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SEAN Toolbox

Case study Strategic Environmental Analysis (SEAN)

Case study Strategic Environmental Analysis (SEAN)

by AIDEnvironment (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) and GERAM Bureau dEtude (Bohicon, Benin)

Atacora department in Benin Brief summary

niger burkina faso

kerou materi tanguieta kobli

natitingou pehounco boukombe

djougou ouake



zone cynegetique

reserve forestiere

golfe de bnin

Authors Jan Joost Kessler, with contributions by Albert Heringa, Franke Toornstra, Jeroen van Wetten and Marjon Reiziger Design Lumen, Rotterdam Photography Jeroen van Wetten, Jan Joost Kessler and Dieter Schtte Printing Koninklijke drukkerij Broese & Peereboom, Breda The SEAN Toolbox can be ordered at SNV. Information is available at the information department of SNV (+31 (0)70 344 01 39) E-mail: informatie@snv.nl SNV Netherlands development organisation ISBN 90-802916-7-6

General information on case study

General characteristics of the location: Atacora Province in Benin
(see map page 2)

Area about 32,000 km2, capital town Natitingou, population density 23 inhabitants per km2 Located in the sub-humid climatic zone with average rainfall 800-1500 mm annually The poorest region of Benin, due to limited economic activities and its isolated character Main sources of income: cotton, groundnuts, fruits At national level a National Environmental Action Plan exists, none at provincial levels For Atacora a strategic plan is available with plans for major development sectors.

Initiative and justification

The initiative to apply SEAN to develop a strategic plan for the Province of Atacora was taken during a workshop where the SEAN methodology was used to develop a strategic plan for the Centre Bninois pour le Dveloppement Durable (CBDD). It was agreed that SEAN requires more time and attention to reach its full potentials. Atacora was chosen as it is a province receiving relatively little attention from central Government. SEAN was deemed useful: To create synergy and co-ordination between the ongoing development projects and activities; To develop and adopt a coherent development strategy for the Province; To strengthen regional capacities as part of the decentralisation process; To inform local decision makers and involve them in the strategic planning process; To address the poverty and environmental fragility of the province.

Focus and objectives

The focus of this application of SEAN is an administrative unit. During the SEAN process, particular attention was given to certain sectors and target groups. The request was to carry out an analysis which integrates environmental issues with socio-institutional and economic issues. The objectives of applying SEAN to Atacora province can be summarised as: 1 2 The identification and analysis of problems and opportunities in the environmental, socio-institutional and economic dimensions within the region; The elaboration of a strategic plan for sustainable development of Atacora, with specifications per zone, as a basis for administrative levels and projects to outline strategies and action plans; 3 To involve relevant actors in the process of developing and implementing this strategic plan.

Participants / parties involved
Funding agencies: Dutch Embassy through the CBDD and the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) which runs several projects in the province. Steering committee: representatives from the Ministry of Plan, local Government, NGOs representing civil society, the Dutch Embassy, CBDD and SNV. Owner of the SEAN process and outputs: The prfet (commissioner) of the province. Workshop participants: representatives of projects, NGOs, local government, private sector, donors, central government. Participants were from a range of backgrounds and disciplines. Unfortunately, no specific attention was given to gender expertise. SEAN executive team: one moderator (GERAM Bureau dEtude), two staff from local projects and 2 staff from provincial services, one SEAN expert (AIDEnvironment), who only participated during workshops and provided backstopping. Technical advisors: on an ad-hoc basis advice has been obtained from resource persons from the University. Consultants: in total 4 to execute specialised studies on specific subjects. Participants / local communities: consulted and participating during field surveys and information sessions, representation by local NGOs.

2 Outline of main issues per SEAN process phase

Phase 1: Initiation and preparation
Preparation took place from May until October 1997, by the following activities mainly: Identification of SEAN expert and a local moderator for the SEAN process; Lobbying and raising commitment among key decision makers at the Ministry of Plan, among a number of donors and among relevant administrative parties in Atacora province, the Prfet of Atacora was considered to be the owner of the SEAN process; Creation of a steering committee to provide backstopping and to inform higher policy levels; Summary of available documents and pre-diagnostic analysis based on available information; Definition of Terms of Reference with budget, agreement with funding agency (Centre Bninois de Dveloppement Durable - CBDD) and steering committee; Identification of participants from different background, programme, location etc. for scoping workshop; Agro-ecological zoning of the province into 4 distinct zones to facilitate the analysis work; Agreement that the orientation of the SEAN should be integrated, in fact, SEAN was generally referred to as the sustainable development analysis methodology. No separate training was given to the SEAN team. Training was integrated in the first (scoping) workshop, which turned out to be insufficient to properly apply SEAN.

Phase 2: Scoping workshop

The main objectives of the scoping workshop in October 1997 were to learn the SEAN methodology while at the same time applying the methodology as a scoping exercise to identify key issues. The workshop included a combination of lectures, working group activities to apply SEAN steps, plenary working sessions and field visits. Use was made of a summary of available documents and statistics. The participants prepared themselves using a checklist and an outline of the methodology. The workshop took 5 days, with about 30 participants, and was supported by the SEAN expert and the moderator. A workshop report was written and distributed among all participants. This contained the results of the preliminary scoping, as well as the ToR for the fieldwork of the next phase. The ToR contained a total of about 25 priority themes and gaps of knowledge to be studied and analysed during the next phase. Based on these, a specific ToR was worked out for the fieldwork phase, with responsibilities and budget.

Phase 3: Fieldwork
The fieldwork focused at priority issues and gaps of knowledge on SEAN steps 1-8 and according to ToR defined in previous phase. The fieldwork components included: Multi-disciplinary SEAN teams performing inventories and local PRA surveys among local communities, particularly those who did not participate in the first workshop; Consultants performing specialised studies on social context, economic opportunities, gold exploitation, and natural resource exploitation; Projects completing inventories and data synthesis on the basis of their experiences; The moderator reporting back to local decision-makers at various levels, in order to raise commitment and develop a sense of ownership; Backstopping by SEAN expert.

The field studies were structured geographically (4 homogeneous zones within the Province based on agro-ecological criteria), while they were focused on specific sectors (e.g. cotton production) and social groups (e.g. women, youth, pastoralists, and urban inhabitants). Thus, all SEAN steps were applied to certain social groups, which was referred to as SEAN-youth, SEAN-women etc. At a later stage the results were integrated. According to the results of the scoping workshop, a number of secondary actors was interviewed, mainly within government services. The total fieldwork period took about 2 months. The fieldwork was completed with a report depicting the main results in terms of outcomes of SEAN methodological steps 1-8.

Phase 4: Planning phase

A planning workshop in May 1998 aimed at evaluating and synthesising the field work results and the outcomes of the SEAN steps 1-8, and preparation of the major strategic orientations (SEAN steps 9 and 10). The workshop included a combination of presentations of fieldwork results, working group activities to check results, plenary sessions on strategic plan and follow-up activities. The workshop took 5 days, with about 40 participants, and was supported by the SEAN expert and the moderator. Contrary to the first workshop, now local authorities also participated as they had become interested in the process. Integration of the results of the SEAN steps 1-8 with the results of the consultant reports on social situation and economic opportunities was done by the SEAN executing team. A workshop report was written and distributed among all participants. Following the workshop, the SEAN team worked out a draft strategic plan based on the workshop outputs. It included impact indicators to be monitored. The draft strategic plan was discussed with relevant decision makers. This has lead to several adjustments. The reference committee played a crucial role in reviewing the SEAN report, proposing adjustments, networking and negotiating with policy makers and proposing an outline for the final strategic plan. Studies were also proposed of the institutional setting, and of the ongoing projects and programmes. These results would be integrated in the final strategic plan.

Phase 5: Follow-up and monitoring

Follow-up activities focused on communication, implementation and monitoring of the strategic plan. For the Atacora case study, the following activities are still ongoing: Finalising the strategic plan in a form that is acceptable to all Governmental parties involved; Establishing at national level a legal basis for a strategic plan at provincial level; Reporting back of all results to District levels and establishing commitment, involving both local Government and local communities; Working out operational plans at Provincial level; Supporting District authorities in translating the Provincial strategic plan into strategic (and later also operational) plans at District level; Reporting back to donors and achieving their commitment; Defining a monitoring system and definition of responsibilities for its application; Application of SEAN in another province, in a similar way, but taking into consideration the lessons learned from the Atacora experience. Note to presentation of results of SEAN steps The presentation of the results of SEAN steps on the following pages give some examples per step, which should allow potential applicants to understand the essential outputs per step. Thus, of most steps only part of the results are presented. Note that the tables and matrices provide summaries of more detailed information developed during the SEAN process.

Benin Waterfalls are important tourist attractions

3 Brief results per SEAN methodological step

SEAN step 1: Stakeholders and main environmental functions
The matrix indicates: predominant resource-use systems, associated environmental functions, stakeholders depending upon these functions, and priorities among the environmental functions (decreasing from 1 to 5, based on importance within the resource-use system and the numerical importance of the stakeholders indicated). Accompanying text elaborates upon resource-use systems and the associated environmental functions.

Resource-use systems

Environmental functions (P=Production, S=Space, R=Regulatory, C=Cultural / signification)

Stakeholders (legend see next table)



P Production of subsistence cereal crops P Production of cash crops: cotton / groundnuts P Production of irrigated crops S Space for dryland crops S Space for irrigated crops R Maintenance of soil fertility R Maintenance of ground cover / soil protection C Use of certain crops in wedding ceremonies

Am, Aw, M, Ps, U Am, M, C Am, Aw, M, Ps Am, Aw, M, Ps, U, C Am, Aw, M, Ps Am, Aw, M, Ps, U, C Am, Aw, M, Ps, U, C Am, Aw

1 2/3 3 1 3 1 1 4





Water use

Urban settlement

SEAN steps 1 and 2: current socio-economic condition of stakeholders.
The matrix indicates: current level of satisfaction of key issues associated with final goals from social and economic dimensions of sustainable development, per stakeholder. Indicated are the relative level of satisfaction amongst stakeholders within this Department. Indicated are also recent trends, if known. Relative indications could be substituted by quantitative data. Of all stakeholders, elaborate descriptions can be given in accompanying text.

Key issues related to final goals

Economic Level of incomes

Level of



Security (land conflict)

Access to land



Access to safe water

education training

over land to credit


Agriculturalist men (Am)



Agriculturalist women (Aw)







Migrants (M)


Urban population (U)

Young (Y)

Pastoralist sedentary (Ps)

Pastoralist migrant (Pm)

Commercial traders (C)

Tourist operators (T)

Legend = unsatisfactory; 0 = average; + = satisfactory; \ = improving; [ = deteriorating; n.r. = not relevant

SEAN step 2: Trends of main environmental functions.

The matrix indicates: main trends of identified environmental functions, with indication of indicators or sources of information upon which the assessment is based. If possible, indicators could be specified as being state/quality, pressure or response indicators.

Environmental function

Indicators / sources


Production of subsistence cereal crops (total production / yields)

Interviews, statistics, mainly in areas with high population stable /[ pressure, recent years

Production of cash crop cotton (total production / yields)

Interviews and statistics, recent years, divergent views

\\ / stable

Space for dryland crops

Interviews, total cropped area increases but arable area per capita declines

Maintenance of soil fertility

Yields decline at same plots, weeds like Striga proliferate, local predominant views


Fodder products: herbage (total prod.)

It takes longer to feed the animals

[ 11

Maintenance of plant diversity

The diversity of fodder plants declines, preferred species are disappearing

Maintenance of animal reproduction capacity

The ratio of young to adult animals declines, during recent [ 10 years

Sacred forests

Young do not anymore respect sacred forests, the area declines


Availability of ground water

Wells seem to dry up, exceptions in some areas, e.g. where anti-erosion works are made


Space for waste disposal

Area taken by waste disposal increases, due to increasing urban populations

Maintenance of soil decomposition capacity

More pollution at waste disposal sites, more complaints about polluted air, water and soil


Legend \\ = strong increase during recent years; \ = increase during recent years; [ = decline during recent years; stable = no change during recent years. Indications between brackets refer to local exceptions or contradictory indications / sources.

Note In this case study no distinction has been made between state, pressure and response indicators. Also, it can be observed that in some cases use was made of available statistics, while in other cases such data were not available.

SEAN step 2: Environmental cause-effect chains
Environmental cause-effect chains were made for various sectors or themes. Here one is demonstrated for the theme of depletion by soil mining by subsistence agriculture. Note that: off-site impacts are indicated by text in bold; the interactions between economic, social and ecological final goals are not indicated (e.g. improved production will usually positively affect health); dotted arrows indicate relations between trends, double line arrows indicate positive impacts on final goals, one-line arrows negative impacts; shaded are elements to associate environmental functions to final goals.











seasonal water crop yields 12 (medium term) cattle overgrazing capital\labour required land scarcity scarcity

disturbed water balance

area for forest

crop yields (short term)

organic fertiliser inputs

need for extensification


clearing of land

stock soil nutrients

arable land

soil erosion soil water retention

soil regeneration capacity

soil structure

soil organic matter

soil fauna

soil mining for dryland cereal cropping

space for subsistence crops

space for cotton production

SEAN step 3: Trend-impact matrix.

The matrix indicates the impacts of clustered priority environmental trends on final goals (and related key issues) of stakeholders and absent stakeholder categories. Other types of impacts (e.g. direct / indirect, reversible / irreversible, short-term / long-term) could be indicated in this scheme by other special signs.

Present stakeholders

Absent stakeholders

final goals, key issues or indicators Y environmental trends [

Incomes Efficiency


Conflicts Equity

outside communities

future generations

nature -

nature -

stability biodiversity

Production of cereal crops [ Production of cotton \ /+ (1) ! (2) ! (3) (4) ! (5) ! (6) (7) (7)

Soil fertility [[ Soil protection [




! (3)


! (5)

!! (11)

!! (11)

Space for forest [ Forest products [ Wildlife products [ Timber exploitation \

/+ (12)






Urban settlements \ Pollution of soil and water \

+ (17)


! (19)

! (20)

Legend [\ = direction of trends of environmental changes 0 = no impact ; = negative impact ; + = positive impact ! = high risks; !! risks for irreversible changes

Explanation of impacts by numbers in the matrix 1 Village and household chiefs benefit most from cotton revenues, investments are mostly not sustainable; other family members, women and children in particular, bear disadvantages of lower cereal yields. 2 Cases of malnutrition appear among some children due to cereal shortages during certain periods. This also affects sedentary pastoralists. 3 Conflicts between agriculturalists and pastoralists over land and damage by animals are intensified due to food shortages. 4 Wealthier stakeholders, communities and persons are able to buy expensive foods in times of shortage; some benefit much from cotton incomes. 5 6 7 8 9 Emigration occurs as a result of food shortages, creating social tensions and conflicts in surrounding areas. High dependency on cotton as only source of income poses great risks and loss of autonomy. Monocropping with high use of fertilisers and pesticides risks to degrade the soil and affect soil organisms. Requirements to buy fertilisers or to keep more livestock for organic fertiliser production. Etc.

SEAN steps 4 and 5: Problem definition including norms, standards and thresholds
Environmental problems identified are: 1 2 3 4 Decline of soil fertility Decline of grain cereal production Deforestation and decline of the availability of forest products Decline of urban living conditions

All major environmental problems are defined using information from steps 1-4, according to the following checklist, worked out for the example of decline of soil fertility. Problem 1: Decline of soil fertility
Issues Information for this problem

1 The environmental function(s) showing a trend of declining quality, main indicators involved

Soil fertility decline, evidenced by declining yields and appearance of weeds like Striga; declining production levels of food crops.

2 The geographical areas involved

Certain areas within the Department, these are mainly the most densely populated areas.


3 The relations with and consequences for other environmental functions, cumulative impacts

As a result, more pressure is put on grazing lands and forest lands, both by clearing new croplands and by higher livestock densities.

4 The impacts and risks on (absent) stakeholders and on the ecological system, with an emphasis on indications of the winners and losers involved, and impacts on outside communities, future generations and nature values.

There are major risks for present stakeholders, mainly women and communities with low incomes, there are major risks for future generations, there are risks for irreversible degradation of arable lands.

5 Possible thresholds, norms or standards involved

It is stated that farmers leave their croplands when yields decline below a minimum of 2-4 sacs of maize/ha/yr. Also, when weeds proliferation requires too much labour croplands are being abandoned.

6 The main causing activities

Continuous cropping on the same croplands, reduction of space available for subsistence crops.

7 The positive exceptions and solution strategies that have already been mentioned

There are a few farmers that have applied a number of agricultural improvements such as composting, anti-erosion works and green manuring.

8 The relationships with priority issues for other sectors

Large demands for labour on poor croplands also involve women and children, who therefore do not go to school.

Note Little attention has been given to the identification of norms, standards and thresholds, as this was considered to be difficult. However, in SEAN applications in other regions, more details were obtained on step 4. Some official standards were summarised, and some thresholds were referred to as based on scientific insights mainly.

SEAN step 6: Example of primary actor analysis.

All environmental problems are analysed by the actor-in-context methodology. This involves first of all an analysis of primary actors. The following is an example of one environmental problem. Problem: Decline of soil fertility Main causing activity: Continuous cropping on the same croplands. Primary actor: (1) Agriculturalists men, (2) migrants Options and motivations: not listed here, see for example figure next page Underlying factors: Poor agricultural extension services; non adoption of messages aimed at agricultural intensification (1,2); Non application of organic fertilisers to improve soil fertility (1,2); Unattractive prices of agricultural products (1,2); High level of seasonal rural emigration (1); Poor extension approaches of extension services (1,2); Low level of education among rural farmers (1); High level of additional labour required for agricultural intensification (1,2); General level of poverty and poor access to credit systems (1,2); Predominance of traditional regulations of access and control of land resources (1); Poor organisation of communities to market promising cash crops (1,2); Limited income opportunities beyond agricultural sector (1,2); Lack of control of settlement of incoming migrants (1); Low quality and poor maintenance of available infrastructure (1,2).

SEAN step 6: Example of actors field for part of one problem (not complete)


Decline of soil fertility

Causing activity

Continuous cropping on same piece of land

Primary actor(s) Options Main option undertaken by primary actor: 1 crop continuously Alternative options 2 intensify 3 find off-farm employment

Agriculturalist, men Motivations Motivations for primary actors to adopt option 1 used to do so 2 does not know how to do differently Motivations for primary actor not to adopt alternative options 3 the extension messages are not clear 4 insufficient labour Factors not listed


5 there are no profitable other jobs

Underlying factors associated with motivations Secondary actor(s) Traditional leaders, men Young emigrants, women Extension service NGOs Strong tradition on land tenure High level of seasonal emigration Non adoption of extension messages

Options and motivations Main option undertaken by secondary actor: 1 Persist in traditions; motivation: change of traditions is difficult Alternative options 2 Accept new ideas, educate community; motivation not to do so: education services are poor

Options and motivations Main option undertaken by secondary actor: 1 Emigrate, motivation: jobs and land can be found elsewhere Alternative options 2 Stay in area, motivation not to do so: poor social services, no jobs

Options and motivations Main option undertaken by secondary actor: 1 Give poor extension; motivation: we are not well trained Alternative options: 2 Good extension; motivation not to do so: no reward system, only paid for area of cotton

Underlying factors Poor education Predominance of men Poor off-farm jobs in area Poor professional training Poor training of extension officers Third actor(s) associated with underlying factors Education services Education services Projects, local Government Training services, NGOs Ministry of Agriculture

SEAN steps 6 (and 7): Example of secondary actor analysis.

Together with the analysis of secondary actors of the most important underlying factors, some opportunities for improvement are identified as well. This is helpful as it allows one to address secondary actors in a positive way. The following is one example of the analysis of a secondary actor. Underlying factor: Non respect of regulations to refrain from exploitation on river banks, poor management of existing irrigation schemes, leading to decline and poor maintenance of soil fertility Actors: forestry service, agricultural service, local administration, land management projects, central government, local elected representatives, a number of NGOs, FAO, UNDP. Options and motivations: not elaborated here, see for position of secondary actors in actors field preceding page. Underlying factors: Limited knowledge on existing legislation Lack of extension on existing legislation Limited initiatives and means to enforce existing legislation Lack of technical proposals to rehabilitate degraded river banks Lack of awareness on ongoing degradation Lack of information on application of regulations and irrigation Weak relations between government agencies and population Non adaptation of existing legislation to socio-economic reality Absence of a participatory approach to develop management plans of irrigation schemes Absence of training on participatory land husbandry methods Strong promotion of rice as the only irrigated crop Insufficient technical knowledge and extension messages on other crops than rice Absence of a master plan aimed at efficient use of water resources.

Opportunities related to these underlying factors (step 7): Initiatives by projects to replant and rehabilitate river banks Good markets for mountain rice Good markets for other irrigated crops than rice Good experiences with participatory land husbandry approaches by some projects and NGOs Decentralisation offering opportunities to adapt local legislation National reforestation programme Growing awareness on negative consequences of degraded river banks.

SEAN step 6: Classified list of identified underlying factors
The analysis of environmental problems by the actor-in-context methodology leads to the identification causing activities, actors, options and motivations, and underlying factors. The following are key underlying factors resulting from this analysis, classified according to their origin. In italics are indicated priority underlying factors, based on the number of linkages with different environmental problems. As underlying factors are more general and based on several problem analyses, these can be referred to as root causes. With all factors, the relevant actors involved must also be listed. 1 2 3

Demographic factors High level of seasonal rural emigration, non investments of revenues in area of origin Lack of control to settle incoming migrants Social factors Low level of education among rural farmers General level of poverty and poor access to credit systems Poor level of organisation within local communities to market promising cash crops Lack of organisation and countervailing power by civil society High level of dependency on fuelwood as the only source of energy Cultural factors Predominance of traditional regulations of access and control of land resources Social phenomenon of levelling and discouraging private initiatives (jealousy) Prevailing negative elements of local traditions Economic factors Poor organisation of production sectors other than cotton. Unattractive prices of agricultural products Limited income opportunities beyond agricultural sector Technological factors Non application of organic fertilisers to improve soil fertility High level of additional labour required for agricultural intensification Shortage of construction materials and poor management of sand sites Poor maintenance of existing irrigation schemes Institutional factors Lack of application and control of forest legislation Lack of information on rights and duties from existing legislation to local communities Low level of technical training of extension officers and technicians Absence of a good pastoral legislation and planning in which relevant actors have been involved Non adapted mining legislation to prevailing socio-economic conditions Local authorities not implied in agreements and contracts on resources exploitation with outsiders

4 5 6

Poor quality of urban development plans, low level of application, poor management urban wastes Poor agricultural extension services; non adoption of messages for agricultural intensification High levels of taxes on national trade French monopolies on marketing of cotton Low quality and poor maintenance of available infrastructure, mainly in certain areas Non respect of regulations to protect river banks Bias towards settled populations (e.g. agriculturalists over nomadic pastoralists) Informal support by politicians to illegal gold panners; implications with high authorities in hunting

Natural factors (other than can be expected on the basis of statistics) Increasing incidence of drought periods, even in sub-humid zones


SEAN step 7: Opportunity identification.
Opportunities are identified in the following 5 categories. 1+2. Main ecological / economic opportunities per zone within the Department

Promising cash crops



Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

Zone 4

Tree products: Mustard from nr tree Butter from karit tree N3 N3 ++ ++ ++ ++ +++ ++ ++ ++ ++ +

Dryland crops: Cotton Biological cotton Sesame Maize Groundnuts - oil Beans Manioc N2 N2 T2 N2 T1 N2 T1 N2 T1 ++ ++ ++ N1 I2 I3 + + D + D ++ + + ++ + + + ++ ++ ++ + ++ + D ++ +++ ++ D ++ + D + D


Livestock products


Irrigated crops

Forest products


Market : N = national, T = Transnational in the region, I = International; 1 = weak, 2 = average, 3 = large, no indication = very weak or absent, D = to develop

As off-farm opportunities were identified: gold exploitation, (eco-)tourism, local handicrafts, recycling of urban wastes, restaurant services, urban transport systems, commerce.

3 4 5

Examples of some local initiatives / opportunities Successful initiatives by projects to replant and rehabilitate river banks Good experiences with participatory land husbandry approaches by some projects and NGOs Growing awareness on negative consequences of degraded river banks Local successful experiences by NGOs in co-management efforts Etc. Institutional opportunities Decentralisation offering opportunities to adapt local legislation National reforestation programme New forestry legislation being drafted Signature of international conventions Etc. Social / cultural opportunities Untapped potentials of womens groups Response to growing awareness by women on negative impacts of poor water quality in urban areas Etc.


SEAN step 8: Opportunity analysis.
Of all priority opportunities, an analysis was made as indicated in this example. Opportunity: Development of more efficient gold exploitation (gold resources are plenty available, exploitation appears to be feasible, there are good markets)

Final goals

Impacts in current situation (in relation to final goals)

Favourable / unfavourable factors to strengthen positive impacts, compensate or mitigate negative impacts

Associated activities

Actors involved


+ Economic revenues

+ Good internal organisation of sellers + Good markets ? Feasibility to be studied

Information on gold market and prices; Insight in regional markets

Ministry of Mining, Traders, Private sector


Poor efficiency

Poor equipment Poor infrastructure

Organisation of producers into cooperatives; Information on better equipment; Establishment of training centre; Improved education;

NGOs, Ministry of Commerce, Ministry of Education, projects


Poor training + Available funds / high incomes


Poor sanitary facilities Etc.


Many do not benefit


Many cases of violation


Department nor villagers have rights


Impacts on biodiversity unknown


Use of chemicals unknown

Legend = negative impact / unfavourable factors; + = positive impact / favourable factors

Other priority opportunities that were analysed included: Decentralisation Markets for cash crops Local transformation of tomatoes, mangoes, cashew nuts

Note The unfavourable factors identified during the opportunity analyses were added to the list of underlying factors and root causes resulting from step 6, the favourable factors that were identified were added as additional opportunities. Clusters were formed between associated opportunities, and win-win options were identified, for instance: more efficient exploitation, transformation and marketing of tree crops would contribute to both income generation and improved soil conservation through the better management of local trees.


SEAN step 9: Sectoral strategic orientations (key issues)
Sectoral strategic orientations were identified on the basis of the outcomes of SEAN steps 6 and 8 mainly. As the Atacora SEAN was executed with a specifically integrated character, the following sectoral orientations have an inter-sectoral character. Exceptions are for 3 orientations only, which resulted specifically from other (social and economic) analyses - see indication in italics. Ecological orientations Orientation E1: Maintenance and management of water balance Orientation E2: Maintenance and management of biodiversity plants and animals Orientation E3: Maintenance of soil fertility Orientation E4: Maintenance and improvement of the integration of trees in land-use systems Orientation E5: Better control and management of grazing and livestock densities Orientation E6: Improvement of urban living conditions Social orientations Orientation S1: Improvement of literacy rate Orientation S2: Improvement of the level of education Orientation S3: Control of the negative aspects and strengthening of the positive aspects of tradition

Orientation S4: Improvement of access to safe water Orientation S5: Improvement of preventive health facilities Orientation S6: Control of demographic growth and rural migration Orientation S7: Promotion of gender awareness Institutional orientations Orientation I1: Support to existing structures and services to develop and improve negotiation and communication capabilities Orientation I2: Adaptation of current legislation on natural resources and juridical context to prevailing socio-economic conditions Orientation I3: Support to decentralisation processes Orientation I4: Support to NGOs and CBOs as intermediary structures Orientation I5: Support to improve morality of civil society Orientation I6: Improvement of means and systems of communication and information Orientation I7: Technical and logistical support to existing services Orientation I8: Improvement of technical and professional training

Economic orientations Orientation C1: Development of promising markets and cash crops Orientation C2: Promotion of off-farm income opportunities (e.g. gold exploitation) Orientation C3: Improvement of road system and opening up of remote parts of the department Orientation C4: Improvement and adaptation of credit systems to improve access by all social groups Orientation C5: Improvement and introduction of transformation, storage and conservation technologies Orientation C6: Support to existing organisations and creation of cooperatives (economic structures) Orientation C7: Diversification and promotion of renewable energy resources
Note The above list of strategic sectoral orientations is too long to be taken up in a strategic plan. Thus, from these options, decision makers should select priority ones / make choices.


SEAN step 9: Example of the elaboration of strategic orientations.
Sectoral orientation E3: Maintenance of soil fertility Justification The decline of soil fertility can be observed by the decline of yields mainly. Concerned are the decline of soil nutrients, organic matter contents and soil structure. There is a general decline of arable soils while fragile non-arable soils are increasingly cropped. This has consequences on production (outputs) and efficiency of agronomic inputs, health, equity (women are left infertile fields) and security (e.g. land conflicts). In spite of increasing awareness among farmers, better techniques are little used and agricultural intensification is slow to proceed. Techniques for soil fertility improvement are often insufficiently specific and adapted. Farmers generally prefer rural emigration and search of arable land elsewhere which is not a sustainable solution. Zones and target groups Whole population, particularly in south-western and southern zones Objectives 1 2

To define an integrated strategy that is specific and oriented at collective action to manage soils using appropriate soil fertility improvement measures. To support applied research and develop improved crop diversification corresponding to soil suitability, and promote sustainable soil management techniques. To support agricultural services to develop extension messages that are specific and adapted to local ecological and socio-economic conditions, in combination with the development of markets for cash crops and appropriate credit systems, and to monitor innovating initiatives on agricultural intensification (particularly the integration of agriculture and livestock keeping with the use of organic fertilisers), specifically oriented at female farmers.

To promote extension and application of techniques to integrate the use of inorganic and organic fertilisers, particularly on cotton.

Criteria for interventions (to assess and adjust existing projects) analysis of broad long-term impacts on soil nutrient and soil organic matter balance integration of a mix of organic and inorganic fertilisers to maintain soil fertility at desirable level application of the best available soil conservation and fertility management techniques means to strengthen extension on soil fertility maintenance.

Actors Agricultural extension, agricultural research, NGOs.

Opportunities Village land husbandry approach, training on improved agricultural techniques, increasing use of organic fertilisers by pastoralists and some farmers, promising results of research projects. Impact indicators Agricultural yields with and without fertilisers; Percentage of abandoned croplands due to low yields; Level of rural emigration.


SEAN step 9: List of identified core themes to formulate inter-sectoral programmes
The following core themes were identified, as the basis to formulate inter-sectoral programmes. One can observe that most themes have an economic orientation mainly. Of most of these inter-sectoral programmes both ecological and socio-economic goals can be achieved. 1 2 3 4 Improvement of revenues and marketing of tree products (mainly mustard from nr and butter from karit). Cattle livestock intensification and development of markets for cattle meat, cheese and other dairy products. Small ruminants livestock intensification and development of markets for pig and poultry products. Development of systems of co-management of forest formations and markets for forest products (honey, construction wood, charcoal, pharmaceutical products, wildlife products). 5 6 7

Valorisation and management of valleys and marketing of irrigated products: rice, vegetables and fruits. Diversification of agricultural crops and introduction of leguminous crops (groundnuts, soya, beans...). Development of tree products and markets for their products: mainly mangos and derived [products.

8 Development of eco-tourism. 9 Development of gold and quartzite exploitation. education, adjusted to local conditions, with a special orientation to off-farm employment opportunities. 11 Support to decentralisation processes and strengthening of democratic principles at various levels. 12 Improvement of urban living conditions and preventive health care. Other outputs of step 9 that were not yet elaborated in this case study a vision on sustainable development of the region concerned and/or per distinct zone or sector development scenarios for the region, taking into consideration the main determining factors for which uncertainties exist priorities as regards target groups, geographical concentration areas, certain sectors or development partners and coalitions. 10 Improvement of the level of education and professional training by a formal

SEAN step 9: Inter-sectoral programmes

Example of the elaboration of an intersectoral programme, with indication of the relationship with a log-frame, as a starting point to formulate operational plans. Results will allow sectoral orientations to be specified according to their inter-relations with inter-sectoral programmes, and thus synergy between sectors can be strengthened.
Inter-sectoral programme 1

Main objective Improvement of revenues and marketing of tree products (mainly mustard from nr and butter from karit)

Zones and target groups The whole department, mainly the southern zone, with an emphasis on women.


Type of interaction/ Associated impact sectoral orientation

Expected results / activities required to establsih linkages with strategic sectoral orientations

1 To improve the stability of agro-ecosystems through the promotion of trees and their useful products

C! (conditions)


Strengthening motivations to reduce bush fires and uncontrolled grazing


To develop and strengthen negotiation capabilities

+ (positive relation) E1

Protection or plantation of trees on fragile soils (river banks, slopes....); monitoring, strengthening and promotion of private initiatives.


Improving soil fertility by increasing the use of forest litter.

(negative relation) E4

To agree upon management systems based on sustained yield levels

2 To improve revenues, mainly for women, through an improved marketing of tree products

C! (conditions)


Reduction of uncontrolled immigration from surrounding areas


To improve information on market prices; to promote national consumption of tree products

I7 C4

To study local silvicultural practices To diversify credit systems

+ (positive relation) S2

Strengthening education of girls and women to benefit from marketing tree crops

S7 C1

To enhance revenues for women To develop and diversify markets and products derived from tree products; to introduce in agricultural systems other local trees with valuable products.

- (negative relation) S3

Negotiate with traditional powers to change land tenure systems and regulations and user rights of trees and their products.

3 To improve transformation technologies in order to increase the added value of tree products C3 C! (conditions) I8 S4 To improve water supply systems and their management by local communities. To provide technical training on improved technologies to young farmers To open up remote areas for evacuation of products

+ (positive relation) C5

To introduce improved technologies for transformation, storage and conservation; to monitor promising local initiatives

- (negative relation) S7

To avoid that rural women do not benefit from improved technologies, and men take over


SEAN step 10: Follow-up and monitoring system

Apart from the following list of indicators that were identified as part of a monitoring system on sustainable development in the region, activities to elaborate step 10 for this case study are still ongoing.

Dimension of sustainable development

Impact indicators for monitoring system


Depth of water table. Proportion of fragile lands (steep slopes, riverbanks, ...) being cropped. Presence and density of rare animal and plant species. Agricultural yields with / without chemical fertiliser use. Proportion of croplands abandoned due to land degradation. Density of perennial grasses and their regrowth rate Incidence of diseases in urban areas associated with waste disposal ..........


Literacy rate of all social and gender groups. Number of teachers per inhabitant. Average distance for a child to cover to nearest school. Number of negative traditions having changed. Number of positive traditions being strengthened. Rate of rural emigration. Access to and control over resources by men and women. ...............


Number and frequency of local conflicts. Number of local agreements on natural resource management and application. Rate of autonomy of local NGOS (number of projects realised, financial independence, etc.). Level of appreciation by the populations of services provided by ONG and development associations. Level of corruption. Knowledge of local laws by communities Access to information sources ...............


Number of income generating activities promoted with marginal benefits for producers. Density of road network, maintenance of road network. Ratio of demands for credit support being satisfied. Distribution of credits among different social and gender groups. Number of improved technologies introduced and applied. Productivity of improved technologies. Number of existing organisations and corporations with proper internal management and financial control systems. Introduction of renewable energy sources other than fuelwood, rate of use by different social and gender groups. .......................


West Africa Sacred animals like crocodiles