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Soil reinforcement by vertical stiff inclusions i France in F

Franois SCHLOSSER Bruno SIMON

Interaction mechanisms Some landmark applications R i of Review f practice ti and dd design i approach h Further research

Interaction mechanisms Some landmark applications R i of Review f practice ti and dd design i approach h Further research

A compound foundation system

9 Stiff inclusions 9 Pile caps 9 Reinforcement (occasionally) 9 Granular G l mattress tt 9 Floor slab (occasionally) Pile supported earth platform Piled Pil d embankment b k

Shear mechanism overview


Piled embankment

Upper equal settlement plane

Lower equal settlement plane

Shear mechanism overview


Piled embankment

Shear mechanism overview


Pile supported earth platform foundation

(Un)equal /equal settlement plane


2D analogical soil (Jenck, 2005)

s
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(Un)equal /equal settlement plane

Lateral soil/pile interaction

Multicriteria rule for inclusions (Schlosser) Yield design theory (Salenon)

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Interaction mechanisms Some landmark applications R i of Review f practice ti and dd design i approach h Further research

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Retaining wall (1975)

Expanded concrete minipiles ( 0.22 m, d 1.4 m)

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Protection dykes (1982)

Open O steel t l piles il Strip reinforced mattress


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Reinforced Earth (1990)

Piles concreted inside closed temporary casing Pile caps and wiremesh reinforced concrete slab
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Embankment and abutment (1991)

Deep p Mixed Columns


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On going work adaptation (1995)


Grasse Court Hall

Jet Grouted Columns 16

Fill behind quay wall (2001)

Continuous auger concrete piles (Starsol)


17 1.4 m square pile caps and wiremesh reinforcement

Floor slab full scale load test (2001)

Controlled Modulus Columns (CMC)

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Heavily loaded industrial slab (2000)

Controlled Modulus Columns (CMC)

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Outstanding work and environment (2004)


Rion Antirion bridge

2 m diameter open steel piles square grid 7 m x 7 m


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Validation of an innovative concept


Pecker A. : capacity design Numerical modelling Yield design approach of limit loads FE models to check limit loads and evaluate displacements

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Validation of an innovative concept


Pecker A. : capacity design Numerical N i l modelling d lli Physical modelling 100-g 100 centrifuge if testing i (Nantes (N LCPC facility) f ili ) Reconstituted soil

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Interaction mechanisms Some landmark applications R i of Review f practice ti and dd design i approach h Further research

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Installation technique development


Many proprietary equipment (VCC, Starsol, CMC)

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Comparison with other practice


2 50 2.50
2.50

HR/S
2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50
area ratio (%) 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50

HR/S

HR

area ratio (%) 0.00

0.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

10

15

20

25

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International review (published)


HR = 1.1 to 2.2 m Geosynthetic reinforcement

French practice (Brianon, 2002)


HR = 0.4 to 0.9 m No geosynthetic reinforcement; sometimes welded wiremesh Floor slabs and rafts (warehouses, stores, storage tanks) 25

Mostly piled embankments for roads and railways

Pile reinforcement design


Pile Type and d installation i ll i method h d Constitutive material: strength and stiffness Addition of a pile cap or not Geometry Mesh shape and size Pile embedment in the bearing stratum Transfer layer Quality and thickness With additional reinforcement elements or not

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qo
Qp+

Reinforcement design g checks


(Q*)
qs+

Percentage coverage of pile caps = a2/s2 Stress reduction ratio SRR = qs+/q0 Efficacy E = Qp+ /Q*

Hc
Qmax

active

passive
Qlim

Critical height Hc Maximum axial load Qmax Qmax < Qlim /

Settlement at surface yp(0), ys(0)

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Design methods in use


State of the art review (Brianon, 2002) g approach pp of the whole foundation system y Integrated Methods stemming from work on negative skin friction (Combarieu) (step by step) Numerical FE or FD methods Homogeneization H i ti methods th d Main focus on average settlement

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Negative skin friction


Combarieu (1974) Assumes shape of vertical stress field between piles Parameters Ktan,

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An integrated simple approach


(Foxta, 2001)
Q
Iterative and parallel calculations negative skin friction (Combarieu) t-z experimental curve (Frank & Zhao)

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An integrated simple approach


(Foxta, 2001)
Iterative and parallel calculations negative skin friction (Combarieu) t-z experimental curve (Frank & Zhao) Load Settlement

q1

y1(z)

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An integrated simple approach


(Foxta, 2001)
Iterative and parallel calculations negative skin friction (Combarieu) t-z experimental curve (Frank & Zhao) Load Settlement

q1 Q2
imposed

y1(z)

y1(z) y2(0)

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An integrated simple approach


Q

(Foxta, 2001)
Iterative and parallel calculations negative skin friction (Combarieu) t-z experimental curve (Frank & Zhao) Load Settlement

Qmax

q1 Q2
imposed

y1(z)

y1(z) y2(0)

Control Q = q1s1 + Q2 y1(0) = y2


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CMC full scale load test

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Global numerical methods


Finite element and finite difference methods

Plaxis 2D
2D strain plane model Elementary cell (axisymmetric)
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2D model shortcomings
Plane strain models No straight definition of equivalent wall properties
Contradicting scale perimeter and area conditions How to scale interface properties ?

Limited stress rotation above pile heads Yet can cope with non uniform or lateral loading Axisymmetric models Axisymmetric A i t i vertical ti l loading l di of f a central t l cell ll only l Approximation to a square mesh
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3D numerical models

FLAC 3D (explicit finite difference)

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3D numerical models
Advantages Any geometry Any kind of loading All interactions properly taken into account
Interfaces and mesh refinement required

Limitations Heavy y input p and output p p processing g Time and memory consuming Increased complexity with non uniform loading or to study side effects Use is limited to research or outstanding works
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3D numerical models
A promising way : embedded elements Sadek S d k (2004)

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Requirements for all numerical models


Choice of adapted constitutive laws Granular fill :
Characterization of a coarse material Non linear behaviour with strong stress path- and stress level-dependency Ability Abilit to t depict d i t 90 rotation t ti of f principal i i l stress t directions di ti

Soft soil
Yield stress, consolidation and creep process

Interface properties Should reflect the p pile installation technique q and degree g of soil disturbance Need of experimentally validated laws Fill placement Compaction effect Contribution C t ib ti of f any geogrids id
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Homogeneization - 1
EpAp E hom = A p + As + Es As

Slip along pile = 40

No access to pile stresses Anisotropy ignored

Ehom
Single cell adjustment

Equivalent E i l t failure f il criterion it i

Extended equivalent model


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Homogeneization - 2
Two Phase model (de Buhan, 2000)

All interactions i t ti introduced i t d d Specific factors Boundary conditions ii Load fraction


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Interaction mechanisms Some landmark applications R i of Review fd design i approach h Some at border cases Further research

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State of the Art review (Brianon, 2002)


Limited amount of available experimental data Mainly focus on load transfer within granular layer in presence of one or more geogrids Preeminent use of pile supported earth platforms / piled embankments p No widely accepted simple design method for ordinary projects Wide scatter of results for the calculated efficacy

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Other points
C Can shear h effects ff t b be partly tl d destroyed t db by vibrations ib ti of travelling loads? Minimum quality requirement for the mattress (cost of granular fill becomes high in urban areas) ? How to include fill compaction effects in design? Seismic behaviour for ordinary works ?

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ASIRI project (2005- 2009)


2.4 M state and industry funded research project Led by a non profit organization (IREX) With managing and scientific committees Independent network of owners, consultants, contractors and academics (40 company core members) g g Research label Civil and Urban Engineering

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ASIRI project (2005- 2009)


Full scale experiments : 2 x 5 trial embankments y modelling g Physical Centrifuge testing (100g facility in Nantes) Calibration cell tests and 2D analogical tests Numerical modelling To develop 3D FEM and FD reference models Other models : biphasic models, discrete models To evaluate simple design methods currently in use
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ASIRI project (2005- 2009)


Full scale testing Pile supported earth platform (now in progress)

Piled embankments (scheduled 2007, other site)

15 m

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ASIRI project (2005-2009)


Recommendations about use and design of pile supported earth platforms for spread foundations and piled embankments Efficient and easy y to use design g methods
For evaluating stresses, displacements, safety For optimization p of f this foundation f system y

With validity checked against


all collected experimental data results of the more sophisticated numerical models
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