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CHAPTER 1

Introduction :

Integration of the IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (WLANs) and 3G networks, such

as Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS), has been intensively studied

recently due to their complementary characteristics. The 3GPP has been continuously

evolving to support multimedia services which require high data rates in cellular

networks. Nowadays, a UMTS network can support services with maximum data rate of

2Mbps while a 2.5G cellular network, such as General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), can

only provide 100-200 kbps. UMTS networks are gaining popularities and being deployed

globally in countries such as UK, Japan and USA. To further increase the data rate at the

downlink side, High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) was introduced by the

3GPP research community providing data rate up to 14Mbps. Deployment of HSDPA

networks has been commercially launched, but network operators may be reluctant to

completely replacing existing legacy networks which are fully functional as it would

require an extremely high installation cost. Meanwhile, the commercial success of the

IEEE 802.11 protocol makes the access point-based WLAN networks widely deployed in

hot-spot areas such as offices, airports and coffee shops. The IEEE 802.11b can provide

data rate up to 11Mb/s in 2.4 GHz. The IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11g can provide up

to 54 Mb/s in 5GHz and 2.4GHz bands, respectively. But WLANs have disadvantages of

having small coverages. The coverage by an access point (AP) of a WLAN is up to

several hundred meters in radius and a cell covered by a UMTS Node B is usually several

kilometers in radius. Such complimentary characteristics of these two popular networks

have stimulated research efforts to integrate UMTS and WLAN networks so that mobile

stations can choose the network that has better network quality when they are covered by

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both networks. The hardware requirement for integrating UMTS and WLAN networks is

mainly to build dual-mode user equipment (UE) which has the capability of accessing

either network. After such a dual-mode UE is available and software’s at each network’s

operational components are updated, a ubiquitous wireless environment with high data

rate enabled in hot spot areas can be set up. The integrated WLAN/UMTS systems, the

access control problem arises to decide which network it should be admitted to and when

it should switch from one network it should be admitted to and when it should switch

from one network to the other through vertical handover. The decision can be made by a

new software layer named as IP Switch layer which resides in the UE and keeps

monitoring the situation of current cell. Once the traffic in one network becomes higher

and the network efficiency gets impaired, the IP switch layer delivers the packets from

the upper layer to the other network’s interface. In this paper, we propose a network

access decision algorithm based on the utility-based access control framework. Utility

function is a concept borrowed from economics and has been used for scheduling and

allocating resources in wireless communication systems. In our proposed framework,

admission control and vertical handover decisions are made through evaluating some

utility functions implemented in UMTS’s Node B, RNC and WLAN’s AP. The utility

functions are designed so that each network’s capacity is considered to achieve load

balancing between UMTS and WLAN networks.

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1.1 EXISTING SYSTEM:

When a mobile station is covered by both networks in the integrated

WLAN/UMTS systems, the access control problem arises to decide which network it

should be admitted to and when it should switch from one network to the other through

vertical handover. The decision can be made by a new software layer named as IP Switch

layer which resides in the UE and keeps monitoring the situation of current cell. Once the

traffic in one network becomes higher and the network efficiency gets impaired, the IP

switch layer delivers the packets from the upper layer to the other network’s interface.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

we propose a network access decision algorithm based on the utility-based access

control framework. Utility function is a concept borrowed from economics and has been

used for scheduling and allocating resources in wireless communication systems. In our

proposed framework, admission control and vertical handover decisions are made

through evaluating some utility functions implemented in UMTS's Node B, RNC, and

WLAN's AP. The utility functions are designed so that each network's capacity is

considered to achieve load balancing between UMTS and WLAN networks.

We implemented a dual-mode UE in the NS-2 software.

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CHAPTER 2
UMTS:

UMTS is a Third Generation (3G) wireless protocol that is part of the

International Telecommunications Union’s IMT-2000 vision of a global family of 3G

mobile communications systems. UMTS is expected to deliver low-cost, high-capacity

mobile communications, offering data rates up to 2 Mbps. NS2 UMTS Specialized Model

allows you to model UMTS networks to evaluate end-to-end service quality, throughput,

drop rate, end-to-end delay, and delay jitter through the radio access network and core

packet network. It can also be used to evaluate the feasibility of offering a mix of service

classes given quality of service requirements. UMTS model features include:

Based on WCDMA

• Support for 4 QoS classes: Background, Conversational, Interactive, Streaming

• Support for UE, Repeater, Node B, RNC, SGSN, GGSN with ATM and IP

Network connectivity

• Dedicated (DCH) and Common / Shared Channels (RACH, FACH, DSCH)

• Multiplexing of logical channels to transport channels

• Acknowledged / Unacknowledged / Transparent RLC modes

• Radio Access Bearer setup, release, negotiation, renegotiation, preemption

• Open Source Admission Control

• Outer loop power control

• Hard / Soft / Softer handover

• GTP Support up to RNC

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Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-

generation (3G) mobile telecommunications technologies, which is also being developed

into a 4G technology. Currently, the most common form of UMTS uses W-CDMA as the

underlying air interface. UMTS and its use of W-CDMA is standardized by the 3GPP, and

is the European answer to the ITU IMT-2000 requirements for 3G cellular radio systems.

2.1 FEATURES OF UMTS:

UMTS, using W-CDMA, supports up to 21 Mbit/s data transfer rates in theory

(with HSDPA), although at the moment users in deployed networks can expect a transfer

rate of up to 384 kbit/s for R99 handsets, and 7.2 Mbit/s for HSDPA handsets in the

downlink connection. This is still much greater than the 9.6 kbit/s of a single GSM error-

corrected circuit switched data channel or multiple 9.6 kbit/s channels in HSCSD (14.4

kbit/s for CDMAOne), and—in competition to other network technologies such as

CDMA2000, PHS or WLAN---offers access to the World Wide Web and other data

services on mobile devices.

Precursors to 3G are 2G mobile telephony systems, such as GSM, IS-95, PDC,

CDMA PHS and other 2g technologies deployed in different countries. In the case of

GSM, there is an evolution path from 2G, to GPRS, also known as 2.5G. GPRS supports

a much better data rate (up to a theoretical maximum of 140.8 kbit/s, though typical rates

are closer to 56 kbit/s) and is packet switched). It is deployed in many places where GSM

is used. E-GPRS, or EDGE, is a further evolution of GPRS and is based on more modern

coding schemes. With EDGE the actual packet data rates can reach around 180 kbit/s

(effective). EDGE systems are often referred as “2.75G Systems”.

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Since 2006, UMTS networks in many countries have been or are in the process of

being upgraded with High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), some things known

as 3.5G. Currently, HSDPA enables downlink transfer speeds of up to 21 Mbit/s. Work is

also progressing on improving the uplink transfer speed with the High-Speed Uplink

Packet Access (HSUPA). Longer term, the 3GPP Long Term Evolution project plans to

move UMTS to 4G speeds of 100 Mbit/s down and 50 Mbit/s up, using a next generation

air interface technology based upon Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing.

The first national consumer UMTS networks launched in 2002 with a heavy

emphasis on telco-provided mobile applications such as mobile TV and video calling.

The high data speeds of UMTS are now most often utilized for Internet access:

experience in Japan and elsewhere has shown that user demand for video calls is not

high, and telco-provided audio/video content has declined in popularity in favour of high-

speed access to the World Wide Web – either directly on a handset or connected to a

computer via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Infrared or USB.

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CHAPTER 3

UMTS 3G Mobile Wireless Network Architecture:

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), standardized by the

3GPP, is the 3G mobile communication technology successor to GSM and GPRS. UMTS

combines the W-CDMA, TD-CDMA, or TD-SCDMA air interfaces, GSM’s Mobile

Application Part (MAP) core, and the GSM family of speech codecs.

W-CDMA is the most popular cellular mobile telephone variant of UMTS in use.

UMTS, using W-CDMA, supports up to 14.0 Mbit/s data transfer rates in theory with

High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), although the performance in deployed

networks could be much lower for both uplink and downlink connections.

3.1 RADIO ACCESS CORE NETWORK

A major difference of UMTS compared to GSM is the air interface forming

Generic Radio Access Network (GeRAN). It can be connected to various backbone

networks like the Internet, ISDN, GSM or to a UMTS network. GeRAN includes the

three lowest layers of OSI model. The network layer (OSI 3) protocols form the Radio

Resource Management protocol (RRM). They manage the bearer channels between the

mobile terminals and the fixed network including the handovers.

The UMTS standard is an extension of existing networks based on the GSM and

GPRS technologies. In UMTS release 1, a new radio access network UMTS terrestrial

radio access network (UTRAN) is introduced. UTRAN, the UMTS radio access network

(RAN), is connected via the Iu to the GSM Phase 2+ core network (CN). The Iu is the

UTRAN interface between the radio network controller (RNC) and CN; the UTRAN

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interface between RNC and the packet-switched domain of the CN (Iu-PS) is used for PS

data and the UTRAN interface between RNC and the circuit-switched domain fo the CN

(Iu-CS) is used for CS data.

3.2 UTRAN

UTRAN is subdivided into individual radio network systems (RNSs), where each

RNS is controlled by an RNC. The RNC is connected to a set of Node B elements, each

of which can serve one or several cells. Two new network elements, namely RNC and

Node B, are introduced in UTRAN.

The RNC enables autonomous radio resource management (RRM) by UTRAN. It

performs the same functions as the GSM BSC, providing central control for the RNS

elements (RNS and Node Bs).

Node B is the physical unit for radio transmission/reception with cells. Node B

connects with the UE via the W-CDMA Uu radio interface and with the RNC via the Iub

asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)-based interface. Node B is the ATM termination

point.

Figure 1: UMTS-WLAN Interworking Architecture

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UMTS Network Architecture: From the Radio Access to Core Network

• Modeling UMTS Power Saving based on M/G/1 Queue with Vacations

o We investigated the power saving mechanism of UMTS. UMTS DRX is

exercised between the network and a mobile station (MS) to save the

power of the MS. The DRX mechanism is controlled by two parameters:

the inactivity timer threshold tI and the DRX cycle tD. Queueing analytic

and simulation models were proposed to study the effects of tI and tD on

output measures including the expected queue length, the expected packet

waiting time, and the power saving factor.

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• Main achievements and outcomes

o Research or technology outcomes

 To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first one to model

UMTS power saving mechanism by using M/G/1 queue with

vacations.

3.3 Wireless LAN (WLAN):

A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a wireless local area network that links two or more

computers or devices using spread-spectrum or OFDM modulation technology based to

enable communication between devices in a limited area. This gives users the mobility to

move around within a broad coverage area and still be connected to the network.

3.4 Benefits

The popularity of wireless LANs is a testament primarily to their convenience,

cost efficiency, and ease of integration with other networks and network components. The

majority of computers sold to consumers today come pre-equipped with all necessary

wireless LAN technology. Benefits of wireless LANs include:

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Convenience

The wireless nature of such networks allows users to access network resources

from nearly any convenient location within their primary networking environment (home

or office). With the increasing saturation of laptop-style computers, this is particularly

relevant.

Mobility

With the emergence of public wireless networks, users can access the internet

even outside their normal work environment. Most chain coffee shops, for example, offer

their customers a wireless connection to the internet at little or no cost.

Productivity

Users connected to a wireless network can maintain a nearly constant affiliation

with their desired network as they move from place to place. For a business, this implies

that an employee can potentially be more productive as his or her work can be

accomplished from any convenient location. For example, a hospital or warehouse may

implement Voice over WLAN applications that enable mobility and cost savings.

Deployment

Initial setup of an infrastructure-based wireless network requires little more than a

single access point. Wired networks, on the other hand, have the additional cost and

complexity of actual physical cables being run to numerous locations (which can even be

impossible for hard-to-reach locations within a building).

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Expandability

Wireless networks can serve a suddenly-increased number of clients with the

existing equipment. In a wired network, additional clients would require additional

wiring.

Cost

Wireless networking hardware is at worst a modest increase from wired

counterparts. This potentially increased cost is almost always more than outweighed by

the savings in cost and labor associated to running physical cables.

Disadvantages

Wireless LAN technology, while replete with the conveniences and advantages

described above, has its share of downfalls. For a given networking situation, wireless

LANs may not be desirable for a number of reasons. Most of these have to do with the

inherent limitations of the technology.

Security

Wireless LAN transceivers are designed to serve computers throughout a structure

with uninterrupted service using radio frequencies. Because of space and cost, the

antennas typically present on wireless networking cards in the end computers are

generally relatively poor. In order to properly receive signals using such limited antennas

throughout even a modest area, the wireless LAN transceiver utilizes a fairly

considerable amount of power. What this means is that not only can the wireless packets

be intercepted by a nearby adversary's poorly-equipped computer, but more importantly, a

user willing to spend a small amount of money on a good quality antenna can pick up

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packets at a remarkable distance; perhaps hundreds of times the radius as the typical user.

In fact, there are even computer users dedicated to locating and sometimes even cracking

into wireless networks, known as wardrivers. On a wired network, any adversary would

first have to overcome the physical limitation of tapping into the actual wires, but this is

not an issue with wireless packets. To combat this consideration, wireless networks users

usually choose to utilize various encryption technologies available such as Wi-Fi

Protected Access (WPA). Some of the older encryption methods, such as WEP are known

to have weaknesses that a dedicated adversary can compromise. (See main article:

Wireless security.)

Range

The typical range of a common 802.11g network with standard equipment is on

the order of tens of meters. While sufficient for a typical home, it will be insufficient in a

larger structure. To obtain additional range, repeaters or additional access points will have

to be purchased. Costs for these items can add up quickly. Other technologies are in the

development phase, however, which feature increased range, hoping to render this

disadvantage irrelevant

Reliability

Like any radio frequency transmission, wireless networking signals are subject to

a wide variety of interference, as well as complex propagation effects (such as multipath,

or especially in this case Rician fading) that are beyond the control of the network

administrator. One of the most insidious problems that can affect the stability and

reliability of a wireless LAN is the microwave oven. In the case of typical networks,

modulation is achieved by complicated forms of phase-shift keying (PSK) or quadrature

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amplitude modulation (QAM), making interference and propagation effects all the more

disturbing. As a result, important network resources such as servers are rarely connected

wirelessly.

Speed

The speed on most wireless networks (typically 1-108 Mbit/s) is reasonably slow

compared to the slowest common wired networks (100 Mbit/s up to several Gbit/s).

There are also performance issues caused by TCP and its built-in congestion avoidance.

For most users, however, this observation is irrelevant since the speed bottleneck is not in

the wireless routing but rather in the outside network connectivity itself. For example, the

maximum ADSL throughput (usually 8 Mbit/s or less) offered by telecommunications

companies to general-purpose customers is already far slower than the slowest wireless

network to which it is typically connected. That is to say, in most environments, a

wireless network running at its slowest speed is still faster than the internet connection

serving it in the first place. However, in specialized environments, higher throughput

through a wired network might be necessary. Newer standards such as 802.11n are

addressing this limitation and will support peak throughput in the range of 100-200

Mbit/s.

3.5 Types of Wireless LANs :


Peer-to-peer

Peer – to - Peer or a-hoc wireless LAN

An ad-hoc network is a network where stations communicate only peer to peer

(P2P). There is no base and no one gives permission to talk. This is accomplished using

the Independence Basic Services Set (IBBS)

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A peer-to-peer (P2P) network allows wireless devices to directly communicate

with each other. Wireless devices within range of each other can discover and

communicate directly without involving central access points. This method is typically

used by two computers so that they can connect to each other to form a network.

If a signal strength meter is used in this situation, it may not read the strength

accurately and can be misleading , because it registers the strength of the strongest signal,

which may be the closest computer.

802.11 specs define the physical layer (PHY) and MAC (Media Access Control)

layers. However, unlike most other IEEE specs, 802.11 includes three alternative PHY

standards: diffuse infrared operating at 1 Mbit/s in; frequency-hopping spread spectrum

operating at 1 Mbit/s or 2 Mbit/s. A single 802.11 MAC standard is based on

CSMA/CA(Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidence). The 802.11

speciation includes provisions designed to minimize collision. Because two mobile units

may both be in range of a common access point, but not in range of each other. The

802.11 has two basic modes of operation; Ad hoc mode enables peer-to-peer transmission

between mobile units. Infrastructure mode in which mobile units communicate through

an access point that serves as a bridge to a wired network infrastructure is the more

common wireless LAN application the one being covered. Since wireless communication

used a more open medium for communication in comparison to wired LANs, the 802.11

designers also included shared-key encryption mechanism: Wired Equivalent Privacy

(WEP) Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA, WPA2), to secure wireless computer networks.

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Bridge :

A bridge can be used to connect networks, typically of different types. A wireless

Ethernet bridge allows the connection of devices on a wired Ethernet network to a

wireless network. The bridge acts as the connection point to the Wireless LAN.

A Wireless Distribution System is a system that enables the wireless

interconnection of access points in an IEEE 802.11 network. It allows a wireless network

to be expanded using multiple access points without the need for wired back bone to

link them, as is traditionally required. The notable advantage of WDS over other

solutions is that it preserves the MAC addresses of client packets across links between

across links between access points.

An access point can be either a main, relay or remote base station. A main base

station is typically connected to the wired Ethernet. A relay base station relays data

between remote base stations, wireless clients or other relay stations to either a main or

another relay base station. A remote base station accepts connection from wireless clients

and passes them to relay or main stations. Connection between “clients” are made using

MAC address rather than by specifying IP assignments.

All base stations in a Wireless Distribution System must be configured to use the

same radio channel, and share WEP keys or WPA keys if they are used. They can be

configured to different services set identifiers. WDS also requires that every base stations

be configured to forward to others in the system.

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WDS may also be referred to as repeater mode it appears to bridge and accept

wireless clients at the same time (unlike traditional bridging). It should be noted,

however, that throughput in this method is haved for all clients connected wirelessly.

When it is difficult to connect all of the access points in a network by wires, it is

also possible to put up access points as repeaters.

3.6 Roaming:

Roaming between Wireless Local Area Networks

There are 2 definitions for wireless LAN roaming:

Internal Roaming (1): The Mobile Stations (MS) moves from one access point (AP) to

another AP within a home network because the signal strength is too weak. An

authentication of MS via 802.1 x (e.g. with PEAP). The billing of QoS is in the home

network. A Mobile Station roaming from one access point to another often interrupts the

flow of data between the Mobile Station and an application connected to the network.

The Mobile Station, for instance, periodically monitors the presence of alternatives

access points (ones that will provide a better connection). At some point, based upon

proprietary mechanism, the Mobile Station decides to re-associate with an access point

having a stronger wireless signal. The Mobile Station, however, may lose a connection

with an access point before associating with another access point. In order to provide

reliable connection with applications, the Mobile Stations must generally include

software that provides session persistence.

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External Roaming (2): The MS (client) moves into a WLAN of another Wireless

Internet Services Provider (WISP) and takes their services (Hotspot). The user can

independently of his home network use another foreign network, if this is open for

visitors. There must be special authentication and billing systems for mobile services in a

foreign network.

3.7 Related work

Several network architectures for integrating WLAN/UMTS systems have been

proposed. The proposed architectures can be grouped into two categories based on the

independence between the two networks [(14)], tight coupling and loose coupling. In the

loose coupling architecture, two networks are integrated beyond the Core Network (CN)

of UMTS. They are connected through gateways of the Internet. Communication between

the two networks are realized through standard IP protocols and the mobility of mobile

stations is managed through protocols such as Mobile IP. The loose coupling architecture

enables the two networks deployed independently but results in longer delay for signaling

and vertical handovers. In the tight coupling architecture, two networks are integrated at

UMTS’s CN, which has lower delay for signaling and vertical handover but has higher

implementation complexity. 3 GPP has been working on standardisation for integrating

cellular and WLAN systems in which interworking architecture and interworking

scenarios are desired. A policy based access control framework for cellular/WLAN

systems was proposed where policies are designed to archive load balancing, but details

of the proposed scheme such as performance analysis are not available.

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CHAPTER 4

SYSTEM MODEL

Inspired by the Dual Mode Terminal (DMT) implemented a dual-mode UE

(DMUE) which can switch between UMTS and WLAN networks. Our DMUE is

different from the DMT in which our DMUE can be adopted in loose coupling

interworking systems where the UMTS and WLAN networks are connected by a router,

whereas DMT is only applicable in tight coupling interworking systems. The protocols in

UMTS and WLAN are independent. Packets arriving at the router are routed according to

the subnet address of each network. Once packets are delivered to the UMTS or WLAN

network, communication protocols of the corresponding network are then applied. The

main difference of UMTS and WLAN mobile stations is in the MAC and the physical

layers. In the DMUE, we created a new software layer, called IP switch layer, below the

IP layer and above UMTS’s GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) layer and WLAN’s

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) layer. In the protocol stack of the DMUE, a network

access decision is made at the IP switch layer. Each DMUE has multiple pre-assigned IP

addresses with different subnets, and one IP address is called the primary IP address,

others are called the subordinate IP addresses. The primary IP address is the one and only

one IP address which is recognizable to the layers above IP switch layer. All the IP

addresses should be registered first such that each individual IP address has a unique

MAC address. Otherwise, an invalid IP address can cause packets to be discarded during

the packet transmission. Each AP of WLAN or Node B of UMTS has a unique IP subnet.

When a DMUE is roaming close to a Node B or an AP which has an identical subnet as

the DMUE’s, this Node B or AP becomes a connection candidate. When the IP switch

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layer receives a PDU from the upper layer, the primary IP address in the packet header is

replaced by the IP address of a selected candidate at the IP switch layer according to

some specific network selection algorithm. When the IP switch layer receives a PDU

from the lower layer, the IP address is reinstated to the primary IP address. By this

method, the network access decision is completely transparent to the layers above the IP

switch layer. A network access decision can be made by either the DMUE itself or the

server. If the decision is made by the server, another entity is needed to act as a Common

Radio Resource Management (CRRM). Generally, a CRRM gathers the information on

the load and average packet delay of each base station and finds a best solution for the

system overall load balancing. Decisions are then broadcasted to all DMUEs through

base stations. In this paper, our focus is on the first method, i.e., the network access

decision is made by the DMUE. Instead of broadcasting network access decisions

directly to DMUEs, each base station broadcasts “virtual prices” to the neighboring

DMUEs. Since all DMUEs are independent entities, they may use different network

access decision algorithms based on the “virtual price” to choose an appropriate network.

In Figure 3, when a DMUE gets a “virtual price” packet from the lower layer, it will pass

this “virtual price” to “get_price_info” processor to make a network access decision.

4.1 Utility function for the UMTS:

In the UMTS networks, the admission control procedure is started when a new

service is requested. The request includes traffic’s QoS requirement such as data rate,

delay requirement, etc. After the UTRAN (RNC and Node B) of the UMTS network

receives the request, it will decide whether to grant the request based on the network

condition. The network condition is evaluated by the UTRAN through computing load

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factors for uplink and downlink .In UMTS systems, load factors are always controlled to

be below than a threshold, say max ç ( max ç < 1). In most UMTS systems, 0.75 is a

value commonly used for both uplink and downlink threshold of max ç . In this paper, we

assume the uplink and downlink load factors have the same value of max ç . When a

service request comes, the UTRAN estimates the new resulting load factors of both

uplink and downlink.

Utility function for the WLAN:

A WLAN network has more bandwidth than a UMTS network does. A desirable

scenario in the integrated WLAN/UMTS networks would be that in a hotspot area, i.e.,

covered by WLAN, most of the stations are connected to the WLAN to enjoy the high

data rate of WLAN, while in the area outside hotspots, i.e., only covered by UMTS, static

or mobile stations are connected to UMTS to enjoy the large coverage of UMTS.

However, WLAN does not have explicit QoS control. When the WLAN is heavily

loaded, some QoS metric such as delay cannot be guaranteed. Moreover, as pointed out in

WLAN achieves less throughput when the network is saturated than that when the

network is not saturated. As the traffic load (number of stations) increases, severe

collisions occur, which results in that the stations can barely transmit a packet

successfully. Thus, the WLAN network should be closely monitored such that the

network is not overbusy. An indicator reflecting the WLANutilization adopted in the

literature is busyness ratio which is defined as the ratio of the time that the network is

sensed busy. So stations are admitted/handovered to a WLAN network only when its

busyness ratio b R is less than a threshold Given the current busyness ratio b R and its

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upper bound th R , the utility function for WLAN indicating the available bandwidth to

accommodate new stations .

4.2 Network access decision:

Each AP of WLAN and Node-B of UMTS calculates its own utility function

(either periodically or triggered by events). The computed utilities are then broadcasted.

Once a station receives the utility from either UMTS or WLAN network, it will compare

the received utility with the utility of the host network to decide whether to switch

Network k. Notice that to avoid unnecessary oscillation, i.e., a station keeps switching

back and forth between two networks, a variable, utility_gap, is introduced such that only

when the utility of a candidate network is larger than the utility of host network by

utility_gap, the station changes the network. Secondly, as the network utility is

broadcasted, all stations will receive it almost at the same time as the transmission time in

the media is negligible. Then, all the stations will try to switch to the network that has

higher utility. As a result, the network that has higher utility before will be loaded very

quickly (i.e., low utility) and the network that has lower utility before will be depleted

(i.e., high utility), which leads the stations to switch the network again. To avoid this

undesirable network trembling, each station keeps a random number stay T . Each station

has to stay in a network for at least stay T seconds before switching to another network.

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CHAPTER 5

UTILITY FUNCTION ALGORITHM

The algorithm is based on both UMTS and WLAN utility functions like current

busy ratio, data packet size and current uplink and downlink load factors and bandwidth.

The busy ratio of is associated by the above factors. The notations are Rb is the Busy

Ratio and ηmax.

When the WLAN is heavily loaded, some QoS metric such as delay cannot be

guaranteed. Moreover, as pointed out in [11], WLAN achieves fewer throughputs when

the network is saturated than that when the network is not saturated. As the traffic load

(number of stations) increases, severe collisions occur, which results in that the stations

can barely transmit a packet successfully. Thus, the WLAN network should be closely

monitored such that the network is not overbusy. An indicator reflecting the WLAN

utilization adopted in the literature is busyness ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the

time that the network is sensed busy.

NETWORK ACCESS DECISION

Each AP of WLAN and Node-B of UMTS calculates its own utility function

(either periodically or triggered by events). The computed utilities are then broadcasted.

Once a station receives the utility from either UMTS or WLAN network, it will compare

the received utility with the utility of the host network to decide whether to switch

network.

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1. Algorithm NetworkAccessDecision ()

2. {

3. if the utility comes from UMTS then

4. new_utility = f UMTS ;

5. else

6. new_utility = f WLAN ;

7. endif

8. new_network_id = the id of the network where the

new utility comes from;

9. if current_network_id = new_network_id then

10. current_utility = new_utility;

11. else

12. if new_utility > current_utility + utility_gap then

13. switch to the network with id being

new_network_id;

14. endif

15. endif

16. }

24
CHAPTER 6

3G Radio Network Controller

Third Generation (3G) is a generic name for technologies that support high-

quality voice, high-speed data and video in wireless cellular networks. In Europe, W-

CDMA/3G services are called the Universal Mobile Telephony System (UMTS). An

overview of the UMTS wireless network UTRAN (Terrestrial Radio Access Network) is

shown below.

The UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) includes the Radio

Network Controller (RNC), the 3G Base stations (Node Bs) and the air interface (Tower)

to the mobile equipment (ME).

A brief description of the different network elements and interfaces in a UMTS

network is provided in the following table:

3G Network Functions
MSC The Mobile Switching Center (MSC) switch, including the Visitor Location

Register (VLR), is a switch that serves the Mobile Equipment (ME) in its

current location for Circuit Switched (CS) services.


GMSC The Gateway MSC (GMSC) switch serves the UMTS network at the point

where it is connected to the external CS network.


MGW The MSC and GMSC handle control Funtionality, but user data goes through

the Media Gateway (MGW), which performs the actual switching for user data

and network inter-working processing.


SGSN The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) covers functions similar to the MSC

for packet data, including VLR type functionality

25
GGSN The Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) connects the Packet-Switched (PS)

core network to other networks such as the Internet.


Node B A 3G Base station (Node B) handles radio channels, including the

multiplexing/demultiplexing of user voice and data information.


RNC The Radio Network Controller (RNC) is responsible for controlling and

managing the multiple base stations (Node Bs) including the utilization of radio

network services.

6.1. RNC Node B

The Radio Network Controller (RNC) is responsible for controlling and managing

the multiple base stations (Node Bs). The RNC also performs user data processing to

manage soft handoff and the utilization of radio network services. This processing

requires significant packet handling and manipulation, as well as complex higher-level

protocols. The density of the selector function is a major factor determining the capacity

of an RNC.

The rising cost of the infrastructure needed to provide sufficient capacity for

advanced mobile Internet services is a key challenge facing cellular operators and other

mobile telecommunications service providers. Wireless equipment manufacturers must be

able to add more flexibility and processing power to line cards without inflating system

cost or exceeding the power budget.

26
Specific design challenges for RNC include:

• Increased application complexity to support evolving 3gpp standards

• Market demands for more data services, requiring modular and reusable hardware

and software building blocks

• Standardization requirements, such as Advanced TCATM, driven by reductions in

CAPEX/OPEX and time-to-market

• Move from feature-based to cost-driven systems cost per channel and MIPS per

watt as the main selection criteria

27
6.2 Overview of GPRS and UMTS

GPRS and UMTS are evolutions of the global system for mobile communication

(GSM) networks. GSM is a digital cellular technology that is used worldwide,

predominantly in Europe and Asia. GSM is the world’s leading standard in digital

wireless communications.

GPRS is a 2.5G mobile communications technology that enables mobile wireless

service providers to offer their mobile subscribers packet-based data services over GSM

networks. Common applications of GPRS include the following: Internet access,

intranet/corporate access, instant messaging, and multimedia messaging. GPRS was

standardized by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), but today

is standardized by the Third Generation Partnership Program (3GPP).

UMTS is a 3G mobile communications technology that provides wideband code

division multiple access (CDMA) radio technology. The CDMA technology offers higher

throughput, real-time services, and end-to-end quality of service (QoS), and delivers

pictures, graphics, video communications, and other multimedia information as well as

voice and data to mobile wireless subscribers. UMTS is standardized by the 3GPP.

*Gateway GPRS support node (GGSN)—a gateway that provides mobile cell

phone users access to a public Data network (PDN) or specified private IP networks. The

GGSN function is implemented via Cisco IOS software on the Cisco 7200 series router or

on the Cisco Multi-Processor WAN Application Module (MWAM) installed in a Catalyst

6500 series switch or Cisco 7600 series Internet router. Cisco IOS GGSN Release 4.0 and

later provides both the 2.5G GPRS and 3G UMTS GGSN functions.

28
*Serving GPRS support node (SGSN)—connects the radio access network

(RAN) to the GPRS/UMTS core and tunnels user sessions to the GGSN. The SGSN

sends data to and receives data from mobile stations, and maintains information about the

location of a mobile station (MS). The SGSN communicates directly with the MS and the

GGSN. SGSN support is available from Cisco partners or other vendors.

6.3 Benefits

The 2.5G GPRS technology provides the following benefits:

• Enables the use of a packet-based air interface over the existing circuit-switched

GSM network, which allows greater efficiency in the radio spectrum because the

radio bandwidth is used only when packets are sent or received.

• Supports minimal upgrades to the existing GSM network infrastructure for network

service providers who want to add GPRS services on top of GSM, which is currently

widely deployed

• Supports enhanced data rates in comparison to the traditional circuit-switched GSM

data service

• Supports larger message lengths than Short Message Service (SMS)

• Supports a wide range of access to data networks and services, including

VPN/Internet service provider (ISP) corporate site access and Wireless Application

Protocol (WAP).

In addition to the above, the 3G UMTS technology includes the following:

• Enhanced data rates of approximately

• 144 kbps—Satellite and rural outdoor

• 384 kbps—Urban outdoor

29
• 2048 kbps—Indoor and low-range outdoor

• Supports connection-oriented Radio Access Bearers with specified Qos enabling end-

to-end Qos

6.4 GGSN Interworking

GGSN Release 5.0 and later is a fully-compliant 2.5G and 3.5G GGSN that provides

the following features:

• Release 99 (R99), Release 98 (R98) and Release 97 (R97)support and compliance

• GTPv0 and GTPv1 messaging

• IP Packet Data Protocol (PDP) and PPP PDP types

• Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) switching for GTPv0 and GTPv1, and for IP

and PPP PDP types

• Support of secondary PDP contexts for GTPv1 (up to 11)

• Virtual APN

• VRF support per APN

• Multiple APNs per VRF

• VPN support

• Generic routing encapsulation (GRE) tunneling

• Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) extension for PPP PDP type

• PPP Regeneration for IP PDP type

• 802.1Q virtual LANs (VLANs)

• Security features

30
• Duplicate IP address protection

• PLMN range checking

• Blocking of Foreign Mobiles

• Anti-spoofing

• Mobile-to-mobile redirection

• Quality of service (QoS)

• Support of UMTS classes and interworking with differentiated services (DiffServ)

• Delay QoS

• Canonical Qos

• GPRS QoS(R97/R98) conversion to UMTS QoS (R99) and the reverse

• Call Admission Control

• Per-PDP policing

• Dynamic address allocation

• External DHCP server

• External RADIUS server

• Local pools

• Anonymous access

• RADIUS authentication and accounting

• Accounting

• Wait accounting

• Per-PDP accounting

31
• Authentication and accounting using RADIUS server groups mapped to APNs

• 3GPP vendor-specific attributes (VSAs) for IP PDP type

• Transparent mode accounting

• Class attribute

• Interim updates

• Session idle timer

• Packet of Disconnect (PoD)

• Dynamic Echo Timer

• GGSN interworking between 2.5G and 3G SGSNs with registration authority

(RA) update from

• 2.5G to 2.5G SGSN

• 2.5G to 3G SGSN

• 3G to 3G SGSN

• 3G to 2.5G SGSN

• Charging

• Time trigger

• Charging profiles

• Tertiary charging gateway

• Switchback to primary charging gateway

• Maintenance mode

• Multiple trusted PLMN IDs

32
• GGSN-IOS SLB messaging

• Session timeout

33
CHAPTER 7

ABOUT NS2:

Ns2 – Network Simulator Tool

Ns2 is a simulation tool built by South-California University and regenerated by ISI

and some others. The NS2 was built using three languages. TCL script, C++, C.

Here, TCL used for control, C++ for data and most of the header files were created

by C.

In NS2 Scripting, we can simulate a wired, wireless and Satellite networks using

ns script. And the ns scripted files are saved with the extension of *.tcl.

(TCL: Tool Command Language).

Ns Goals –

1. It supports the application for network research and education eg: Protocol design,

protocol comparison and traffic studies etc.

2. Provide a collaborative environment with freely distributed, open source and allow

easy comparison of similar protocols, Increase confidence in results. Possible to get

multiple levels of detail in on simulator.

3. It supports the FreeBSD, Linux, Solaris, Windows and Mac.

Ns Functionalities:

It supports the wired/wireless network simulations.

34
Wire world :

• Router – DV, LS, PIM-SM

• Transportation – TCP, UDP

• Traffic Sources web, FTP, Telnet, CBR, Stochastic

• Queuing disciplines – drop-tail, RED, FQ, SFQ,DRR

• Qos – Intserv and Diffserv

In wired Network, we can create connection between two nodes through TCP as

well as UDP protocols and generating traffic using protocols like FTP ( File Transfer

Protocol), Telnet ( Tele Network), CBR ( Constant bit Rate)

And we can specify the queuing discipline also, the no of queuing disciplines

are

in as2. they are drop-tail, RED, FQ,SFQ , DRR.

Wireless World:

• Using Adhoc routing and Mobile IP.

• Directed diffusion, sensor-MAC.

In Wireless Network also , we can create connection between two nodes through

TCP as well as UDP protocols and generating traffic using protocols like FTP ( File

Transfer Protocol), Telnet (Tele Network), CBR(Constant Bit Rate).

And we need to import some Wireless Supported classes for creating wireless

network.

35
Ns2 provides various utilities like Tracing and visualization.

The visualization achieve by NAM (Network AniMator) and NAM Editor

provides GUI interface to generate Ns scripts (Normally we use TCL script).

The Trace Analysis can achieve by XGraph.

7.1 Ns programming :

 Create the event scheduler

 Turn on tracing

 Create network

 Setup routing

 Insert errors

 Create transport connection

 Create traffic

 Transmit application-level data

Creating Event Scheduler

 Create event scheduler

Set ns [ new Simulator]

 Schedule events

$ns at <time><event>

<event>: any legitimate ns/tcl commands

$ns at 5.0 “finish”

 Start scheduler

36
$ns run

37
Tracing and Monitoring I

o Packet tracing:

 On all links : $ns trace-all [open out.tr.w]

 On one specific link: $ns trace-queue $n0 $n1$tr

<Event> <time> <from> <to> <pkt> <size> -- <fid> <src> <dst> <seq> <attr>

+ 1 0 2 cbr 210 -------- 0 0.0 3.1 0 0

- 1 0 2 cbr 210 -------- 0 0.0 3.1 0 0

R 1.00234 0 2 cbr 210 --------- 0 0.0 3.1 0 0

• We have new trace format

 Evet tracing (support TCP right now)

• Record “event” in trace file : $ns eventtrace-all

• E 2.267203 0 4 TCP slow_start 0 210 1

Tracing and Monitoring II

• Queue monitor

set qmon [$ns monitor-queue $n0 $n1 $q_f $sample_interval]

• Get statistics for a queue

$qmon set pdrops_

 Record to trace file as an optional

29.000000000000142 0 1 0.0 0.0 4 4 0 1160 1160 0

 Flow monitor

set fmon [$ns_makeflowmon Fid]

$ns_attach-fmon $slink $fmon

38
$fmon set pdrops_

Tracing and Monitoring III

 Visualize trace in nam

$ns namtrace-all [open test.nam w]

$ns namtrace-queue $n0 $n1

 Variable tracing in nam

Agent/TCP set nam_tracevar_true

$tcp tracevar srrt_

$tcp tracevar cwnd_

 Monitor agent variables in nam

$ns add-agent-trace $tcp $tcp

$ns monitor-agent-trace $tcp

$srm0 tracevar cwnd_

$ns delete-agent-trace $stp

7.2 Creating Network

Nodes

set n0 [$ns node]

set n1 [ $ns node]

Links and queuing

$ns <link_type>$n0 $n1 <bandwidth> <delay> < queue_type>

 <link_type>:duplex-link, simplex-link

39
 <queue_type>: DropTail, RED, CBQ, FQ, SFQ, DRR, diffserv RED queues

Creating Network: LAN

$ns make-lan <node_list> <bandwidth> <delay> <II_type> <ifq_type>

<mac_type> <channel_type>

<II_type>:LL

<ifq_type>: Queue/Drop Tail,

<mac_type>: MAC/802_3

<channel_type>: Channel

Setup Routing

 Unicast

$ns rtproto <type>

type>: Static, Session, DV, Cost, Multi-path

 Multicast

$ns multicast (right after [new Simulator])

$ns mrtproto <type>

<type>: CrtMcast, DM,ST,BST

 Other types of routing supported: source routing , hierarchical routing

Creating Connection and Traffic

 UDP

set udp [new Agent/UDP]

set null [ new Agent/Null]

40
$ns attach-aget $n0 $udp

$ns attach-agent $n1 $null

$ns connect $udp $null

 CBR

set src [ new Application/Traffic/CBR]

 Exponential or Pareto on-off

set src { new Application/Traffic/Exponential]

set src [ new Application /Traffic/pareto]

Creating Connection and Traffic II

 TCP

set tcp [ newAgent/TCP]

set tcpink [new Agent/TCPSink]

$ns attach-agent $n0 $tcp

$ns attach-agent $n1 $tcpsink

$ns onnect $tcp $tcpsink

 FTP

set ftp [ new Application/FTP]

$ftp attach-agent $tcp

 Telnet

set telnet [ new Application/Telnet]

41
$telnet attach-agent $tcp

7.3 ns→nam Interface

 Color

 Node manipulation

 Link manipulation

 Topology layout

 Protocol state

nam Interface : color

 Color mapping

$ns color 40 red

$ns color 41 blue

 Color ↔ flow id association

$tcp0 set fid_40 ;# red packets

$tcp 1 set fid_41 ;# blue packets

nam interface : Nodes

 color

$node color red

 Shape (can’t be changed after sim starts)

42
$node shape box ;#circle,box,hexagon

 Marks (concentric “shapes”)

$ns at 1.0 “$n0 add-mark m0 blue box”

$ns at 2.0 “$n0 delete-mark m0”

 Label (single string)

$ns at 1.1 “$n0 label \”web cache 0\””

nam Interface : Links

 Color

$ns duplex-link-op $n0 $n1 color “green”

 Label

$ns duplex-link-op $n0 $n1 label “abced”

 Dynamics (automatically handled)

$ns rtmodel Deterministic {2.0 0.9 0.1} $n0 $n1

 Asymmetric links not allowed

nam Interface: Topo Layout

 “Manual “ layout : specify everything

$ns duplex-link-op $n(0) $n(1) orient right

$ns duplex-link-op $n(1) $n(2) orient right

$ns duplex-link-op $n(2) $n(3) orient right

$ns duplex-link-op $n(3) $n(4) orient 60 deg

Annotation and Animation Rate

43
 Add textual explanation to your simulation

$ns at 3.5 “$ns trace-annotate \”packet drop\””

 set animation rate

$ns 0.0 “$ns set-animation-rate 0.1 ms”

44
CHAPTER 8

Simulation Results

In the simulation scenario, we create a UMTS network with one Node B and a

WLAN with one AP DMUEs in the intersection coverage area of the two networks. Each

DMUE has two IP address, one is in the UMTS subnet 192.168.6.0, the other is in the

WLAN subnet 192.168.5.0. An application of UDP video uploading from each DMUE to

the server is applied. Each video frame has size 17280 bytes, and a constant inter-arrival

time 4 seconds. All DMUEs enter the network between 0 and 200 seconds. The total

simulation time is 3600 seconds.

In Case 1, each UE randomly select either UMTS or WLAN and initiates a

connection. Admission to the UMTS cell is done based on the load factor as implemented

in OPNET UMTS module. There is no specific admission control in WLAN, and any

user can try to share the bandwidth as specified in the 802.11 protocol. No switching

between the two networks is performed.

In Case 2, each DMUE randomly select either UMTS or WLAN and initiates a

connection as in Case 1. However, in this case, switching,i.e., vertical handovers are

performed based on the utility values as discussed. As a result, some of the DMUEs

initially connected to the UMTS network switch to the WLAN network.

The DMUE’s uplink transmit load in Case 2 is displayed in Figure 4. We notice

that vertical handovers are done from UMTS to WLAN network since the utility value of

the latter is larger than that of the former,i.e., the WLAN has a larger remaining

45
bandwidth. From the simulation result shown in Figure 5, we see that the overall

throughput measured at the server with utility based approach in Case 2 is much larger

than Case 1. At the end of the simulation, in Case 1, all five UEs still reside in the WLAN

network but only one UE resides in the UMTS network, other four are all dropped

because UMTS has a relatively small capacity, and it is not able to accommodate all five

UEs. In Case 2, nine DMUEs reside in the WLAN network, and none resides in the

UMTS network. Among the previous five DMUEs assigned to the UMTS network, four

successfully switch to the WLAN network and the other one was not admitted by the

UMTS network, four successfully switch to the WLAN network and the other one was

not admitted by the UMTS network in the initiation due to insufficient capacity. One may

argue that the WLAN-first algorithm, i.e., try to connect to WLAN if available, should

work even better. Whenthe total capacity of UMTS cells sharing the coverage area with

the WLAN is relatively small as in our simulation scenario, it may be true. But in reality,

multiple UMTS cells have overlapping area and the total capacity can be close to the

capacity of WLAN. In this case, it is not obvious whether the WLAN-first algorithm

performs well. Finally, in Case 1 of our simulation, either of the networks is selected with

59% resulting in very poor performance due to the unbalanced capacities of the two

networks. Without having capacity information, 50% of random selection seems to be a

reasonable choice by any UE.

46
47
48
WLAN / UMTS Interlink

49
CHAPTER 9

CONCLUSION

In this paper, we designed a dual-mode mobile station module DMUE which works

in the WLAN/UMTS interworking system. Based on the DMUE design, we proposed a

utility-based access control frame work for integrated WLAN/UMTS system. In our

frame work, the UMTS’s UTRAN and the WLAN’s AP measure their respective network

conditions and reflect network conditions numerically by dynamically calculating

utilities. Each network’s utility is broadcasted to all DMUEs. DMUE’s network access

decision is made by comparing the received utilities. The simulation results using NS-2

show that our proposed scheme performs significantly better than the reference one. Our

developed models are not yet available NS-2 community, but will be made available after

further analysis is performed.

50
CHAPTER 10

FEATURE IMPLEMENTATION

Overview:

Demand for wireless LAN hardware has experienced phenomenal growth during

the past several years, evolving quickly from novelty into necessity. As a measure of this

expansion, WLAN chipset shipments in 2005 surpassed the 100-million-unit mark, a

more than tenfold increase from 2001 shipments of less than 10 million units.

Thus far, demand has been driven primarily by users connecting notebook

computers to networks at work and to the Internet at home as well as at coffee shops,

airports, hotels, and other mobile gathering places. As a result, Wi-Fi® technology is

most commonly found in notebook computers and Internet access devices such as routers

and DSL or cable modems. In fact, more than 90 percent of all notebook computers now

ship with built-in WLAN.

he growing pervasiveness of Wi-Fi is helping to extend the technology beyond the

PC and into consumer electronics applications like Internet telephony, music streaming,

gaming, and even photo viewing and in-home video transmission. Personal video

recorders and other A/V storage appliances that collect content in one spot for enjoyment

around the home are accelerating this trend.

51
Wi-Fi® Standards Comparison:

The first WLAN standard to become accepted in the market was 802.11b, which

specifies encoding techniques that provide for raw data rates up to 11 Mbps using a

modulation technique called Complementary Code Keying, or CCK, and also supports

Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum, or DSSS, from the original 802.11 specification. The

802.11a standard, defined at about the same time as 802.11b, uses a more efficient

transmission method called Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, or OFDM.

OFDM, as implemented in 802.11a, enabled raw data rates up to 54 Mbps. Despite its

higher data rates, 802.11a never caught on as the successor to 802.11b because it resides

on an incompatible radio frequency band: 5 GHz versus 2.4 GHz for 802.11b.

Note: All of the WLAN standards provide for multiple transmission options,

so that the network can drop to lower (albeit easier to maintain) data rates as

environmental interference challenges communications. In the most favorable

circumstances, 802.11a and 802.11b support data rates up to 54 Mbps and 11 Mbps

respectively.)

In June 2003, the IEEE ratified 802.11g, which applied OFDM modulation to the

2.4-GHz band. This combined the best of both worlds: raw data rates up to 54 Mbps on

the same radio frequency as the already popular 802.11b. WLAN hardware built around

802.11g was quickly embraced by consumers and businesses seeking higher bandwidth.

In fact, consumers were so eager for a higher-performing alternative to 802.11b that they

began buying WLAN client and access-point hardware nearly a year before the standard

was finalized.

52
Today, the vast majority of computer network hardware shipping supports

802.11g. Increasingly, as technology improves and it becomes easier and less costly

tosupport both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz in the same chipset, dual-band hardware is becoming

more commonplace. Much of the WLAN client hardware available today, in fact,

supports both 802.11a and 802.11g.

A similar scenario to the draft 802.11g phenomenon is now unfolding with

802.11n. The industry came to a substantive agreement with regard to the features to be

included in the high-speed 802.11n standard in early 2006. And though it will likely be

2007 before the standard is ratified, the specification is stable enough for draft-n Wi-Fi

cards and routers to already be making their way to store shelves.

IP BASED CORE NETWORK

53
Table 1. Major Components of Draft 802.11n

Specification
Feature Definition
Status
Supports wider bandwidth &
Better OFDM higher code rate to bring Mandatory
maximum data rate to 65 mbps
Improves performance by Optional for
Space-
parsing data into multiple streams up to four
Division
transmitted through multiple spatial
Multiplexing
antennas streams
Exploits the existence of multiple
antennas to improve range and
reliability. Typically employed Optional for
Diversity when the number up to four
of antennas on the receiving end is antennas
higher than the number of streams
being transmitted.
Limits power consumption penalty
MIMO Power of MIMO by utilizing
Required
Save multiple antennas only on
as-needed basis
Effectively doubles data rates by
40 MHz
doubling channel width from 20 Optional
Channels
MHz to 40 MHz
Improves efficiency by allowing
transmission bursts of multiple
Aggregation Required
data packets between overhead
communication
One of several draft-n features
Reduced
designed to improve efficiency.
Inter-frame
Provides Required
Spacing
a shorter delay between OFDM
(RIFS)
transmissions than in 802.11a or g.
Improves efficiency by eliminating
Greenfield Currently
support for 802.11a/b/g devices in
Mode optional
an all draft-n network

54
Table 2. Primary IEEE 802.11 Specifications

802.11a 802.11b 802.11g 802.11n

Standard
July 1999 July 1999 June 2003 Not yet ratified
Approved

Maximum Data
54 Mbps 11 Mbps 54 Mbps 600 Mbps
Rate

DSSS or CCK DSSS or CCK or


Modulation OFDM DSSS or CCK
or OFDM OFDM

RF Band 5 GHz 2.4 GHz 2.4 GHz 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz

Number of
Spatial 1 1 1 1, 2, 3, or 4
Streams

Channel Width 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz or 40 MHz

55
REFERENCES:

1. OPNET network simulator, http://www.opnet.com/.

2. IEEE 802.11 WG, Part 11:Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and

Physical Layer (PHY) specification, Standard, IEEE, Aug.1999.

3. IEEE 802.11b WG, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and

Physical Layer (PHY) specification: High-speed Physical Layer Extension in the 2.4

GHz Band, IEEE, Sep. 1999.

4. IEEE 802.11a WG, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and

Physical Layer (PHY) specification: High-speed Physical Layer Extension in the 5

GHz Band, IEEE, Sep. 1999.

5. IEEE 802.11g, Further Higher-Speed Physical Layer Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band,

2003.

6. 3GPP. 3rd Generation partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Radio

Access Network; RRC Protocol Specification for Release 1999. Techinical

Specification 3G TS 25.331 version 3.5.0 (2000- 12),2000.

7. 3GPP TK 22.934, Feasibility study on 3GPP system to wireless local area network

(WLAN) interworking, v. I .0.0, Release 6, Feb. 2002.

56
8. 3GPP, Group Services and System Aspects; 3GPP Systems to Wireless Local Area

Network (WLAN) Interworking; System Description (Release 6), TS 23.234, v. 6.2.0,

Sept. 2004.

9. W. Song, W. Zhuang, and Y. Cheng, Load Balancing for Cellular/WLAN Intergrated

Networks, IEEE Network, issue 1,pp.27- 33, 2007.

10. Giuseppe Bianchi, Performance Analysis of the IEEE 802.11 Distributed

Coordination Function, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 18,

no.3, March 2000.

11. H. Zhai, X. Chen, and Y. Fang, How Well Can the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN

Support Quality of Service, IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun, vol. 4, no. 6, Nov. 2005,

pp. 3084C94.

12. R. Agrawal, V. Subramanian and R. Berry, Joint Scheduling and Resource Allocation

in CDMA Systems, Proc. of 2nd Workshop on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile,

Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks WiOpt 04), Cambridge, UK, March 24-26, 2004.

13. J. Huang, V. Subramanian, R. Agrawal, and R. Berry, Downlink Scheduling and

Resource Allocation for OFDM Systems, Conference on Information Sciences and

Systems (CISS), Princeton University, NJ, USA, March 2006.

14. M. Buddhikot, G. Chandranmenon, S. Han, Y. W. Lee, S. Miller and L. Salgarelli,

Integration of 802.11 and Third-Generation Wireless Data Networks, Proc. IEEE

INFOCOM, Apr. 2003.

57
15. F. Siddiqui,S. Zeadally and S. Fowler, A Novel Architecture for Roaming between 3G

and Wireless LANs, 1st International Conference on Multimedia Services Access

Networks, MSAN’05, 2005.

16. H. Holma, A. Toskala, WCDMA for UMTS Radio Access for Third Generation

Mobile Communications, John Wiley & Sons, 3rd edition, 2004.

58
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE
TITLE
NO. NO
ABSTRACT iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv
LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES vii
LIST OF ABBREVATIONS viii
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Existing System and Proposed System 3
2 UMTS 4
2.1 Features 5
3 3G WIRELESS NETWORK ARCHITECTURE 7
3.1 Radio Access Core Network 7
3.2 UTRN 8
3.3 Wireless LAN 10
3.4 Benefits 10
3.5 Types of Wireless LAN 14
3.6 Roaming 17
3.7 Related Works 18
4 SYSTEM MODEL 19
4.1 Utility function for UMTS/WLAN 20
4.2 Network Access Decision 22
5 UTILITY FUNCTION ALGORITHM 23
6 3G RADIO NETWORK CONTROLLER 25

6.1 RNC Node B 26

6.2 Overview of GPRS and UMTS 28

6.3 Benefits 29

6.4 GGSN Inter Working 30

59
7 ABOUT NS2 33

7.1 NS2 Programming 35

7.2 Creating Network 37

7.3 Nam Interface 40

8 SIMULATION RESULTS 42
9 CONCLUSIONS 47
10 FUTURE WORK 48
REFERENCES 53

60
LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

FIGURE CAPTION PAGE


NO. NO

1 UMTS-WLAN Interworking Architecture 8


2 UMTS Network Architecture 9
3 UTRN 10
4 Roaming Scinario 27
5 IP based Core Network 50
6 Routing of Mobile calls to CS or PSTN (3GPP) 52
TABLES
1 3G Network Functions 25
2 Major Components of Draft 802.11n 51
3 Primary IEEE 802.11 Specifications 52

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LIST OF ABBREVATIONS:

RNC Radio Network Controller

RNS Radio Network Subsystem

RRC Radio Resources Control (3GTS 25.331)

SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node

SLR Source Local Reference (SCCP)

DLR Destination Local Reference (SCCP)

SCCP Signaling Connection Control Part (ITU-T Q.710 – Q714)

SM Session Management

SMS Short Message Services

SRNC Serving Radio Network Controller

SSCOP Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol (ITU-T Q.2110)

TBF Temporary Block Flow

TCP Transmission Control Protocol

TLLI Temporary Logical Link Identifier

UDP User Datagram Protocol

UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System for the time beyond

the year 2000

UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network

VCI Virtual Channel Identifier

VPI Virtual Path Identifier

W-CDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

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