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# Heat Exchanger Effectiveness

T1 T1 T2

Tlm =

## (T1 T1) (T2 T2) (T T ) ln 1 1 (T2 T2)

T2

What if the outlet temperatures are unknown? e.g. calculate the performance of a given heat exchanger.

## Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

To calculate unknown outlet temperatures: Procedure: 1. guess outlet temperatures 2. calculate Tlm, FT 3. calculate Q 4. calculate Q from energy balance 5. compare, adjust, repeat.

## Heat Exchanger Effectiveness

Consider a counter-current double-pipe heat exchanger:

## Tco Thi Thi Tco Tci Tho

Tho Tci
distance along the exchanger

## Qin,cold = Q = mC p cold (Tco Tci )

Energy balance hot side:

## (mCp)hot (Tco Tci) Tc (mCp)cold = (Tho Thi) = Th

Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

TT = e 0 x T1 T1

0 = 2 RU

1 1 m C m C p p

## Note that the temperature curves are only approximately linear.

0 L T T = e L T1 T1

0 L = 2RLU
120 100 80 T, T' ( C)
o

1 1 m C m C p p
U = 300 W / mK 2RL = 15.4m 2
' mC p = 6 kW / K

## 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5

mC p = 3 kW / K

60

T
40 20 0 0 0.2 0.4 x/L 0.6 0.8 1

T T T1 T1

Case 1:

Tc > Th

Thi Tco

## cold fluid = minimum fluid

Th

Tho
We want to compare the amount of heat transferred in this case to the amount of heat transferred in a PERFECT heat exchanger.

Tc

Tci
distance along the exchanger
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

## Thi = Tco Tho

cold side: this temperature difference only depends on inlet temperatures

A=

Tci

## QA= = mC p cold (Thi Tci )

Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Q QA=

## Q = mC p cold (Thi Tci )

cold fluid = minimum fluid if is known, we can calculate Q without iterations

Case 2:

Tc < Th

Thi

Th

Tco

Tc

Tho Tci

## distance along the exchanger

Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

## If the heat exchanger were perfect, Thi=Tco

Thi Tco
hot side:

A=

Tho = Tci

this temperature difference distance along the exchanger only depends on inlet temperatures

## QA= = mC p hot(Thi Tci )

Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

## Heat Exchanger Effectiveness,

Q QA=

Q = mC p hot(Thi Tci )
hot fluid = minimum fluid in general,

Q = mC p min(Thi Tci )
if is known, we can calculate Q without iterations

## But where do we get ?

The same equations we use in the trial-and-error solution can be combined algebraically to give as a function of (mCp)min, (mCp)max.
countercurrent flow:

( mC p )min UA 1 (mCp )min (mCp )max 1 e = ( ) mC UA p min 1 mC p (mCp )min (mCp )min min 1 e mC p max

( (

) )

## This relation is plotted in Geankoplis, as is the relation for co-current flow.

Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Heat Exchanger Effectiveness for Double-pipe or 1-1 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers counter-current co-current

## note: Geankoplis Cmin=(mCp)min

Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Final Exam
CM 310 November 16, 1998
3. (25 points) Water flowing at a rate of 0.723 kg/s enters the inside of a countercurrent, double-pipe heat exchanger at 300K and is heated by an oil stream that enters at 385K at a rate of 3.2kg/s. The heat capacity of the oil is 1.89 kJ/kg K, and the average heat capacity of water over the temperature range of interest is 4.192 kJ/kg K. The overall heat-transfer coefficient of the exchanger is 300 W/m2 K, and the area for heat transfer is 15.4 m2. What is the total amount of heat transferred?