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Emotional Intelligence

(EI/EQ)

Name : M.Saad Siddiqui

Roll No: 06-0110

Section: X

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Date: 20th November 2008

Contents

Introduction...................................................................................................5

Background....................................................................................................6

Defining Emotional Intelligence


(EI).................................................................7

1. The ability-based model..............................................................................7

Measurement of the ability-based


model..........................................................8

2. Mixed models of EI.....................................................................................9

(i) The Emotional Competencies (Goleman)


model............................................9

Measurement of the Emotional Competencies (Goleman)


model........................10

(ii) The Bar-On model of Emotional-Social Intelligence


(ESI)..............................10

Measurement of the ESI


Model........................................................................10

3. The Trait EI model......................................................................................11

Measurement of the Trait EI


model..................................................................12

Conclusion.....................................................................................................14

Further
Research............................................................................................15

References.....................................................................................................15

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Bibliography...................................................................................................15

Acknowledgements
Thanks to my colleagues at FAST University for giving ideas and offering
valuable advice. And thanks to Miss. Sultana, teacher of psychology, for
advice and help in getting started on the report.

M.Saad Siddiqui
S110.06

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Abstract
It is useful and interesting to consider how important it is for effective
performance at work. There is a considerable body of research suggesting
that a person’s ability to perceive, identify and manage emotion provides the
basis for the kinds of social and emotional competencies that are important
for success in almost any job. Furthermore, as the pace of change increases
and the world of work make ever greater demands on a person’s cognitive,
emotional, and physical resources, this particular set of abilities will become
increasingly important.

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Introduction
It turns out that a scientist can see the future by watching four-year-
olds interact with a flower. The researcher invites the children, one by one,
into a plain room and begins the gentle torment. You can have this flower
right now, he says. But if you wait while I run an errand, you can have two
flowers when I get back. And then he leaves.

Some children grab for the treat the minute he's out the door. Some
last a few minutes before they give in. But others are determined to wait.
They cover their eyes, they put their heads down, they sing to themselves,
they try to play games or even fall asleep. When the researcher returns, he
gives these children their hard-earned flowers. And then, science waits for
them to grow up.

By the time the children reach high school, something remarkable has
happened. A survey of the children's parents and teachers found that those
who as four-year-olds had the fortitude to hold out for the second flower
generally grew up to be better adjusted, more popular, adventurous,
confident and dependable teenagers. The children who gave in to temptation
early on were more likely to be lonely, easily frustrated and stubborn. They
buckled under stress and shied away from challenges.

When we think of brilliance we see Einstein, deep-eyed, woolly haired,


a thinking machine with skin and mismatched socks. High achievers, we
imagine, were wired for greatness from birth. But then you have to wonder
why, over time, natural talent seems to ignite in some people and dim in
others. This is where the marshmallows come in. It seems that the ability to
delay gratification is a master skill, a triumph of the reasoning brain over the
impulsive one. It is a sign, in short of emotional intelligence. And it doesn't
show up on an IQ test.

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For most of this century, scientists have worshipped the hardware of
the brain and the software of the mind; the messy powers of the heart were
left to the poets. But cognitive theory could simply not explain the questions
we wonder about most: why some people just seem to have a gift for living
well; why the smartest kid in the class will probably not end up the richest;
why we like some people virtually on sight and distrust others; why some
people remain buoyant in the face of troubles that would sink a less resilient
soul. What qualities of the mind or spirit, in short determine who succeeds?

Emotional Intelligence (EI) often measured as an Emotional Intelligence


Quotient (EQ) describes ability, capacity, skill or a self-perceived ability, to
identify, assess, and manage the emotions of one's self, of others, and of
groups. It is a relatively new area of psychological research and its definition
is constantly changing.

Background
The most distant roots of Emotional intelligence can be traced back to
Darwin’s early work on the importance of emotional expression for survival
and second adaptation. In the 1900s, even though traditional definitions of
intelligence emphasized cognitive aspects such as memory and problem-
solving, several influential researchers in the intelligence field of study had
begun to recognize the importance of the non-cognitive aspects. For
instance, as early as 1920, E. L. Thorndike used the term social intelligence
to describe the skill of understanding and managing other people.

Similarly, in 1940 David Wechsler described the influence of non-


intellective factors on intelligent behaviour, and further argued that our
models of intelligence would not be complete until we can adequately
describe these factors. In 1983, Howard Gardner's Frames of Mind: The
Theory of Multiple Intelligences introduced the idea of Multiple Intelligences
which included both Interpersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand
the intentions, motivations and desires of other people) and Intrapersonal
intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings,
fears and motivations). In Gardner's view, traditional types of intelligence,
such as IQ, fail to fully explain cognitive ability. Thus, even though the names
given to the concept varied, there was a common belief that traditional
definitions of intelligence are lacking in ability to fully explain performance
outcomes.

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The first use of the term "Emotional Intelligence" is usually attributed
to Wayne Payne's doctoral thesis, A study of emotion: Developing emotional
intelligence from 1985. However, prior to this, the term "emotional
intelligence" had appeared in Leuner (1966). Greenspan (1989) also put
forward an EI model, followed by Salovey and Mayer (1990) and Goleman
(1995).

As a result of the growing acknowledgement of professionals for the


importance and relevance of emotions to work outcomes, the research on
the topic continued to gain momentum, but it wasn’t until the publication of
Daniel Goleman's best seller Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More
Than IQ that the term became widely popularized. Nancy Gibbs' 1995 Time
magazine article highlighted Goleman's book and was the first in a string of
mainstream media interest in EI. Thereafter, articles on EI began to appear
with increasing frequency across a wide range of academic and popular
outlets.

Defining Emotional Intelligence (EI)


There are a lot of arguments about the definition of EI. One attempt
toward a definition was made by Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer (1990)
who defined EI as “the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and
emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide
one's thinking and actions.”

Despite this early definition, there has been confusion regarding the exact
meaning of this construct. The definitions are so varied, and the field is
growing so rapidly, that researchers are constantly amending even their own
definitions of the construct. Up to the present day, there are three main
models of EI:

1.Ability-based EI models

2.Mixed models of EI

3.Trait EI model

1. The ability-based model

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Salovey and Mayer's conception of EI strives to define EI within the
confines of the standard criteria for a new intelligence. Following their
continuing research, their initial definition of EI was revised to: "The ability to
perceive emotion, integrate emotion to facilitate thought, understand
emotions and to regulate emotions to promote personal growth."

The ability based model views emotions as useful sources of


information that help one to make sense of and navigate the social
environment. The model proposes that individuals vary in their ability to
process information of an emotional nature and in their ability to relate
emotional processing to a wider cognition. This ability is seen to manifest
itself in certain adaptive behaviours. The model proposes that EI includes 4
types of abilities:

1.Perceiving emotions — the ability to detect and decipher emotions


in faces, pictures, voices, and cultural artefacts- including the ability to
identify one’s own emotions. Perceiving emotions represents a basic
aspect of emotional intelligence, as it makes all other processing of
emotional information possible.

2.Using emotions — the ability to harness emotions to facilitate


various cognitive activities, such as thinking and problem solving. The
emotionally intelligent person can capitalize fully upon his or her
changing moods in order to best fit the task at hand.

3.Understanding emotions — the ability to comprehend emotion


language and to appreciate complicated relationships among
emotions. For example, understanding emotions encompasses the
ability to be sensitive to slight variations between emotions, and the
ability to recognize and describe how emotions evolve over time.

4.Managing emotions — the ability to regulate emotions in both


ourselves and in others. Therefore, the emotionally intelligent person
can harness emotions, even negative ones, and manage them to
achieve intended goals.

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Measurement of the ability-based model

Different models of EI have led to the development of various


instruments for the assessment of the construct. While some of these
measures may overlap, most researchers agree that they tap slightly
different constructs. The current measure of Mayer and Salovey’s model of
EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is based
on a series of emotion-based problem-solving items. Consistent with the
model's claim of EI as a type of intelligence, the test is modeled on ability-
based IQ tests. By testing a person’s abilities on each of the four branches of
emotional intelligence, it generates scores for each of the branches as well
as a total score.

Central to the four-branch model is the idea that EI requires atonement


to social norms. Therefore, the MSCEIT is scored in a consensus fashion, with
higher scores indicating higher overlap between an individual’s answers and
those provided by a worldwide sample of respondents. The MSCEIT can also
be expert-scored, so that the amount of overlap is calculated between an
individual’s answers and those provided by a group of 21 emotion
researchers.

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Although promoted as an ability test, the MSCEIT is most unlike
standard IQ tests in that its items do not have objectively correct responses.
Among other problems, the consensus scoring criterion means that it is
impossible to create items (questions) that only a minority of respondents
can solve, because, by definition, responses are deemed emotionally
'intelligent' only if the majority of the sample has endorsed them. This and
other similar problems have led cognitive ability experts to question the
definition of EI as a genuine intelligence.

2. Mixed models of EI

(i) The Emotional Competencies (Goleman) model

The model introduced by Daniel Goleman focuses on EI as a wide array


of competencies and skills that drive leadership performance. Goleman's
model outlines four main EI constructs:

1.Self-awareness — the ability to read one's emotions and recognize


their impact while using gut feelings to guide decisions.

2.Self-management — involves controlling one's emotions and


impulses and adapting to changing circumstances.

3.Social awareness — the ability to sense, understand, and react to


others' emotions while comprehending social networks.

4.Relationship management — the ability to inspire, influence, and


develop others while managing conflict.

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Goleman includes a set of emotional competencies within each
construct of EI. Emotional competencies are not innate talents, but rather
learned capabilities that must be worked on and developed to achieve
outstanding performance. Goleman posits that individuals are born with a
general emotional intelligence that determines their potential for learning
emotional competencies. Goleman's model of EI has been criticized in the
research literature as mere pop-psychology (Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade,
2008).

Measurement of the Emotional Competencies (Goleman) model

Two measurement tools are based on the Goleman model:

1) The Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI) which was created in 1999 and
the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI), which was created in
2007.

2) The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, which was created in 2001 and


which can be taken as a self-report or 360-degree assessment (Bradberry
and Greaves, 2005).

(ii) The Bar-On model of Emotional-Social Intelligence (ESI)

Reuven Bar-On (2006) developed one of the first measures of EI that


used the term Emotion Quotient. He defines emotional intelligence as being
concerned with effectively understanding oneself and others, relating well to
people, and adapting to and coping with the immediate surroundings to be
more successful in dealing with environmental demands. Bar-On posits that
EI develops over time and that it can be improved through training,
programming and therapy. Bar-On hypothesizes that those individuals with
higher than average E.Q.’s are in general more successful in meeting
environmental demands and pressures. He also notes that a deficiency in EI
can mean a lack of success and the existence of emotional problems.
Problems in coping with one’s environment are thought, by Bar-On, to be
especially common among those individuals lacking in the subscales of
reality testing, problem solving, stress tolerance, and impulse control. In
general, Bar-On considers emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence to
contribute equally to a person’s general intelligence, which then offers an
indication of one’s potential to succeed in life. However, doubts have been
expressed about this model in the research literature (in particular about the
validity of self-report as an index of emotional intelligence) and in scientific

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settings it is being replaced by the trait emotional intelligence (trait EI)
model discussed below.

Measurement of the ESI Model

The Bar-On Emotion Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) is a self-report measure


of EI developed as a measure of emotionally and socially competent behavior
that provides an estimate of one's emotional and social intelligence. The EQ-i
is not meant to measure personality traits or cognitive capacity, but rather
the mental ability to be successful in dealing with environmental demands
and pressures. One hundred and thirty three items (questions or factors) are
used to obtain a Total EQ (Total Emotion Quotient) and to produce five
composite scale scores, corresponding to the five main components of the
Bar-On model. A limitation of this model is that it claims to measure some
kind of ability through self-report items (see Matthews, Zeidner, & Roberts,
2007). The EQ-i has been found to be highly susceptible to faking (Day &
Carroll, 2008; Grubb & McDaniel, 2007).

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3. The Trait EI model

Petrides et al. (2000a, 2004, 2007) proposed a conceptual distinction


between the ability based model and a trait based model of EI. Trait EI is "a
constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions located at the lower levels
of personality". In lay terms, trait EI refers to an individual's self-perceptions
of their emotional abilities. This definition of EI encompasses behavioural
dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured by self report, as
opposed to the ability based model which refers to actual abilities, which

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have proven highly resistant to scientific measurement. Trait EI should be
investigated within a personality framework. An alternative label for the
same construct is trait emotional self-efficacy.

The trait EI model is general and subsumes the Goleman and Bar-On
models discussed above. Petrides et al. are major critics of the ability-based
model and the MSCEIT arguing that they are based on "psychometrically
meaningless" scoring procedures (e.g., Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli,
2007).

The conceptualization of EI as a personality trait leads to a construct


that lies outside the taxonomy of human cognitive ability. This is an
important distinction in as much as it bears directly on the operationalization
of the construct and the theories and hypotheses that are formulated about
it.

Measurement of the Trait EI model

There are many self-report measures of EI, including the EQi, the
Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT), the Six Seconds
Emotional Intelligence Assessment (SEI), the Schutte Self-Report Emotional
Intelligence Test (SSEIT), a test by Tett, Fox, and Wang. (2005) From the
perspective of the trait EI model, none of these assess intelligence, abilities,
or skills (as their authors often claim), but rather, they are limited measures
of trait emotional intelligence (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The
Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) is an open-access
measure that was specifically designed to measure the construct
comprehensively and is currently available in 15 languages.

The TEIQue provides an operationalization for Petrides and colleagues'


model that conceptualizes EI in terms of personality.The test encompasses
15 subscales organized under four factors: Well-Being, Self-Control,
Emotionality, and Sociability. The psychometric properties of the TEIQue

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were investigated in a recent study on a French-Speaking Population, where
it was reported that TEIQue scores were globally normally distributed and
reliable.

The researchers also found TEIQue scores were unrelated to nonverbal


reasoning (Raven’s matrices), which they interpreted as support for the
personality trait view of EI (as opposed to a form of intelligence). As
expected, TEIQue scores were positively related to some of the Big Five
personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness)
as well as inversely related to others.

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Conclusion
In some ways, emotional intelligence really is not new. In fact, it is
based on a long history of research and theory in personality and social.
Furthermore, Goleman has never claimed otherwise. In fact, one of his main
points was that the abilities associated with emotional intelligence have been
studied by psychologists for many years, and there is an impressive, and
growing, body of research suggesting that these abilities are important for
success in many areas of life.

It is useful and interesting to consider how important it is for effective


performance at work. There is a considerable body of research suggesting
that a person’s ability to perceive, identify and manage emotion provides the
basis for the kinds of social and emotional competencies that are important
for success in almost any job. Furthermore, as the pace of change increases
and the world of work make ever greater demands on a person’s cognitive,
emotional, and physical resources, this particular set of abilities will become
increasingly important.

I/O psychologists are best situated to help clients to use emotional


intelligence to improve both productivity and psychological well-being in the
workplace of tomorrow.

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Further Research
•Criticisms on Ability-based model

•Criticisms on ESI model

References
http://www.psychometriclab.com/Default.aspx?Content=Page&id=7

http://www.time.com/time/classroom/psych/unit5_article1.html

http://www.beyondtraining.com.au/Emotional_IQ.html

http://www.baatschools.com/emotional_intelligence.php

http://www.peoplesmithglobal.com/emotion/index.asp

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Bibliography
Bar-On, R. (1997). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: User's manual .
Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.

Bar-On, R. (in press). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the
Emotional Quotient Inventory. In R. Bar-On & J. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of
emotional intelligence. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Barsade, S. (1998). The ripple effect: Emotional contagion in groups (Working


paper ). New Haven, CT: Yale University School of Management.

Barsade, S., & Gibson, D. E. (1998). Group emotion: A view from the top and
bottom. In D. G. e. al. (Ed.), Research on managing groups and teams.
Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

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