculator to determine exactly how many seconds you have been alive. Reect: What subproblems did you solve in the practice problem, and how did they help you arrive at the nal answer?

47 * 28 800 140 320 56 1,316 47 * 28 56 320 140 800 1,316

1. Draw a picture that shows how to model 3 * 43 using base-ten blocks. Give the product. 2. Draw a picture that shows how to model 2 * 36 by using base-ten blocks and the area of a rectangle interpretation for multiplication. 3. Consider the following calculation: 9946 * 38 7368 1,380 1,748 a. Which numbers are the partial products? b. Why does the second partial product end in 0? c. Give an estimate for the product. 4. Draw a picture of base-ten blocks and use the area interpretation for multiplication to show 34 * 28. Then complete the calculation by using a paper-and-pencil algorithm. Show the partial products in your picture. 5. What multiplication calculation is shown by the following gure? Write an equation representing what was done with the blocks.

Use estimation in Exercises 912 to decide the interval in which the exact answer falls. For example, for 75 , 4, think, How many 4s are in 75? Interval choices: 110, 1120, 2130, 3140, 4150, 5160, 6170, 7180, 8190, 91100. 9. 65 , 5 10. 76 , 2 11. 86 , 4 12. 125 , 3 Use estimation in Exercises 1316 to decide the interval in which the exact answer falls. For example, for 1,275 , 24, think, How many 24s are in 1,275? Interval choices: 110, 1120, 2130, 3140, 4150, 5160, 6170, 7180, 8190, 91100. 13. 2,065 , 32 14. 7,563 , 88 15. 4,386 , 74 16. 3,089 , 53 17. Use estimation to decide about how many groups of 32 are in 4,357. Check on a calculator. 18. Use repeated subtraction and estimation to nd how many groups of 15 are in 257. Evaluate each numerical expression in Exercises 1921 on a calculator. Round each answer to the nearest whole number. 19. 2,208 , (12 * 23) 21. 124 + 20. 34 * 15 364 * 5 52

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6. Explain in writing two ways to use addition to nd 6 * 42. 7. Use the expanded algorithm for multiplication to nd four partial products for 18 * 34. Then give the nal product. 8. A teacher looked at the two calculations below and said, When you show all partial products, you can multiply in any order. You just need to pay attention to place value. Use the calculations below to explain what this teacher means.

15 * 12 8 22. Suppose that you throw ve darts at the game board shown.

10 20 30 40

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What is the highest possible score you can get? the lowest possible score?

29. Which property of whole numbers indicates that the following equation is true? 3 * 45 = (3 * 40) + (3 * 5). Use lattice multiplication to nd each product in Exercises 3033. (Hint: Remember to estimate rst!) 30. 76 * 45 31. 81 * 90 32. 124 * 56 33. 65 * 92 34. Write an explanation for each of the boldface expressions in the division calculation: 3 86 - 45 15 * 3 4 41 - 36 12 * 3 55 5 3- 3 1 * 3 22 2 28 * 3 35. Use multiplication to explain how you can find 32 , 4 when you know that 32 , 8 = 4. How can this relationship be useful in checking a division calculation? 36. Compare the work below to the standard division algorithm. Write and explain how these are alike and how they are different. 1 328 R 3 8 2,627 - 2,400 227 1 - 160 67 - 64 1 22 3

B. Deepening Understanding

23. Write a division problem for the model depicted and the sharing interpretation of division.

24. Write a word problem that represents a sharing division situation. Solve the problem. 25. Write a word problem that represents a repeated subtraction division situation. For Exercises 26 and 27, the two problems in each item were completed by the same student. Analyze the errors and look for patterns. Describe the error pattern. 15 R 3 24 R 2 26. 5 528 R 3 4 818 R 2 -5 R 3 -8 R 2 28 R 3 18 R 2 - 25 R 3 - 16 R 2 3R3 2R2 32 48 27. * 7 * 5 2040 2114 28. Use base-ten blocks and the sharing interpretation for subtraction to explain each step in the following algorithm. Write your explanation. 1 126 R 2 6 758 1 -6 1 15 1 - 12 1 238 1236 1 222

37. The winner of the 2006 Daytona 500 car race won $1,505,124. The last-place nisher won $12,521. About how many times more money did the winner get than the last-place nisher? 38. The last-place finisher in the 2006 Nissan Golf Tournament won $9,078. How many tournaments would a person earning this much have to play in to reach $1 million? 39. On average, how many miles did Steve Fossett travel on each hour of his trip? (See gure on next page.) 40. If you could average 55 mph driving, how many hours would it take you to drive the same distance Steve Fossett ew? 41. The GlobalFlyer ew at times at 45,000 feet. A private single-engine plane might y at 2,500 feet. How many times higher was the GlobalFlyer?

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FIGURE FOR EXERCISE 39 Fossett ight sets distance record U.S. adventure Steve Fossett claimed the record for the longest non-stop ight in history, landing in southern England on Saturday after ying 26,389 miles. Fossett, 61, piloted his lightweight Global Flyer about 76 hours. He used emergency landing procedures when a generator light started to ash upon his descent. The emergency forced Fossett to land at Bournemouth International Airport instead of his planned landing point in nearby Kent, where hundreds of well-wishers had gathered to greet him. He burst two tires on landing and the poor GlobalFlyer had to be dragged off the runway, said Steve Ridgway, chief executive of ight sponor Virgin Atlantic.

Source: USA Today, February 13, 2006.

Arrange the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 in the boxes in Exercises 49 and 50 to make the largest and smallest products possible. 49. Largest Product 50. Smallest Product nnn nnn * nnn * nnn Retirement Dollars. Suppose that, like most people, you want to have $1 million when you retire, and you decide to save onefourth of your annual earnings to reach this goal. Use a calculator or computer to answer Exercises 5153. 51. If your earnings dont change over time, how much must you earn each year to save $1 million in 35 years 52. If your spouse, who will retire before you do, earns $38,000 each year for the next 20 years and you decide to save one-third of your combined incomes each year, how much would you need to earn each year for the next 35 years to have jointly saved $1 million by the time you retire? Assume that your earnings are the same for each of the 35 years you work. 53. Suppose that you inherit $75,000, which you put into a retirement account. You decide to add $200 to the account at the end of the rst year and, for each of the next 30 years, to double the amount you added in the previous year. How much will you have to put into your account by the time you retire in 30 years? 54. One side of a rectangle is 12 units long, and the rectangle has an area of 276 square units. Draw a picture to nd the length of the other side of the rectangle. Explain in writing how this activity shows the inverse relationship between multiplication and division. 55. Use estimation to decide how many bottles can be put into 15 cartons if you have a total of 486 bottles and each carton holds the same number. Are there any extra bottles?

Annual Earnings. A recent survey reported the following average annual earnings: Retail salesperson Taxi driver High school teacher President of the United States $ 13,000 $ 23,000 $ 38,000 $400,000

Use these data and a spreadsheet to solve Exercises 4245 in any way you choose. Explain your solutions. 42. About how many years would a retail salesperson have to work to make what the president of the United States earns in 1 year? 43. How much more will a teacher make than a taxi driver in 20 years? 44. If a teacher puts 3% of the salary shown into a retirement fund each year, how many years will it take for the principal in the fund (excluding interest) to accumulate to the amount that a retail salesperson earns in 1 year? 45. If a taxi driver wants to triple her earnings in 5 years and for each of the rst 4 years she makes $8,500 more than the preceding year, how much more than the preceding year does she need to earn in the fth year? 46. Monthly Payments. About how much would each of the monthly payments be for a motorcycle costing $2,375.99, including taxes and all charges, if the buyer makes equal payments over 3 years? Without computing the exact answer, indicate whether your estimate is over or under the exact answer and how you know. Arrange the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 in the boxes in Exercises 47 and 48 to make a product as close to the target number as possible. 47. Target = 50,000 48. Target = 125,000 nnn nnn * nnn * nnn

Making Connections. Suppose that the multiplication and division keys on your calculator were broken. Explain how you can calculate Exercises 56 and 57 by using other keys on the calculator. 56. 18 * 54 57. 207 , 23 58. Explain how the language used should be different when you describe the task 156 , 12 rst as repeated subtraction and then as sharing. Consider the expression 328 , 6 in Exercises 5961. 59. Write a real-world story problem that reflects a repeated subtraction interpretation for division and can be solved by using the expression. 60. Write another story problem for the expression in Exercise 59 by using the sharing interpretation for division. 61. Exchange your groups problems with another groups and solve the problems. Show your work.

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62. The following algorithm reects what is called short division: 6677 4 75 6 284530 The reasoning processes used are the same as those for the algorithms developed in this section. Explain why this algorithm makes sense. 63. Historical Pathways. Elementary school mathematics textbooks in the 1960s and even into the 1970s taught a stacking algorithm as a transition to the standard algorithm. Heres one way the stacking algorithm might look for 526 , 23:

22 R 20 2 10 10 23 526 - 230 296 - 230 66 - 46 20 Write a paragraph that describes how this algorithm might be used to explain the standard algorithm.

Chapter Summary

Reections on the Big Ideas and Essential Understandings: Questions and Answers

S E C T I O N 3 .1

What is mental computation and when should it be used? ( p. 130) Mental calculation is the process of nding an exact answer to a computation mentally, without paper and pencil, calculator, or any other computational aid. Use mental calculation when you believe that the calculations are sufciently easy that you can do them without the aid of pencil/paper or a calculation device. What are some mental computation techniques? (pp. 131138) Count on and count back: Add or subtract when one of the numbers to be added or subtracted is 1, 2, or 3; 10, 20, or 30; 100, 200, or 300; and so on. Choose compatible numbers: Calculate with pairs of numbers that can easily be added, subtracted, multiplied, or divided or combined to produce multiples of 10, 100, or other numbers that make calculations easy. Break apart numbers: Break apart numbers according to the place value of the digits to give simple calculations involving basic number facts that can be done mentally. Use compensation: Use a calculation close to the original one that is easy to do mentally and compensate at the end to get the exact answer. Use equal additions: Add a number to both numbers in a subtraction calculation so that the number being subtracted is easy to subtract from the other mentally. What are some computational estimation techniques? (pp. 144151) Rounding: Replace numbers with rounded ones that make calculations easy to do mentally.

Substitute compatible numbers: Replace numbers with numbers close to the original ones to make the calculation easy to do mentally. Front end: Compute using only the rst digit of the numbers in the calculation. Adjustments may be made by using any estimation technique. Clustering: Replace addends in an addition calculation with one that is close to them all. Find the sum by completing the equivalent multiplication calculation mentally. How do you choose a technique? (pp. 151154) The nature of the real-world situation and the kinds of numbers involved determine the specic estimation technique that makes most sense. Some situations call for a range estimate rather than one number. A range estimate gives a high estimate and a low estimate between which the exact answer falls.

SECTION 3.3

SECTION 3.2

How can algorithms for addition be developed and used? (pp. 156162) Physical and pictorial models show that the steps in algorithms for addition make sense. Number properties can be used to explain steps in the standard algorithm. In the standard algorithm, addition is performed from right to left using place value and basic facts. How can algorithms for subtraction be developed and used? ( pp. 162167) Physical and pictorial models show that the steps in algorithms for subtraction make sense. Number properties can be used to explain steps in the standard algorithm. In the standard algorithm, subtraction is performed from right to left using place value and basic facts. How can a calculator be used for multiple-step addition and subtraction calculations? ( pp. 168171) The memory function on some calculators

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199

can store the results of an operation in one step until needed in another step. On other calculators, parentheses on the keypad are used to group operations and must be entered in a sequence specic to the calculation.

SECTION 3.4

How can algorithms for multiplication be developed and used? (pp. 176179) Physical and pictorial models show that the steps in algorithms for multiplication make sense. Number properties may be used to explain steps in the standard algorithm. In the standard algorithm, multiplication is performed from right to left by using place value and basic facts. Are there any technology tools useful in multiplication? (pp. 179185) A spreadsheet can be used as a tool to multiply each of the numbers in a large set of numbers by the same factor.

How can algorithms for division be developed and used? (pp. 185192) Physical and pictorial models show that the steps in algorithms for division make sense. Number properties can be used to explain steps in the standard algorithm. In the standard algorithm, division is performed from left to right using place value and basic facts. The steps in the standard division algorithm can be explained using sharing situations. How can a calculator be used to evaluate multiplication and division expressions? (pp. 192195) An understanding of grouping symbols and order of operations, together with the specic features of different types of calculators, are necessary to evaluate expressions involving multiplication and division. The memory function on some calculators can store the results of a grouped operation until needed in another step. On other calculators, parentheses on the keypad are used to group operations and must be entered in a sequence specic to the calculation.

S E C T I O N 3 .1

Mental computation (p. 130) Count on technique (p. 131) Count back technique (p. 131) Choose compatible numbers technique (p. 132) Break apart numbers technique (p. 135) Use compensation technique (p. 136) Use equal additions technique (p. 137)

SECTION 3.2

Substitute compatible numbers technique (p. 146) Front-end estimation technique (p. 148) Clustering technique (p. 149) Range estimate (p. 152)

SECTION 3.3

SECTION 3.4

Algorithms (p. 156) Expanded algorithm for addition (p. 160) Standard algorithm for addition (p. 161) Expanded algorithm for subtraction (p. 165)

Partial products (p. 177) Expanded algorithm for multiplication (p. 177) Standard algorithm for multiplication (p. 178) Lattice multiplication (p. 184) Expanded algorithm for division (p. 187) Standard algorithm for division (p. 189) Order of operations (p. 192)

Chapter Review

Concepts and Skills

Count on or back to compute the exact answer mentally in Exercises 14. 1. 54 + 30 2. 101 - 2 3. 648 - 200 4. 678 + 200 Look for compatible numbers to help you compute the exact answer mentally in Exercises 58. 5. (5 * 13) * (20 * 2) 6. 85 + 27 + 15 7. 8 * 12 * 5 8. 32 + 27 + 18 + 23

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

Use compensation to compute the exact answer mentally in Exercises 1316. 13. 78 * 2 14. 408 - 39 15. 253 + 58 16. 29 * 7 Use the equal additions method to compute the exact answer mentally in Exercises 1720. 17. 41 - 27 18. 325 - 195 19. 210 - 88 20. 131 - 27

Break apart numbers to compute the exact answer mentally in Exercises 912.

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Round each number to the place value of the bold digit in Exercises 2124. 21. 5,748 22. 319.7 23. 6,543 24. 603 Use rounding to estimate the answer in Exercises 2528. 26. 783 , 4 25. 665 + 243 27. 75 * 15 28. 704 - 337 Estimate by substituting compatible numbers in Exercises 2932. 30. 128 * 9 29. 3,426 - 352 31. 33 * 8 32. 774 + 122

49. How are compatible numbers used in both mental calculation and estimation? Explain, using examples. 50. Copy and complete the following multiplication calculation, using reasoning to nd the missing digits: n4 * n7 2n 8 n4 5n 8 51. Lottery, Lottery. A lottery winner can choose, without looking, two of four identical jars that contain the following amounts: $154 K $25 K $750 K $3,500

Use front-end estimation with adjustment to estimate in Exercises 3336. 33. 436 + 735 34. 1,243 + 5,488 35. 43 + 56 + 62 + 87 36. 43,650 + 45,436

Use clustering to estimate in Exercises 37 and 38. 37. 1,243 + 1,119 + 1,228 + 1,210 38. 544 + 556 + 550 + 547 + 553 Estimate and then nd the exact answer in Exercises 3942. Check your work. 39. 2,546 + 4,337 40. 56 * 34 41. 540 - 308 42. 765 , 4

The persons winnings are the sum of the amounts in the two jars. What are all possible amounts that can be won? What is the difference between the greatest and least amounts that can be won? Show your work. (Note: $154 K $154,000) 52. Tough Choices. Another lottery winner has won $5,000 worth of prizes. She can select from the following list of items: Entertainment center: $1,879 Ski outts: $458 Tennis vacation: $2,159 His-and-her golf clubs: $1,875 Mountain bike: $656 Motor boat: $3,799 Video camera equipment: $559 Any money not spent on prizes has to be given back. She can buy more than one of each item. Select two different collections that she might choose and the total cost of each collection. How much money is left in each case? 53. What items should the lottery winner in Exercise 52 choose in order to return the least amount of money? 54. How many pocket bikes of the size shown in the chart on the next page placed end to end would it take to be as long as the car in the chart? 55. How many times greater is the weight of the car on the next page than the weight of the pocket bike? 56. How much higher is the car on the next page than the pocket bike (seat height)? 5759. Use the data in the chart on the next page. Note that all prices are one-way. 57. How much more is a round-trip ight from New York to Los Angeles than a round-trip from Washington D.C. to San Diego?

ISBN: 0-536-08809-8

Give two numbers between which the exact answer falls in Exercises 4346. 43. 54 * 38 44. 567 + 327 45. 453 , 3 46. 2,345 - 1,095 47. Use grid paper and an area model to show the partial products (192 and 240) in the following calculation. 24 * 18 192 240 432 48. Write an explanation using base-ten blocks to explain each step in the following algorithm: 182 R 2 3 548888 -3 248888 - 248888 8888 - 6888 2888

3

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201

59. How much would three round-trip tickets cost for Denever to Washington D.C.?

Height Kikker 5150 Racer Toyota Camry LE 17" (seat) 58.7" Length 38" 189.2" Weight 39 lbs. 3,164 lbs.

Alternative Assessment

60. Make up a 2-digit by 2-digit multiplication calculation. Write an explanation that you might give to a fthgrader of what the steps in the traditional multiplication algorithm mean. 61. Students who do not have a strong understanding of place value usually have difculty with the traditional algorithms for all four mathematical operations. Explain in writing why an understanding of place value is essential. 62. Other than using a calculator, how many ways can you use to nd 12 * 24? Show each and explain in writing why each makes sense.

58. What would it cost to take ve round-trips from Los Angeles to Seattle?

Domestic Fares: Sample fares are each way based on required roundtrip purchase by 3/18/05. Fares below are valid for travel through 6/10/05. Anchorage-Seattle . . . . . . . . . .$99 Boston-Los Angeles . . . . . . . . 144 Chicago-Kona . . . . . . . . . . . . .$311 Chicago-Los Angeles . . . . . . . . 79 Chicago-New York City . . . . . . .$89 Chicago-Orlando on Ted . . . . . . 89

$ $ $

Denver-San Diego . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$103 Denver-San Francisco . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Denver-Washington, D.C. . . . . . . . .$125 Los Angeles-Seattle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Los Angeles-Washington, D.C. . . . . .$99 New York City-Los Angeles . . . . . . . 144

$ $ $

San Francisco-Calgary2,4 . . . . . . . . . . .$152 San Francisco-Washington, D.C. . . . . .$129 Washington, D.C.-Chicago . . . . . . . . . .$79 Washington, D.C.-Phoenix1,2,3,5 . . . . . .$129 Washington, D.C.-San Diego . . . . . . . .$99 Washington, D.C.-Seattle1,3,5 . . . . . . .$144

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