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UNIT I Introduction There are around 6000 languages in the world and about one-sixth of them are from

India. All these languages struggle for their existence. Some survive and some fade away slowly. (Linguists fear that these 6000 languages could be reduced to just a few hundred within a century or two.) Among the languages of the world, English has become the global language as it is the most widely spoken language. It is the mother tongue of 350 million people, and is used by another 1150 million people in 100 countries as a second language or a foreign language. What made English a global language? It is often suggested, for example, that there must be something inherently beautiful or logical about the structure of English, in order to explain why it is now so widely used. It has less grammar than other languages, some have suggested. English doesnt have a lot of endings on its words, nor do we have to remember the difference between masculine, feminine, and neuter gender, so it must be easier to learn. But a language does not become a global language because of its intrinsic structural properties, or because of the size of its vocabulary, or because it has been a vehicle of a great literature in the past, or because it was once associated with a great culture or religion. A language has traditionally become 11.5 However, international language dominance is not solely the result of military might. In the 19 and 20th centuries the communication technologies, the press, the media, and the growth of competitive industry and business brought an explosion of international marketing and advertising. Any language at the centre of such an explosion of international activities would suddenly have found itself with a global status. And as David Crystal puts it English was apparently in the right place at the right time. English thus became a symbol of political power. It became the language of the
legal system, higher education, pan-regional administrative network, science and technology, trade and commerce. Since indigenous languages were considered ill equipped for carrying out these roles English with its copious vocabulary was easily projected as the ideal substitute. Moreover, this language had at its credit social prestige and power. English has become gradually a major tool for acquiring knowledge in the sciences and the humanities. It has come to represent modernization and development, and, as a link language, it has acquired international as well as intra-national roles over the years. As a global language
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the importance of English in the outer circle is increasing day by day. There are more English speakers in the outer circle than in the inner circle since there is a lot of craze for English in the outer circle.
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The status of English in India and Andhra Pradesh We fought the English to win our freedom; to win the world, today, we learn English. English in India has the status of associate official language. It enjoys various titles such as the language of science, computers and information technology, the library language (India is the third largest publisher of books in English.), the language of industry, commerce and administration, and more recently the language of opportunities. It has emerged as an important component in all spheres of life the press, advertising, broadcasting, motion pictures, transport and communication, information technology, etc. English has been a promoter of national integrity in India. English is today a symbol of peoples aspirations for quality in education and a fuller participation in national and international life.(position paper English NCF 2005). People of our state strongly feel that without the ability to read, write, and communicate in English with competence and confidence, their children will have limited opportunities for academic and career success. They know that English literacy is the key to participating and succeeding in a democratic society and global economy. This is the reason for their demand of early introduction of English in the curriculum. The Government of Andhra Pradesh adhered to the social and political aspirations of the people and introduced English at the first standard 3 years ago. Basing on the recommendations Of NCF-2005, the Government of Andhra Pradesh prepared Andhra Pradesh state curriculum frame work in 2011 after a laborious research and consultations with English language teaching experts. The experts felt that the teaching of English should be revamped and the new text books in English for all classes should be prepared on the constructivist paradigm. New text book committees were formed for both primary and upper primary classes. The text books for I, II, & III classes at the primary level and VI and VII classes at the upper primary level have been changed and they are ready for use during the year 2012-13. There is only one text book for both the English medium and the non-English medium streams.

Need for a change in the transaction of classroom India has retained English in India as we had an association of more than two hundred years; The policy makers thought that English would be like a window to world. Finally we retained English in India in order reap the benefits of it in the international context. We take pride in it. We

have admired, appreciated and understood the scope of it. We wanted our children to learn English and be able to rise to the level of international citizens. Our decisions were proved foresighted by the time and on-going global changes. We have millions of English users in India. But what is its proportion in relation to the total number of people who studied English for the past 200 years? The number of effective users of English is abysmally low that we need to look back as to what went wrong. The answer to this question is either the teacher is not competent enough to teach or the teacher hasnt taught English well. To have a better understanding of the needed classroom transaction, we have to discuss the existing classroom practice. 1. Most of the teacher under the impression that learning English means the learners learn to answer the fixed questions in the examination. 2. The prevailing opinion of teachers about the learners is: They have no interest, they dont come to class and their parents are not interested in what the learner learns. There are teachers, who do everything (reading, writing, speaking and so on) under the pretext that learners cannot do anything. 3. The perspective of the teacher: the English teachers have the idea that the textbook is a treatise. It is everything. We cannot go beyond the textbook. Covering the syllabus is the utmost important thing. They feel that whether the learners learn or not. Their concern is completion of the syllabus irrespective of the fact that the learners actually learnt or what is needed for them speaking, writing, and reading. Otherwise, the inspectorate will take the teachers to task. The classes were teacher centred. Everything was for the teachers convenience and not for the learners. The teacher reads out a passage and translates the idea into mother tongue. Finishing the lesson, the teacher dictates some answers to questions and the learners have to take it down. Let us look at some usual classroom situations in the three cases shown below:

Case: 1

Teacher: Look, we need silence. Pin drop silence! Learn to behave! No noise should be there in the classroom. The Head Master is around. The PET is around. If they find you talking they will send you out of the classroom. Case: 2 Teacher: What did you say? You didnt came. Say it once again. ? You didnt came! This is WRONG. If you fully know the language, speak it. Otherwise, learn it perfectly. But dont use incorrect language.. DONT MURDER LANGUAGE. Case: 3 Teacher: Note the numbers of questions. I am telling you: dont read any other question. Certainly, you will get all the questions from this set. Write the answers as you learnt in the notes (guide). Leave all the other questions. They are useless. And as per the letter dont write your own letter. You will get nothing. Write whatever I dictated in the letter. The above are some of the snapshots of the English teaching in the most of the schools. By and large, the same situation prevails with some exceptions. The in-service trainings offered by the agencies of the department have influenced in creating awareness in the teachers on what should not be done. However, they too still continue teaching in the traditional way. The reason that is often cited is that, the process of evaluation has not changed. The issue basically is very simple to understand. The world and the nation are in need of people who are proficient in English. Proficiency can be achieved only by following methods and understanding learner and language - English in this context. With all our 200 years long association with English and these many millions of people who learnt English successfully, can we not learn the lessons from them? We can. The NCF 2005 and APSCF 2011 have emphasised the need of developing child friendly classroom transaction. Language is required or learnt in a set of conditions which have to be fulfilled and facilitated by the teacher and only by the teacher. Now we are at the crossroads. There is a way which takes you where you want to go. The other will take us nowhere. The first is the creation of certain belief systems which conceptualise language as something that comes from outside and occupies the mind; the other path is being created by a belief system which conceptualises language as an inbuilt system of man. The second belief system has emerged from the insights that are
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available from our current understanding of what language is and how it is acquired. It is scientific, time- tested, psychological, logical and universally accepted path. Lets follow that path. Its high time we rose to the occasion. The society cannot afford to bear the learners having no language skills in English, who cannot speak, who cannot pursue language on their own. We might wonder whether the text books really allow this to happen, and what demands of the examination would be. Now, we have entered an era where these excuses will not hold up. We wanted the form of the text books changed. We have the new text books in the desired format. Lets look at the perceptions of teachers, learners, parents and administrators: Teachers Perceptions Most of the teachers feel that covering the syllabus is their primary objective. Though they know that the objectives of teaching include development of skills like speaking, reading and writing, there are very few teachers who really keep them in view. All that they have in their minds is the examination, result, marks, and so on. Perception of pupils Pupils take it for granted that getting through the examination is their only objective . The reason for this is their level of consciousness is low. They dont know that by learning English they will be empowered with a tool of power which will help them to creatively intervene in every walk of life. They think that it is a matter of scoring 35 marks, and once they achieve that, they have nothing to do with English. This has been happening for generations. A change in their mind set is to be attempted at. Perceptions of the administrators The administrators are always under the pressure from parents and the department. They strongly believe that the number of children who pass and the number of distinctions that a school can produce have a decisive role in shaping the prospects of the school/management. The acquisition of skills, study skills and the ability to undertake projects may mean nothing to them. Consequences:

As a result of this, teaching of English became exam oriented; result oriented. The learners try to learn the answers by heart and regurgitate the same in the examination. The teachers always try to cover the syllabus and make the children learn some answers through rote learning. Even the higher authorities supply minimum study materials and ask the teachers to make the learners learn the material by heart. Even they dont give scope for the learners to think, reflect and construct language. Remedies: 1. The teacher should believe that the textbook is just an aid but it is not a crutch in his hands. He should see to it that language acquisition is more important than covering the syllabus. If the child acquires the language, the pupils can read lessons on their own and get good results even in the exams even if the syllabus is not covered. so, they should enhance their teaching skills and see to it that the pupils construct language on their own. 2. Children should know that English is introduced not for the sake of examination but for their life. So they need to develop their four language skills in English .if they improve their language skills, they fare well even in the exams. 3. The authorities should insist on the qualitative improvement rather than the quantitative improvement. Even the examination system should change. There should be scope for continuous comprehensive evaluation. Then the stress on the parents and pupils is considerably reduced. Finally, Lets take the learners into confidence. They are the gifts of mankind to mankind. They are the hopes of our future. Future of humanity! Future of the nature!! The learners have all the potentiality to learn. They learn wonderfully. Allow them. They will speak. Encourage them, they will write. Lets democratize the classrooms. Mutual respect and trust should take the place of disbelief in the classroom. Let confidence take the place of fear in the learners. We want speaking classes and not silent classes. Let the voices of learners come out using language. Lets treat the learners as co-constructors of knowledge and not as empty receptacles. Let them assert themselves. Let them express and argue. Thats production of language.
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Let there be agreements and disagreements in the class. Lets make language class a hive of activity! The shift in the paradigm The approaches and methods ranging from the much objectionable grammar translation method to the much acclaimed CLT are heavily dependent upon the behaviourist assumptions about language and language learning. The present ELT scenario across the world gives us the impression that ELT ends with CLT and there is nothing more that we can do about teaching a second language. Designers of ELT conceive second language as a baggage of forms and functions that can be made available to the learners through rigorous practicing strategies. Though notions such as whole language, teacher as a facilitator, collaborative environment are frequently used in literature, the actual classroom practices do not come anywhere near what has been expected to take place. As Tirumalesh (1997) has rightly observed people who propose communicative theory are either unaware of its inadequacies or do so as a kind of corrective to the misappropriation of formal theory by vested interests. The course books and source books that are prepared by proponents of CLT characteristically tend to ignore the insights that are available from the innumerable research programmes that are being carried out in the fields of modern theoretical linguistics, cognitive psychology and neurology. Instead they depend largely on the mechanical reproduction of linguistic chunks that have been designed to meet specific communicative functions as demanded by occasions such as at the market, at the post office and so on. Salient features of new textbooks 1. Previously, we had separate textbooks, supplementary readers and workbooks. The new English readers are designed in an integrated manner. We have a single book that is a combination of the main reader, listening material, work book at the unit level. 2. The present textbooks are brought out in multicolours. Earlier, we had textbooks in single colour. 3. The previous text books were skill - based. Development of language skills was given priority. The content was isolated. It had no relevance to each other. The present text books are based on certain themes. Every unit is based on a theme that is familiar to the learners.
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The theme recurs throughout the unit: in all the activities of the unit. The thematic approach facilitates construction of knowledge along with development of language skills. 4. Holistic treatment of language is taken care of in the present textbooks. Grammar, vocabulary have relevance to the content. Whereas in the earlier textbooks, the treatment of grammar and vocabulary have no relation to the content. 5. In the present textbooks, authentic (real) communication in writing and speaking is attempted. In the previous text books, writing activity was either controlled or guided; speaking was also not authentic. 6. The earlier text books were developed by experts. There was not much to address the problems of teachers and learners . whereas the present text books were the out come of combined efforts of experts in the ELT, linguists and the textbook development committees that include teacher trainers and teachers. 7. Present text books include activities that result in the production of language in the name of Project. The learners literally use language in solving real life problems. This helps the learners in internalizing the language. 8. In the earlier text books, each unit began with listening activity. Experience proved that, by doing so the learners were receiving the reading input a bit late. To put it in other words, listening texts were longish. By the time the teacher completes reading the learners were exhausted and lost interest. 9. The earlier text books had listening passages that have no contextual relevance. The present books have contextually relevant listening texts. They are reasonably long. Hence, they will be interesting to the learners. 10. Earlier we were using two series of textbooks; one for the English medium stream and the other for the non-English medium. This year there is a common book for these two streams. Expected Outcomes/ Competencies in Upper Primary Level We expect the learners to construct more varieties of discourses, both orally and in written form. There is a gradation of discourse in the sense that the there is a variety of discourses to be constructed by the time they complete class 8. In lower classes there will be less number of discourses. Moreover each discourse has a set of level specific features. The details are given in chapter III on assessment.

UNIT-II TRANSACTION OF A UNIT Class VI

Peace and Harmony Reading provides one of the major inputs for the learners to develop proficiency in language. How will process a reading passage? At the outset let us be clear about one thing. The ultimate aim is not to transmit the information given in the reading passage, but to transact a reading experience that will help the learners construct their own texts from the reading passage by personalising and localising it. Therefore, we cannot be satisfied by checking comprehension by asking information based questions. We have to help the learners read the passage analytically and critically and reflect on their reading experience. The module hopefully will help you translate this concept into classroom practice.

Pre-reading You may have noticed that each unit contains a face sheet with a picture on it. This is to be used as a trigger for interacting with the learners. Objectives of interaction based on the picture: The learners 1. 2. 3. come out with their perception (i.e. what they think about the picture) of the picture; talk about their understanding of the theme that is inbuilt in the picture as well as the in the various components of the unit; make intelligent predictions on the passage they are going to read.

Process Show the picture of animals given in page 1 of the reader and interact with the learners by asking a few questions most of which are to be analytical. Some questions are suggested below: 1. What does the picture tell you about the animals? 2. Are they happy /unhappy? How do you know? 3. What are your ideas about living a peaceful life? 4. Are we living in a society where all people enjoy peace and harmony?
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5. What do you think will be the threats for peace and harmony in any society? 6. Which animals are there in the picture? 7. What are they doing? Elicit responses to the questions taking them one by one. You can write some select responses on a chart. (1) It is better to display all the questions on a chart All responses need not be written on the chart; write only those responses (consisting of key expressions and sentences) that are directly relevant to the theme of the reading passage. (2) The children will be motivated to answer the questions in their own way based on their own perceptions if we give them freedom to respond to the questions in their own way. Challenges: All children may not use the language appropriately. use grammatically correct sentences. they may use mother tongue. they expect explanation for every word and sentence. Suggestions: 1. Allow them to use mother tongue when they are unable to use English. You can put their ideas in English for the sake of the whole class. 2. Allow the learners to speak freely and fearlessly to promote divergent thinking. 3. Accept their responses with a smile and encouraging remarks like good, fine etc. 4. At this stage let us appreciate their ability to analyze a situation and come out with their on perceptions. Remember, we are facilitating language learning and not teaching the content of the textbook or language elements.

Note:

Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)

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After the transaction of this segment of the module you will have some points to note down from the perspective of continuous and comprehensive evaluation. Let us see what these are: a. Evidence for carrying out the classroom process A chart containing select responses of the children to the questions that were asked b. Recording assessment of the performance of the learners You may note down the striking responses with the names of the learners in the assessment column of your lesson plan. See the specimen: Process Interaction based on the theme picture Assessment Rahul, Anjali, and Sneha responded in English. Some people create problems in the society, (Rahul). Animals are singing and dancing because they are happy, (Anjali). The tiger is (Sneha). friendly to all animals,

Issues, Challenges and Solutions: You cannot record your assessment of all children at a single stretch. It is enough you record the assessment of only those children who have performed in a fairly good manner. In the specimen given here the children have come out with well-formed constructions in English which means they have already achieved a desirable level of proficiency. We have to wait till we get evidence of their achievement in English from the others as well.

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You may also note down the names of those students who have expressed their own ideas using negligible errors. Do not try to correct any of them when they are at pains to express themselves.

Reading The transaction module of reading needs elaborate treatment because there are a few sub modules to be transacted. Let us begin with the objectives of transacting this segment. Objectives 1. Children make an effort to read individually and track their own reading process. 2. They make sense of the reading passage using a number of strategies such as Checking their predictions on the reading passage Locating information that they were able to pool from the interaction that has taken place Guessing the meaning of words from the context and also using familiar words as stepping stones. Using the glossary given to them, etc. Sharing ideas with others

3. They make sense of the reading passage through collaboration. 4. They reflect on the passage they have read. 5. They analyze the information given and link it with their personal experience. 6. They generate their own texts from the given text. Process Individual reading Ask children to read individually. They can only read it at their own pace. You may give the following directions to help them track their own progress in reading. 1. Read the given passage Peace and Harmony from paragraph 1to3 silently. 2. Use a pencil to put a tick against the lines you are able to understand. 3. You may put a question mark against the line that contains parts you are not able to understand. 4. Pick out the important events in this part of the story. 5. Put a star against the lines that you liked the most. Move round the class to monitor whether they are tracking their reading process. You may interact with them in between by asking questions like the following: o Don worry if you were not able to read and understand the whole of the passage.
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o Try to guess the meaning of the unfamiliar words with the help of words you already know. o Please do not consult with anyone at this point. You can put question marks wherever you faced difficulties. o Sometimes the glossary may help you. Issues and challenges in facilitating individual reading If you think there are a few low proficient learners you need to work out some strategies to help them get at least some ideas from the reading passage. You can try the following: Ask specific questions: o Whose story is this? o What are the animals mentioned in this part of the story. Locate the names of the animals. o What ideas do you get from the picture? o What are the words you can read in the first paragraph? o This part of the text says what the animals and birds are doing (You may also read out a few sentences for them.) Note: The objective of this type of interaction is to help the learners their own sub texts from the reading passage. The sub texts can be in the form of names of the (characters, objects, places, etc.) and events. These will provide the learners good support in their efforts to make sense of the reading passage. If more than half of the class strength are low proficient learners you can use this as a whole class activity. If there are around 6 or 7 seven students who are low proficient you may put them in one group and interact with them as a team. If there are only 3 or four of them, you can interact with one learner. When he /she starts following your instructions go to the next student. The sub text that can be generated from this part of the story will be something like the following: a very thick forest - animals, birds, snakes and insects lived together happily. They played together peacocks admired cuckoos elephants watched fish swimming pythons spoke well of rabbits ants tickled buffaloes

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They held musical evenings elephant and deer danced mynahs and parrots sang - tiger and bear exhibited gymnastics They invited the moon and stars as guests. In the case of CWSN (children with special needs the sub texts can be orally generated and the children may be asked to re7present it visually (through drawing) as we do in a picture story and label the picture. If the general proficiency level of the whole class is very low, generate sub texts through whole class negotiation with the help of pictures depicting the sub text. This is to be displayed on a chart and the learners may be asked to associate this with the reading passage. In the case of the learners whose level of proficiency is extremely low, generate the sub text orally and write in their notebooks; this can be read graphically and then associated with the reading passage. Collaborative Reading Divide the learners into groups. Give them the following directions: o You have tried to read the first part of a story. Now take turn and share with others the events you were able to identify. Share only one event at a time. o When one member says the idea others can identify the sentence that contains this idea. o Continue sharing till you complete all the ideas. o Now take turn and share with others sentences / words you were not able to understand. I will display a chart containing glossary that can help you. o Finally, take turn and share with others the parts of the passage you liked the most. Display the glossary related only to those paragraphs that have been given for reading; this can supplement the glossary that is already given in the textbook. Move round the class and monitor whether they are collaborating as per the instructions given to them. You may ask: o Groups, did you complete sharing ideas you understood? o Did you share what you were not able to understand? o Did you share the parts you liked the most? Now you can mediate for sharing between the groups in the following manner:
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o Group 1, are there any words / sentences that you did not understand? o Which group can help group 1? o Group 2, what are your problems, etc. At this stage all learners in the class will have a fairly good understanding of the passage. Ask a few comprehension questions relevant to this part of reading passage:

Loud reading Read the passage aloud with proper pauses, stress, tone and pitch. Give the following instructions for loud reading. a. Now you are going to read aloud in your groups. b. Divide the reading passage into various parts according to the number of members in your group. c. Decide among yourselves who will read which part. d. Each one of you can take turn and read aloud your part. Others can offer suggestions to make loud reading better. Continue interaction o Which group wants to read aloud for the whole class? After the loud reading by a group give feedback interact with them in the following manner: o What changes will you like to make if you read the passage aloud again? o What are the points that come to your mind? Elicit whatever indicators they think are appropriate (You should not impose or prescribe any of them.) Come to an agreement on each of the points they make and write them on the chart (e.g., others can hear our reading, we must stop at some points, etc.) Give chance to the members to reflect on their loud reading based on these agreements. Invite suggestions from others in terms of the indicators that have been agreed upon. You may give your own positive and qualitative feedback so that they can reflect on their present level of performance and go to the next higher level (without being prescriptive). Note: Please remember that we need not work for all the indicators of oral reading such as pause, stress, tone, etc. at this point. There is no hurry. These indicators will be emerging in the class in due course with their ownership. Also indicators are to be written down in from the point of view of the learners not from the technical point of view using terms such as stress, pause, pitch, rhythm, etc. Extrapolating the text ( Scaffolded Reading )
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Display a chart containing a set of analytical, reflective and inferential questions to make the learners think, extrapolate the text and construct their own texts from it.

Ask these questions and elicit individual responses at random. Write down select responses on the chart. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What do you think about the friendship between the ant and the buffalo? Have you ever heard about cats playing with dogs? Do you think the tiger and deer can be friends for long? Do animals kill other animals out of hatred? Which society enjoys peace and harmony the society of animals or the society of human beings - Why?

Mind Mapping: Take up the mind mapping with help of the learners. Ask them to say a few words or sentences which they remember from the story associate them with their own experiences. E.g., the learners say some words / sentences from the story such as The animals lived happily, The ants tickled buffaloes,... Ask them to recall more ideas (words, sentences, expressions, etc.) and make inter connections to develop a concept map of ideas, words, events, etc. all picked up from their individual reading experience. The learners can do this work in their notebooks. They can begin mapping with anything that comes first to their mind (which will be different from learner to learner). Since individual perceptions are different, how they interconnect the ideas may also vary. They may be asked to add their reflections (like their likes and dislikes, their associations, etc.) also into the concept map. One or two students can present their concept map before the whole class. They may be put in small groups each group can consolidate their concept maps on a chart. They can also draw pictures to represent certain ideas (this will be a task that even CWSN and children with low proficiency level can do). Let groups present their concept maps. All these can be compiled together to make a Big Book of concept maps. This can be displayed at the reading corner.

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Note: you need not go for concept mapping after reading each passage because it might take a whole period However, it is a good tool that can be used to check reading comprehension and proficiency in analytical reading. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation a. Evidence for carrying out the classroom process A chart containing the analytical questions that were posed and the select responses of the children to these. Glossary related to the part of e passage that was given for reading.. The sub text that was generated for helping the low-proficient learners Pictures if any, used for helping low proficient learners.

b. Port folio evidence The mind maps developed in the learners notebook / port folio sheet. c. Evidence for collaborative work The Big Book containing the mind maps that were developed by the groups.

d. Recording assessment of the performance of the learners Interaction - You may note down the striking responses with the names of the learners in the assessment column of your lesson plan. Make a note of the learners who volunteered loud reading the intelligibility of reading and the quality of the indicators they proposed. Mind map the names of learners who developed comprehensive mind maps Names of learners who contributed to the Big book by drawing pictures in it.

Post Reading: (Construction of a conversation) It is better to go for some discourse tasks after completing the transaction of a certain segment of the reading passage. Since this is a story, there is a lot of scope for assigning roles to the learners and asking them to develop conversations. Remember, the more opportunities we provide for the learners to produce language, the more will be their growth in language proficiency. This cannot be substituted by the several tasks related to language elements that are assigned to them.

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Objectives 1. Produce conversations suitable for a given context. 2. Gain confidence in oral communication through role-play 3. Get sensitized on some articulation features (pause, stress, tone, pitch) 4. Edit the written conversation. 5. Produce Big books compiling group products. Process Interaction Initiate a discussion with the help of a few questions: 1. Look at the first part of the story which you have just completed reading. There are a few pairs of animals and birds suggested in it. They must be saying something to each other. Can you identify the pairs? 2. You can also identify the theme of the conversations of these pairs. For example, look at the sentence, The peacocks were very proud of their dances but admired the melodious songs of the cuckoos. From this you get the theme of the conversation between peacocks and cuckoos. What is that? Elicit the idea that the peacocks are admiring the songs of the cuckoos. Elicit and write more pairs and the themes such as, 1. peacocks cuckoos (peacock admiring the song of cuckoos) 2. elephants - fish (elephants watching the swimming of fish) 3. pythons rabbits (pythons admiring the flat foot of rabbits) 4. ants buffaloes (buffaloes responding to the tickling ) 5. elephant deer ( talking about dance) 6. mynah parrot (talking about songs) 7. tiger bear (talking about gymnastics) 8. moon stars (talking about the musical evening) Children may be asked to sit in pairs and each pair may be assigned role from the above. Let the pairs plan the conversation.

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Ask any two pairs to present the conversation between the cuckoos and the butterflies. Tell them they can present the idea even by mixing English and mother tongue if they find it difficult to say only in English.

Conduct a session for giving feedback in the following manner: o What modifications will you make in the role-play if you have to do again? o What are the points that come to your mind?

Elicit whatever indicators they think are appropriate (You should not impose or prescribe any of them.)

Come to an agreement in the whole class on each of the points they make and write them on the chart (e.g., more ideas needed, some sentences are to be changed, others can hear our reading, we must stop at some points, some actions can be shown, etc. )

Give chance to the performers to reflect on their role-play based on these agreements. Invite suggestions from others in terms of the indicators that have been agreed upon.

You may give your own positive and qualitative feedback so that they can reflect on their present level of performance and go to the next higher level (without being prescriptive). Note: Please remember that we need not work for all the indicators of role-play at this point. Indicators are to be evolved with their ownership. Also, indicators are to be written down in their language without using jargons. In due course we can introduce technical terms. 1. 2. 2. 3. the theme does the role play communicate the theme? the language whether changes needed in the sentences presented oral aspects off presentation audibility, pause, pitch and tone body language postures, stress, gestures, facial expressions Invite reflections from the performers first on what they think the refinement areas are. Invite suggestions from the other pairs who planned the same roles Invite suggestions from the whole class. Give positive and qualitative feedback which will make them think and go to the next higher level of learning (neither mere appreciation nor disapproval by pointing out faults will do good). Put them in groups by clubbing two or three pairs together

Refining the conversation in groups


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Put children in small groups. Ask them to share their conversation with others. The following process may be carried out.

Give instructions to the learners before they are moving into the groups. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Take turn and present the initiation (i.e., the beginning). If you cannot say the idea in English you may say it in fragments or even in mother tongue. Together you can decide how to say the idea in English. Select the sentence which you think will make a good beginning. All of you write this in your notebook. Take turn and respond to this beginning. Select the best response. Write this also in the notebook. Continue the same process till you think there are no more ideas to be shared and written. Write the whole conversation on a chart. Now you can ask the groups to present their refined conversations and display the chart in front of the class A feedback session can be conducted by inviting suggestions from the whole class and by giving your own feedback on the presentations.

What is not feedback? Pointing out errors is not feed back Mere appreciation of the learners work is not feedback Grading their work is not feedback Prescribing dos and donts is not feedback Giving them a model to follow is not feedback

Then what exactly is feedback? Feedback should help the learners reflect on their own performance and develop further constructs. How can we make feedback effective? What are the points to be taken care of while giving feedback? Please read the session on feedback given in Chapter III.

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NOTE: Whatever you do and say in the class should not harm the confidence of the learners and make them feel insecure. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation a. Evidence for carrying out the classroom process A chart containing the themes written for role-playing conversations and the points for feedback The charts containing conversations written by

c. Evidence for collaborative work Note books containing the conversation that was developed in the groups The Big Book compiled by the charts containing the conversations developed in groups d. Recording assessment of the performance of the learners Interaction - You may note down the striking responses with the names of the learners in the assessment column of your lesson plan. Your assessment of the students work in his note book how he has written the conversation The observations that were made in the feedback session; (how the performers and the others contributed in the session)

II Now we go on to process the next segment of reading (From One day a jackal entered the forest .... the moon was sad. He cried). Pre-reading Interaction Objectives The learners will be able 1. to link what they have read with what they are going to read; 2. to predict the dangers that are going to take place taking cue from the gist of the story given in the beginning;
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3. to talk about their understanding about the evils that affect peace and harmony of the society and their perception about how this can be prevented. Process You may ask questions like the following for interacting with the learners. could have continued for long? Why? 2. Look at the gist of the story at the beginning. What do you expect to read in the next part of the story? 3. The gist tells us that when the jackal came the peace and happiness of the forest got destroyed. In your opinion how is the peace and harmony in our society destroyed? 4. Whenever peace and harmony was affected there were some good people to sacrifice their life for the society. Have you heard of any of such persons? Elicit responses and write them on a chart 1. We saw that the animals, birds and insects were living a happy life. Do you think this

Reading Follow the same process for transacting this part of the reading module beginning with individual reading. Individual reading Give necessary instructions for tracking reading. Interact with the low proficiency level learners to generate a sub text for this part of the reading passage. It may be something like the following: Specimen sub text a jackal entered - dirty, dangerous - poisoned the minds of animals and birds - the animals suspected one another- they put up boundaries and fences - moved individually or with their own group. the jackal killed smaller animals and birds - no one helped - animals were afraid - no more music - the moon cried.

Collaborative reading Follow the process suggested for the first segment of reading. Loud reading ( your loud reading followed by that of the learners)

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Follow the process given earlier. You may get better indicators from the learners at the point by virtue of and the feedback given to them earlier and the loud reading you have done a moment ago.

You may ask the comprehension questions 1, 2 and 3 at this point.

Extrapolating the text Ask analytical, reflective, cause consequence, linking questions to help the learners go beyond the reading passage by constructing their own texts. You may make use of the following questions: 1. 2. 3. What does the writer mean by the sentence, the jackal poisoned the minds of peacocks? What do you think the jackal said for poisoning the minds of mynahs? The jackal poisoned the minds of deer by saying something. Could he have said the same thing to poison the minds of rabbits and squirrels to separate them away from the elephants? 4. 5. How does poisoning of minds happen in the society of human beings? Whose minds get poisoned easily those who are educated or those who are uneducated? Why do you think so? 6. What is the theme (the central idea) running through this part of the reading passage?

Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation a. Evidence for carrying out the classroom process A chart containing the themes written for role-playing conversations and the points for feedback The charts containing conversations written by

c. Evidence for collaborative work Note books containing the conversation that was developed in the groups The Big Book compiled by the charts containing the conversations developed in groups d. Recording assessment of the performance of the learners Interaction - You may note down the striking responses with the names of the learners in the assessment column of your lesson plan.
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Your assessment of the students work in his note book how he has written the conversation The observations that were made in the feedback session. (how the performers and the others contributed in the session) Discourse construction (Drama) Objectives Children will be able to 1. Identify themes for developing plots 2. Enact drama based on the plot 3. Self assess based on the performance indicators 4. Write down the drama script 5. Identify the features of drama script There are several discourses that can be constructed from the reading experience of this part of the story. But we cannot process all of them for obvious reasons. However, from the experience of roleplaying we can help them construct a drama which is a natural growth of the discourse role-play. Process How do we process a drama? Just like the role-play the drama also needs a theme. In addition it needs a plot. So let us begin with these. Interaction You have identified a theme in this part of the story. What is that? Elicit expressions such as o The result of poisoning minds, o How friends become enemies, etc. There are a few sequences of events that happened. Shall we identify them? Elicit the sequence of events by asking questions such as o How did the animals live in the forest in the beginning? o What happened then? o What did the jackal do? o What did the animals and birds do? o What happened then, etc?
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Write the sequence of events on a chart as and when they are elicited We may get something like the following: animals lived happily the jackal came poisoned the minds of animals and birds they suspected one another small animals walked alone jackal killed them the moon cried.

Interact with the learners o We can develop a drama on this sequence of events. How will we do it? o What do we need to enact a drama?

Elicit points such as o Space for enacting the drama o Actors to take role of characters (animals, birds, jackal ) o Dialogues o Actions

Now you may give the following instructions 1. Decide the characters (e.g. elephant, tiger, rabbit, squirrel, jackal, moon, peacock, mynah) 2. Decide who will enact these roles (all of you should have roles) 3. plan the dialogues 4. Plan the scenes, sequence of actions and dialogues 5. Go for rehearsal 6. Perform the drama

Invite one group to perform the drama

The feedback on the drama performance Follow the process of giving feedback as has been suggested for role-play

Note: Recall the indicators to role-play. What are the additional ones required? Conduct a session for giving feedback in the following manner: o What modifications will you make in the drama if you have to act it again? o What are the points that come to your mind? Generate indicators for assessing drama performance with the help of some questions: 1. Are all events included? 2. Are there sufficient dialogues?
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3. Do you want any changes in the dialogues? 4. Was the whole class able to hear your dialogues? 5. Did you say dialogues with emotions like joy, anger, sorrows, hate, surprise, doubt, fear, etc.? 6. Do you think your face and actions revealed these emotions? 7. Were the actors standing in the same positions throughout the performance? 8. Were all the actors on the stage from the beginning to end? 9. What did you do to help the audience identify the characters? 10. Did all members of your group take part in the drama? Note: The questions given above are related to components such as theme (1), dialogue (2), language used (3), audibility (4), articulation features such as stress, tone and pitch (5), facial expressions and gestures (6), movement (7), enter and exit (8), using props (9), and team work (10). The technical terms can be used later. First they should understand what each of these means. Write these points on the same chart containing roles and themes Invite reflections from the performers first what they think are the refinement areas. Invite suggestions from the others based on the indicators. Give positive and qualitative feedback which will make them think and go to the next higher level of learning. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Charts containing

1. The theme, plot of drama 2. Questions for feedback book 3. Indicators for assessment of enacting the drama and also those for the drama as a written discourse 4. The writings in the note books of the learners. 5. The portfolios of the learners 6. The entries made in the diary Process for writing the drama script

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They have already written the script of a role-play. What are the common features of the scripts for role-play and drama? What are the additional features required for drama? For example, we need features like description of the scenes, stage setting and actions in the drama script. Find out a way to process the drama script. script to get the drama script? Ask the groups to write the script of the drama they have planned in their notebooks Let the groups present the scripts Edit one product and Give feedback on the script -

1. What changes will be required in the process to adapt the process of developing role-play

Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation 1. Charts generated through interaction (1) the responses of learners (2) the one used 2 for giving feedback on dramatisation

Big book containing drama scripts, with evidence of editing in it and self assessment of the learners

Students notebook containing the drama scripts (1) the one written through collaboration (2) the refined one after the editing session is over

Assessment recorded in teachers diary

III (The moon thought for a while and decided to come down among the animals ... They invited the moon and the stars for their cultural evenings.) Pre-reading Initiate a quick recapitulation of the turning points in the story Ask a few analytical questions

1. Why did the moon come to the forest as a sadhu? 2. How would he help the animals and birds? Reading
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Please follow the process suggested for reading. Sub text that can be generated The moon came down as a sadhu. - the animals and the birds narrated their tales of woethe sadhu tried to bring back peace - the jackal wanted to kill - the sadhu - the animals asked the sadhu to kill the jackal - the sadhu did not want to do this - night - the jackal came to kill a hen the sadhu offered himself as the meal - the jackal ate sadhu- the jackals stomach grew big and burst the animals saw the moon back in the sky they lived in peace again.

Collaborative reading Follow the process suggested earlier Ask questions that are relevant for this part of the story. Some of them are given in the textbook. Scaffolded reading Analytical questions that may be asked 1. 2. Why did the sadhu offer himself as the jackals meal? Can you say a few lines about the people who willingly have sacrificed their lives for the well being of others? Exercise:1 - Designing an Invitation Card: Objectives 1. The design an invitation card on their own 2. They perform the welcome speech and vote of thanks 3. They develop the script for these and edit Process Generate a discussion on what they are going to do in the following manner: 1. What is the invitation card for? 2. Who are the people to be invited? 3. Who are the chief guests? 4. What are the items for the cultural function? 5. What is the task you have to do ? Build up a consensus on these and write these on a chart 1. Write an invitation card
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2. Write the welcome speech and vote of thanks Let children note down the points in their notes Let them share what they have written in terms of the following and reach at an agreement on how to say it. You may ask questions like the following: 1. How do you begin the welcome speech? 2. Who are the people you will be inviting? 3. How will you conclude your speech? Let each select two children to present o the invitation card (written) o The transcript of welcome speech (oral) o The transcript of vote of thanks (oral) Ask the groups to present what they have worked out Invite suggestion on refinement from the presenters and the others Give your feedback Let them write the scripts individually based on the feedback

Transaction of vocabulary:

Exercise I: Introducing Vocabulary on positive, comparative and superlative degrees It is always better to teach vocabulary contextually. The children have read the unit thoroughly by this time. They might have understood the vocabulary used in different contexts in the unit. Objective To make the learners 1. use the vocabulary in different contexts in their real life. 2. learn the words non-consciously. 3. become autonomous learners by referring to dictionary by themselves 4. contextualise the vocabulary in real life situations. Process Give the following instructions. 1. 2. Look at vocabulary activity under B I. Sit in groups and share you observations. What are the points you have got?
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Elicit points from the groups. Consolidate the points on the chart.

1. Adjectives can appear in forms-positive ,comparative and superlative 2. The comparative forms are formed by adding -r. The superlative forms are obtained by adding -st. 3. Some adjectives need more or most before them to comparative or superlative form. 4. There is yet another class of adjectives which have different words for positive, comparative and superlative forms. Ask children to go through the exercise individually first and then in groups. Let groups report how they have done the exercise by taking turns. After one group presents others can give comments. Give your feedback.

Exercises II and III Process Give the following instructions. 1. Read the exercises given under B II and III. Do the exercise individually. 2. You can do it at home. 3. After doing the exercise you select any five words and write the adjectives. 4. Can you write sentences where you can use both words as you have done in the fill in the blanks exercise? 5. If you face any problem you can share it in the class tomorrow. Note: Please remember the following Dont teach words in isolation. Dont ask the children to memorise the words and sentences. The next day check whether they have done the work or not. Ask a few students to present what they have done. Invite comments from others for any changes to be made. You can develop a chart containing sentences like this through negotiation with the learners. It will be more useful if you put these words in the context of discourses.

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Use concept maps to elicit stock words or loan words. Develop need based vocabulary. Encourage the learners to refer the dictionary. Do not make the learners who have not the work feel in secure (e.g. Dont worry we will do them together)

Transaction of Grammar: Exercise: I Degrees of comparison o It is always better to teach grammar contextually. By this time the children might have read the unit thoroughly as they have already been sensitised in the earlier exercises which dealt with degrees of comparison. They might have understood the sentences with degrees of comparison used in different contexts in the unit. Objective To make the learners use grammar in different contexts in their real life. learn grammar non-consciously. Use English effortlessly in their real life situations. Process Initiate a discussion in the following manner.. o We compare people and things in several ways-what are the things that we compare? Elicit ideas such as age, height, weight, colour etc. Continue the interaction o Look at grammar activity under C I. Read the sentences. Have you understood the meaning? Give them some time to read (either individually or in groups to make sense of the discussion given in the textbook. The questions may be displayed on a chart. In groups they can discuss the questions and come to an agreement on the o o o How many people does third sentence say about? How many people does the fourth sentence say about? The third sentence compares two people. When we compare two people which form of adjective is used?
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o o

Which form of adjective is used when we compare one person with several persons? Look the sentence, Siddu is the heaviest boy in the group. Suppose we want to say the same idea using the word heavy, how will we say it?

Let the children work in groups and note down the points. Elicit responses from groups Consolidate the points on the chart. 1. The comparison is made with regard to the age, height and other characteristics 2. When the comparison is made between two objects the comparative form with -er s used. 3. When the comparison is made between more than two objects the superlative form with - st is used. 4. We can compare two objects using the positive form also by using as as and not so as.

Ask them to do the exercise ct groups Ask groups at random to read out their sentences Invite comments and feedback from other grops Give them your feedback a) Dont teach grammar using discrete sentences; instead embed them in the context of discourses. b) Ask relevant questions so that the learners can analyze a given corpus of language and make their own observations. These can lead to the consolidation of the grammatical concepts that are targeted. c) Please bear in mind that learning grammar does not lead to language acquisition. It is a knowledge domain just like mathematics or physics. Nevertheless, the knowledge they construct in this domain will work as a monitor to guide them in writing and in editing a written work.

Please remember the following

Exercise II Adverbs of frequency Process Initiate a discussion in the whole class in the following line.
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We do many things in our lives. We do something every day. What are the things you do every day? Do you take breakfast immediately after waking up? Do you follow this on all days? We do some things on some days. Do you go to a movie every day? Elicit responses to the questions one after the other. 1. What do the underlined words indicate? 2. When are the tiny ants busy? 3. When do they hold musical evenings? 4. Look at the exercise under C II. Sit in groups and share you observations. Elicit points from the groups. Consolidate the points on the chart. 1. Some things we do every day, sometimes, often, always, rarely etc 2. There are words like regularly, sometimes, often, always, rarely etc in English to talk about things we do or take place every time or sometimes only. CCE Charts on grammar points students in the notebook evidence of sharing and feedback entries in teachers diary Let children do the task individually Let them share their work in groups Presentation by groups Feedback

Exercise: 1 - Designing: an Invitation Card Objectives of writing To enable the learners 1. To design an invitation card. 2. To prepare welcome address using beginning, ending and how to invite the guests.
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3. To prepare vote of thanks 4. To write a script for compeering of the programme

Process Generate a discussion on what they are going to do in the following manner: 1. What is the invitation card for? 2. Who are the people to be invited? 3. Who are the chief guests? 4. What are the items for the cultural function? 5. What is the task you have to do? o o o Build up a consensus on these and write these on a chart Write an invitation card Write the welcome speech and vote of thanks Let children note down the points in their note. Let them share what they have written in terms of the following and reach at an 1. How do you begin the welcome speech? 2. Who are the people you will be inviting? 3. How will you conclude your speech? Let each select two children to present o the invitation card (written) o The transcript of welcome speech (oral presentation) o The transcript of vote of thanks (oral presentation) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ask the groups to present what they have worked out Invite suggestion on refinement from the presenters and the others Give them your feedback Your welcome speech How did you address the audience? Did you mention the names of chief guests? Did you mention the people who are going to take various roles? How did you conclude the speech? How will you make your speech polite?
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agreement on how to say it. You may ask questions like the following:

6. 7. CCE

Did you leave out any important word in any of the sentences? What changes will you make in the welcome speech to make vote of thanks? Let them write the scripts individually based on the feedback

1. Charts containing the questions posed for giving feedback 2. The invitations prepared individually and in groups 3. The notebook containing the speeches written individually 4. The speech refined by the groups 5. The speech written individually after the feedback (portfolio evidence) 6. Entries made in the teachers diary

Exercise: 2 Preparing a Script for compeering a Cultural programme: Process Generate a discussion on what they are going to do in the following manner: 1. What is the purpose of the script? 2. Who are the people to be invited? 3. Who are the chief guests and other guests? 4. What are the items for the cultural function? 5. What is the task you have to do? Build up a consensus on these and write these on a chart Write the script for compeering. Let children note down the points in their notes Let them share what they have written in terms of the following and reach at an agreement on how to say it. You may ask questions like the following: 1. How do you begin the welcome speech? 2. Who are the people you will be inviting? 3. How will you conclude your welcome speech? Let each select two children to present the compeering script (written) Ask the groups to present what they have worked out. Invite suggestion on refinement from the presenters and the others
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Give your feedback. The questions you ask for giving feedback may be written and displayed on a chart Your compeering script 1. How did you begin? 2. Did you mention the chief guests? 3. Did you include their personal details in the speech? 4. How did you call upon them to the dais? 5. Did you include highlights of the items in the speech? 6. Do you want to rethink on the pauses you have made? 7. Did you give prominence on some of the words in the sentence?

Let them write the scripts individually based on the feedback

CCE 1. The charts that have emerged 2. The points noted down by the learners in the notebook for group work 3. The product that emerged in groups (notebook) through sharing 4. The script written individually after feedback 5. The entries in the notebook Please remember the following Encourage the learners to present their ideas before the others freely. Take care of the low proficient learners. Conduct mock compeering in the classroom. Dont focus on teaching of grammar.

Transaction of Study skills Objectives To enable the learners 1. 2. Process 1. Give instructions Look at the table given under E. Sit in groups share your ideas about the contents.
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To read a table of contents and make sense of it To analyse the table and draw inferences

2. 3. 4.

We happen to see tables like this in our daily life. Where do you find this type of tables? How are they useful for us? Elicit responses Consolidate the responses orally

Ask the learners to do the exercise given in filling blanks at home Ask the learners to present their work the next day Invite the learners to their feed back Discuss the responses with the children Give your feed back

CCE The changes the learners may have made in the notebook after feedback Entries in the diary

Transaction of Listening and Speaking Objectives To enable the learners to listen and understand to listen and speak

Process Give instructions 1. Look at picture given on page 1. 2. Observe the picture and respond. 3. What do you see in the picture? 4. Who do you think are the people in the picture? 5. Who do you think has killed the snake? 6. Whom does the woman try to beat? Elicit free responses from the learners Record the responses
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CCE

Process Divide the story into two meaningful chunks Read 6 paragraphs, the first part from ''Once, a farmer.... to ...didnt return for some time.'' with proper pause, stress, intonation with gestures and facial expressions. Read the story once or twice. Interact with the learners by asking some analytical, extrapolative , inferential 1. Why did the farmer bring the mongoose home? 2. Do think the mongoose is a good companion of the son? 3. Why did the husband go to fields leaving the child to the mongoose? 4. Do you think the mongoose would have bitten the child? 5. What would you have done if you were in the husband's place? 6. What kind of an animal do you think is the mongoose? Why do you think so?

questions.

Elicit responses from the learners Record the evidences on a chart

CCE Please remember the following: 1. Dont allow the learners to look into the textbook while giving the listening input. 2. Allow the learners think and respond. 3. See to it that every learner is involved. 4. 6. Encourage everybody to speak. Accept all the responses of the learners and give feedback accordingly. 5. Dont interrupt and correct when the learners are speaking.

Transaction of the Poem: Interaction 1. What is the poem about? 2. What ideas do you get from the picture? Elicit random responses

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Individual reading Ask children to read poem individually. They can only read it at their own pace. You

may give the following directions to help them track their own progress in reading. 1. Read the given poems I am the Earth; I want Peace on page number 12. 2. 3. 4. 5. Use a pencil to put a tick against the lines you are able to understand. You may put a question mark against the line that contains parts you are not able to understand. Pick out the main theme of each stanza of the poem. Write the themes in your note book. Put a star against the lines that you liked the most.

Move round the class to monitor whether they are tracking their reading process. You may interact with them in between by asking questions like the following: Don worry if you were not able to read and understand the poem. Try to guess the meaning of the unfamiliar words with the help of words you already know. Please do not consult with anyone at this point. You can put question marks wherever you faced difficulties. Sometimes the glossary may help you.

Issues and challenges in facilitating individual reading If you think there are a few low proficient learners you need to work out some strategies to help them get at least some ideas from the reading passage. You can try the following: Ask specific questions: 1. Who does I refer to? 2. What was its shape? 3. What does it worry about? 4. What does the poet want to have on the earth? 5. Why does he think so? 6. What is the tone of the poem? What emotions does it contain anger, disappointment, pain, etc.? Note: The objective of this type of interaction is to help the learners make their own sub texts from the poem. The sub texts can be in the form of names of the objects, places, etc.) and events. These will provide the learners with good support in their efforts to make sense of the poem.
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If more than half of the class strength is low proficient learners you can use this as a whole class activity.

If there are around 6 or 7 seven students who are low proficient you may put them in one group and interact with them as a team.

If there are only 3 or four of them, you can interact with one learner. When he /she starts following your instructions go to the next student.

The sub text that can be generated from this part of the story will be something like the following: The images the earth -people crying for help -feelings of the people-the problems of the people-the sound of the people who are being killed.

In the case of CWSN (children with special needs the sub texts can be orally generated and the children may be asked to represent it visually (through drawing) as we do in a picture story and label the picture.

If the general proficiency level of the whole class is very low, generate sub texts through whole class negotiation with the help of pictures depicting the sub text. This is to be displayed on a chart and the learners may be asked to associate this with the reading passage.

In the case of the learners whose level of proficiency is extremely low, generate the sub text orally and write in their notebooks; this can be read graphically and then associated with the reading passage.

Collaborative Reading Divide the learners into groups. Give them the following directions: o You have tried to read the first poem. Now take turn and share with others the events you were able to identify. Share only one event at a time. o When one member says the idea others can identify the sentence that contains this idea. o Continue sharing till you complete all the ideas. o Now take turn and share with others sentences / words you were not able to understand. I will display a chart containing glossary that can help you. o Finally, take turn and share with others the parts of the poems you liked the most. Display the glossary related only to those poems that have been given for reading; this can supplement the glossary that is already given in the textbook.

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Move round the class and monitor whether they are collaborating as per the instructions given to them. You may ask: Groups, did you complete sharing ideas you understood? Did you share what you were not able to understand? Did you share the parts you liked the most? Did you share the themes?

Now you can mediate for sharing between the groups in the following manner: 1. Group 1, are there any words / sentences that you did not understand? 2. Which group can help group 1? 3. Group 2, what are your problems, etc.

At this stage all learners in the class will have a fairly good understanding of the poem. Extrapolating the text (Scaffolded Reading ) Display a chart containing a set of analytical, reflective and inferential questions to make the learners think, extrapolate the text and construct their own texts from it. Ask these questions and elicit individual responses at random. Write down select responses on the chart. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Loud Reading Ask a few comprehension questions relevant to this part of the poem: Read the poem aloud with proper pauses, stress, tone, rhyme and rhythm. Give the following instructions for loud reading. 1. Now you are going to read aloud in your groups. 2. Divide the poem into various parts according to the number of members in your group. 3. Decide among yourselves who will read which part. What do you mean by the line the weight of sorrow on me? Was the earth happy or sorrowful? Give reasons for your opinion. Why does the poet think about the past? How does the earth understand the problems of the people on it? What is your opinion on the line "I try to handle my sorrow." Can you state a few other problem that the earth is facing? How would you save the earth from all the problems that it is facing?

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4. Each one of you can take turn and read aloud your part. Others can offer suggestions to make loud reading better. Continue interaction 1. Which group wants to read aloud for the whole class? After the loud reading by a group give feedback interact with them in the following manner: 1. What changes will you like to make if you read the poem aloud again? 2. What are the points that come to your mind? Elicit whatever indicators they think are appropriate (You should not impose or prescribe any of them.) Come to an agreement on each of the points they make and write them on the chart (e.g., others can hear our reading, we must stop at some points, etc.) Give chance to the members to reflect on their loud reading based on these agreements. Invite suggestions from others in terms of the indicators that have been agreed upon.

You may give your own positive and qualitative feedback so that they can reflect on their present level of performance and go to the next higher level (without being prescriptive). 1. The line I am big and round appears in all the three stanzas. Would you like to read these lines in the same way? 2. What is the theme of the first stanza? 3. It talks about people crying 4. What is the theme of the second stanza? 5. It talks about the heaviness of sorrows, the hardhips 6. What is the theme of the last stanza? 7. It deals with the resolution of Earth to face the sorrows. 8. The last line contains a determination 9. How will you reflect these while reciting the line, I am big and round.

Note: Please remember that we need not work for all the indicators of oral reading such as pause, stress, tone rhyme and rhythm, etc. at this point. There is no hurry. These indicators will be emerging in the class in due course with their ownership. Also indicators are to be written down in from the point of view of the learners not from the technical point of view using terms such as stress, pause, pitch, rhythm, etc.

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Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation a. Evidence for carrying out the classroom process A chart containing the analytical questions that were posed and the select responses of the children to these. Analytical questions Discussion points for feedback Glossary related to the part of the passage that was given for reading.. The sub text that was generated for helping the low-proficient learners Pictures if any, used for helping low proficient learners. Entries in the diary

Post Reading: (Construction of the script of choreography) It is better to go for some discourse tasks after completing the transaction of reading a poem. Since these are two poems, there is a lot of scope for asking the pupils to write an analytical essay based on the two poems. Remember, the more opportunities we provide for the learners to produce language, the more will be their growth in language proficiency. This cannot be substituted by the several tasks related to language elements that are assigned to them. Objectives Process 1. Sing the song three or four times to register the tune and rhythm 2. Identify the theme of the song First stanza The pain of earth Second stanzairs st The heaviness of sorrows Third stanza Produce an essay suitable for a given context. choreograph the poem

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The determination to accept sorrows 3. Convert the themes into incidents from real life incidents 1. determination by loading power on the limbs (steady a sorrowful incident t that can cause pain for earth (mining) 2. dumping garbage, plastic and other things that will not decay (heaviness) 3. showing posture) 4. What are the actions involved in these? 5. Who are the characters involved? -earth, people mining, dumping wastage, 6. Where do the incident happen (Location) ? - river side, streets, We need the central characters and a chorus team to create the location Actions: The chorus set the setting The characters in action The action of earth sorrows, heaviness, determination The actions related to mining Actions related to throwing wastage

7. Sing the poem and do the actions 8. Writing the script Transaction of a Project: Process Give instructions 1. How are the forests useful for us? 2. 4. Have you ever visited a forest? What happen to us if the forests are destroyed? Display the following questions on a chart 3. Why do people like forests?

1. How will you do the project?


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2. Where will you get the information from? 3. Who will collect the information? 4. How will you share the information? 5. How will you record the data? 6. What questions will you ask for discussion? Let them write down their points individually and come to an agreement on how the project is to be carried out. CCE 1. Charts containing questions 2. Notebooks containing information collected 3. Questions developed individually 4. The agreements made in groups 5. The project report Let groups make presentations Compile all reports to make big book

Extensive Reading Process Suggestions: Dont ask too many questions on the story. Dont translate the story into mother language. Dont explain the story. Let the learners read and understand on their own. Encourage the learners to read the stories extensively. Ask them to share their individual reading eaperience

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Unit III

Transaction of a Unit Class VII The Town Mouse and Country Mouse Reading provides one of the major inputs for the learners to develop proficiency in language. How will process a reading passage? At the outset let us be clear about one thing. The ultimate aim is not to transmit the information given in the reading passage, but to transact a reading experience that will help the learners construct their own texts from the reading passage by personalising and localising it. Therefore, we cannot be satisfied by checking comprehension by asking information based questions. We have to help the learners read the passage analytically and critically and reflect on their reading experience. The module hopefully will help you translate this concept into classroom practice. Pre-reading You may have noticed that each unit contains a face sheet with a picture on it. This is to be used as a trigger for interacting with the learners. Objectives of interaction based on the picture: The learners 1. 2. 3. come out with their perception (i.e. what they think about the picture) of the picture; talk about their understanding of the theme that is inbuilt in the picture as well as the in the various components of the unit; make intelligent predictions on the passage they are going to read.

Process Show the two pictures of given on page 1 of the reader and interact with the learners by asking a few questions most of which are to be analytical. Some questions are suggested below: What do you see in the two pictures? Where would you like to live? Where do you think life is peaceful? Why? Do animals feel the same like you?

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Elicit responses to the questions taking them one by one. You can write some select responses on a chart.

Note: All responses need not be written on the chart; write only those responses (consisting of key expressions and sentences) that are directly relevant to the theme of the reading passage. The children will be motivated to answer the questions in their own way based on their own perceptions if we give them freedom to respond to the questions in their own way. Challenges: All children may not use the language appropriately. use grammatically correct sentences. speak with correct pronunciation. they may use mother tongue they expect explanation for every word and sentence.

Suggestions: 1. Allow them to use mother tongue when they are unable to use English. You can put their ideas in English for the sake of the whole class. 2. Allow the learners to speak freely and fearlessly to promote divergent thinking. 3. Accept their responses with a smile and encouraging remarks like good, fine etc. 4. At this stage let us appreciate their ability to analyze a situation and come out with their on perceptions. Remember, we are facilitating language learning and not teaching the content of the textbook or language elements.

Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) After the transaction of this segment of the module you will have some points to note down from the perspective of continuous and comprehensive evaluation. Let us see what these are: a. Evidence for carrying out the classroom process A chart containing select responses of the children to the questions that were asked b. Recording assessment of the performance of the learners You may note down the striking responses with the names of the learners in the assessment column of your lesson plan. See the specimen:
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Process Interaction based on the theme picture

Assessment Raghu,Anju, and Neha responded in English. We see houses buses trucks, a men and woman some children.( Raghu) The first picture is like village and the second picture is like a town.(Anju) I like to live in a village.(Neha)

Issues, Challenges and Solutions: You cannot record your assessment of all children at a single stretch. It is enough you record the assessment of only those children who have performed in a fairly good manner. In the specimen given here the children have come out with well-formed constructions in English which means they have already achieved a desirable level of proficiency. We have to wait till we get evidence of their achievement in English from the others as well. You may also note down the names of those students who have expressed their own ideas using negligible errors. Do not try to correct any of them when they are at pains to express.

Reading-1 The transaction module of reading needs elaborate treatment because there are a few sub modules to be transacted. Let us begin with the objectives of transacting this segment. Objectives 1. Children make an effort to read individually and track their own reading process. 2. They make sense of the reading passage using a number of strategies such as Checking their predictions on the reading passage Locating information that they were able to pool from the interaction that has taken place Guessing the meaning of words from the context and also using familiar words as stepping stones. Using the glossary given to them, etc. Sharing ideas with others

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3. They make sense of the reading passage through collaboration. 4. They reflect on the passage they have read. 5. They analyze the information given and link it with their personal experience. 6. They generate their own texts from the given text. Process Individual reading Ask children to read individually. They can only read it at their own pace. You may give the following directions to help them track their own progress in reading. Read the given passage The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse from paragraph 1to3 silently. 1. 2. 3. 3. Use a pencil to put a tick against the lines you are able to understand. You may put a question mark against the line that contains parts you are not able to understand. Pick out the important events in this part of the story. Put a star against the lines that you liked the most. Move round the class to monitor whether they are tracking their reading process. You may interact with them in between by asking questions like the following: Don worry if you were not able to read and understand the whole of the passage. Try to guess the meaning of the unfamiliar words with the help of words you already know. Please do not consult with anyone at this point. You can put question marks wherever you faced difficulties. Sometimes the glossary may help you.

Issues and challenges in facilitating individual reading If you think there are a few low proficient learners you need to work out some strategies to help them get at least some ideas from the reading passage. You can try the following: Ask specific questions: How were the mice related? Who wrote the letter first? When did the town mouse write the letter? Why did the town mouse want to visit the country mouse? How did the town mouse feel in the town?
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What items did the town mouse ask the country mouse after getting off the train?

Note: The objective of this type of interaction is to help the learners their own sub texts from the reading passage. The sub texts can be in the form of names of the (characters, objects, places, etc.) and events. These will provide the learners good support in their efforts to make sense of the reading passage. If more than half of the class strength is low proficient learners you can use this as a whole class activity. If there are around 6 or 7 seven students who are low proficient you may put them in one group and interact with them as a team. If there are only 3 or four of them, you can interact with one learner. When he /she starts following your instructions go to the next student. The sub text that can be generated from this part of the story will be something like the following: The images of ice-cream, orange juice, lemonade, sugarcane, the quite life of a village, the busy and crowded life in a town In the case of CWSN (children with special needs the sub texts can be orally generated and the children may be asked to represent it visually (through drawing) as we do in a picture story and label the picture. If the general proficiency level of the whole class is very low, generate sub texts through whole class negotiation with the help of pictures depicting the sub text. This is to be displayed on a chart and the learners may be asked to associate this with the reading passage. In the case of the learners whose level of proficiency is extremely low, generate the sub text orally and write in their notebooks; this can be read graphically and then associated with the reading passage. Collaborative Reading Divide the learners into groups. Give them the following directions: You have tried to read the first part of a story. Now take turn and share with others the events you were able to identify. Share only one event at a time. When one member says the idea others can identify the sentence that contains this idea.
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Continue sharing till you complete all the ideas. Now take turn and share with others sentences / words you were not able to understand. I will display a chart containing glossary that can help you. Finally, take turn and share with others the parts of the passage you liked the most.

Display the glossary related only to those paragraphs that have been given for reading; this can supplement the glossary that is already given in the textbook. Move round the class and monitor whether they are collaborating as per the instructions given to them. You may ask: Groups, did you complete sharing ideas you understood? Did you share what you were not able to understand? Did you share the parts you liked the most?

Now you can mediate for sharing between the groups in the following manner: Group 1, are there any words / sentences that you did not understand? Which group can help group 1? Group 2, what are your problems, etc.

At this stage all learners in the class will have a fairly good understanding of the passage. Loud Reading Ask a few comprehension questions relevant to this part of reading passage: Read the passage aloud with proper pauses, stress, tone and pitch. Give the following instructions for loud reading. Now you are going to read aloud in your groups. Divide the reading passage into various parts according to the number of members in your group. Decide among yourselves who will read which part. Each one of you can take turn and read aloud your part. Others can offer suggestions to make loud reading better. Continue interaction Which group wants to read aloud for the whole class? After the loud reading by a group give feedback interact with them in the following manner: What changes will you like to make if you read the passage aloud again? What are the points that come to your mind?

Elicit whatever indicators they think are appropriate (You should not impose or prescribe any of them.)
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Come to an agreement on each of the points they make and write them on the chart (e.g., others can hear our reading, we must stop at some points, etc.) Give chance to the members to reflect on their loud reading based on these agreements. Invite suggestions from others in terms of the indicators that have been agreed upon.

You may give your own positive and qualitative feedback so that they can reflect on their present level of performance and go to the next higher level (without being prescriptive).

Note: Please remember that we need not work for all the indicators of oral reading such as pause, stress, tone, etc. at this point. There is no hurry. These indicators will be emerging in the class in due course with their ownership. Also indicators are to be written down in from the point of view of the learners not from the technical point of view using terms such as stress, pause, pitch, rhythm, etc. Extrapolating the text (Scaffolded Reading ) Display a chart containing a set of analytical, reflective and inferential questions to make the learners think, extrapolate the text and construct their own texts from it. Ask these questions and elicit individual responses at random. Write down select responses on the chart. 1. What differences do you find between a country life and a life? 2. Where do you want to live? 3. Have you ever been to a village? 4. What interesting things and places do you find in a town? 5. Why do you think the town mouse did not enjoy the dinner hosted by the country mouse? 6. Why do you think the mouse the town mouse was surprised? 7. What do you think the town mouse has forgotten?

Mind Mapping: Take up the mind mapping with help of the learners. Ask them to say a few words or sentences which they remember from the story associate them with their own experiences. E.g., the learners say some words / sentences from the story such as I dont eat raw food like sugarcane, cars, lorries, sleep on the ground. Ask

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them to recall more ideas (words, sentences, expressions, etc.) and make inter connections to develop a concept map of ideas, words, events, etc. all picked up from their individual reading experience. The learners can do this work in their notebooks. They can begin mapping with anything that comes first to their mind (which will be different from learner to learner). Since individual perceptions are different, how they interconnect the ideas may also vary. They may be asked to add their reflections (like their likes and dislikes, their associations, etc.) also into the concept map. One or two students can present their concept map before the whole class. They may be put in small groups each group can consolidate their concept maps on a chart. They can also draw pictures to represent certain ideas (this will be a task that even CWSN and children with low proficiency level can do ). Let groups present their concept maps. All these can be compiled together to make a Big Book of concept maps. This can be displayed at the reading corner. Note: you need not go for concept mapping after reading each passage because it might take a whole period However, it is a good tool that can be used to check reading comprehension and proficiency in analytical reading. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation a. Evidence for carrying out the classroom process A chart containing the analytical questions that were posed and the select responses of the children to these. Glossary related to the part of e passage that was given for reading.. The sub text that was generated for helping the low-proficient learners Pictures if any, used for helping low proficient learners.

b. Port folio evidence The mind maps developed in the learners notebook / port folio sheet. c. Evidence for collaborative work The Big Book containing the mind maps that were developed by the groups.

d. Recording assessment of the performance of the learners Interaction - You may note down the striking responses with the names of the learners in the assessment column of your lesson plan.
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Mind map the names of learners who developed comprehensive mind maps Names of learners who contributed to the Big book by drawing pictures in it. Post Reading: (Construction of a conversation) It is better to go for some discourse tasks after completing the transaction of a certain segment of the reading passage. Since this is a story, there is a lot of scope for assigning roles to the learners and asking them to develop conversations. Remember, the more opportunities we provide for the learners to produce language, the more will be their growth in language proficiency. This cannot be substituted by the several tasks related to language elements that are assigned to them. Objectives Produce conversations suitable for a given context. Gain confidence in oral communication.

Process Look at the first of the part of the story which you have just completed reading. There are two mice belonging to a village and a town respectively. In the same way you may think of two boys belonging to a village and a town respectively meet and talking to each other. Children may be asked to sit in pairs and each pair may be assigned role from the above. Let the pairs plan the conversation. Ask any two pairs to present the conversation between the cuckoos and the butterflies. Tell them they can present the idea even by mixing English and mother tongue if they find it difficult to say only in English. Conduct a session for giving feedback in the following manner: What modifications will you make in the role-play if you have to do again in terms of the following? 1. The theme does the role play communicate the theme? 2. The language whether changes needed in the sentences presented 2. Oral aspects off presentation audibility, pause, pitch and tone 3. Body language postures, stress, gestures, facial expressions Write these points on the same chart containing roles and themes Invite reflections from the performers first Invite suggestions from the other pairs who planned the same roles Invite suggestions from the whole class.

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Give positive and qualitative feedback which will make them tdhink and go to the next higher level of learning (neither mere appreciation nor disapproval by pointing out faults will do good).

Put them in groups by clubbing two or three pairs together

Refining the conversation in groups Put children in small groups. Ask them to share their conversation with others. The following process may be carried out. Give instructions to the learners before they are moving into the groups. 1. Take turn and present the initiation (i.e., the beginning). 2. If you cannot say the idea in English you may say it in fragments or even in mother tongue. Together you can decide how to say the idea in English. 3. Select the sentence which you think will make a good beginning. All of you write this in your notebook. 4. Take turn and respond to this beginning. 5. Select the best response. 6. Write this also in the notebook. 7. Continue the same process till you think there are no more ideas to be shared and written. 8. Write the whole conversation on a chart. Now you can ask the groups to present their refined conversations and display the chart in front of the class A feedback session can be conducted by inviting suggestions from the whole class and by giving your own feedback on the presentations. NOTE: Whatever you do and say in the class should not harm the confidence of the learners and make them feel insecure. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation a. Evidence for carrying out the classroom process A chart containing the themes written for role-playing conversations and the points for feedback The charts containing conversations written by groups Note books containing the conversation that was developed in the groups The Big Book compiled by the charts containing the conversations developed in groups
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b. Evidence for collaborative work

c. Recording assessment of the performance of the learners Interaction - You may note down the striking responses with the names of the learners in the assessment column of your lesson plan. Your assessment of the students work in his note book how he has written the conversation The observations that were made in the feedback session. (how the performers and the others contributed in the session) Now we go on to process the next segment of reading (From A few days later the country mouse arrived in the town.) Pre-reading Interaction Objectives The learners will be able 1. to link what they have read with what they are going to read 2. to predict why the town mouse left the country in a hurry taking cue from the gist of the story. 3. to talk about the differences between the life in town and a village. Process You may ask questions like the following for interacting with the learners. the food the environment there. 2. Look at the gist of the story at the beginning. What do you expect to read in the next part of the story? 3. The gist tells us that there is a difference between country life and town life. Do you feel the same way if you were the town mouse? 4. You might have observed that the people in the villages are migrating to towns and cities. Can give the reasons? 5. Have you seen anyone migrating to town from your village? Elicit responses and write them on a chart 1. We learnt that the town mouse came to the countryside for a holiday. But he did not like

Reading-2 Follow the same process for transacting this part of the reading module beginning with individual reading.
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Individual reading Give necessary instructions for tracking reading. Interact with the low proficiency level learners to generate a sub text for this part of the reading passage. It may be something like the following: Specimen sub text

The country mouse went to the town- he was surprised by the in the town- he tasted a different food-he was not comfortable in the cupboard in the town- he was fed up with the town life. Collaborative reading Follow the process suggested for the first segment of reading. Loud reading ( your loud reading followed by that of the learners) Follow the process given earlier. You may get better indicators from the learners at the point by virtue of and the feedback given to them earlier and the loud reading you have done a moment ago. You may ask the comprehension questions 1, 2 and 3 at this point.

Extrapolating the text Ask analytical, reflective, cause consequence, linking questions to help the learners go beyond the reading passage by constructing their own texts. You may make use of the following questions: 1. What does the writer mean by the sentence "we may not get much food there, but at least we can eat in peace". 2. What would happen if the person who opened the cupboard found any one of the mice. 3. Do you believe that there is more peace in the country than in the town? Can you give your reasons? 4. Can you say why most of the villagers are migrating to towns from villages even though there is no peace?

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5. Why do you think that the country mouse and the town mouse did not visit each other again? 6. What is the central idea of the story? You have read the story . 7. What do you think is the most striking sentence in the story? 8. You might have read the sentence They had to run for safety when somebody opened the cupboard door Process (Constructio n of a narrative) Ask the following questions 1. Can you imagine the thoughts of the country mouse at that time? 2. What could the country mouse have thought about town life before going there? 3.What were the experiences of the country mouse when he came to the town for the first time? 4. What opinions could he have formed about town life? 4. what were his feelings about the life of the town mouse? The questions should be asked individually first. Later let them sit in groups and the pupils maybe asked to write a narrative based on the questions. Give feedback The best presentation should be displayed in the class and may be edited.

VOCABULARY:(process) The first two exercises may be given for home work. The instructions Exercise 3: Ask the pupils to read the exercise 3 and ask them what they have understood. You may consolidate their observations on a chart in the following manner: 1. Words can be combined together 2. When we put two words together we get a new word with a different meaning. Interact with them in the following was: 1. Do you know the words on the left side? 2. What about the words in the right side column? 3. Look the first word. Combine it with all the words on the right side? Do you get meaningful words?

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4. So what do you understand from this? Elicit the third point and write it below the first two points 3. Any two words cannot be combined to get a meaningful word. Ask them to combine the words on the column on A with those on the column to get meaningful combinations. Tell them more than one combination may be possible. Let children work individually Ask a few of them to present one or two words. Invite comments from the whole class on the meaning they get You may give your feedback Put them in small groups. Ask them to work on the entire set of words. They should also write the down the meaning of the new words they got. Then ask the pupils to combine the words on column B with those on column and see whether meaningful words are obtained. Allow one group to present what they have written. Invite suggestions from the other groups Give feedback

C. GRAMMAR: I Degrees of comparison Process: Ask the pupils to observe the exercise 1 on page number 9 and ask them what they have understood. Expected consolidation: Adjectives have 3 degrees of comparison (positive, ocomparative and superlative). In most cases we get the comparative and superlative forms by adding er and est to the adjective. In some adjectives the words more and most are put on the left side to get the other degrees of comparison. Some adjectives have 3 different forms like good-better-best

II. The meaning of modals can and may Follow the same process of consolidating the grammar concepts in 1 and 2

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children read and make sense of what has been given as explanations the come out with their observations the observations are consolidated the tasks are done individually first children refine their work through collaboration groups make presentation feedback is given

III Subject + Wish + subject + past tense combinations Ask the pupils to read the sentence "I wish there was an air-conditioned coach" and ask what they have understood/what the sentence means. Help them to derive the meaning with the help of a few supportive questions: Does the speaker have an aid-conditioned coach now? Is he sure that he will be getting one? But he wants an-air conditioned coach, doesnt he? So what is the meaning of the whole sentence? What is the sequence of the words used in the sentence wish there was an air conditioned coach/ Elicit the point that it contains the following elements: Subject + wish + subject + past tense form of the verb Let students try to say the idea in mother tongue if they want. You may intervene if necessary. You may ask one more question. Ask them to do the task individually Go for random presentation from a few. Let each student say only one sentence at a time. Let them sit in groups and share the work Ask one group to present sentence the sentence in 2. Invite comments from others

You may intervene wherever necessary.

(Alternatively, you may assign this work as home task, the consolidation in groups can take place on the next day). D. Writing Letters 1. Let children write the letter independently.
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2. Let one or two children say how they began the letter. 3. Let a few children say what they wrote in the first part of the letter. 4. Let a few of them take turn and present what they wrote in the last part of the letter. 5. Let a few of them say how they concluded the letter. 6. Let them sit in groups and share how they began the letter. 7. Let the members come to an agreement on how to begin the letter. 8. Let them share what they wrote in the first part of the letter. 9. Let the group collectively select the best idea. 10. Let them share what they wrote next and come to an agreement on the best idea. 11. Let them decide on the other ideas they want to write. 12. Let them com to an agreemet on how to finish the letter. 13. Ask them to look the letters goven in the textbook to study the format used for writing letters. 14. They can write the letter on chart paper for presentation in the whole class. 15. Take one group product and edit it Self assessment Poem Process Individual reading let children do the self assessment task on page 12 consolidate how many assessed as es'', how many 'no'and how many 'somewhat'' do the same process of consolidation for the next assessment task also. make a note of the consolidation in your diary.

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Ask children to read poem individually. They can only read it at their own pace. You may give the following directions to help them track their own progress in reading. Read the given poems The Town Child and the Country Child on page number 16 and 17. 1. 2. 3. 3. Use a pencil to put a tick against the lines you are able to understand. You may put a question mark against the line that contains parts you are not able to understand. Pick out the important events in this part of the poem. Put a star against the lines that you liked the most. Move round the class to monitor whether they are tracking their reading process. You may interact with them in between by asking questions like the following: Don worry if you were not able to read and understand the poem. Try to guess the meaning of the unfamiliar words with the help of words you already know. Please do not consult with anyone at this point. You can put question marks wherever you faced difficulties. Sometimes the glossary may help you.

Issues and challenges in facilitating individual reading If you think there are a few low proficient learners you need to work out some strategies to help them get at least some ideas from the reading passage. You can try the following: Ask specific questions:

1. Who does I refer to? 2. Where does he /she live? 3. How is life there? 4. What does the poet want to have in the town? 5. Why does he think so ? Note: The objective of this type of interaction is to help the learners their own sub texts from the reading poems. The sub texts can be in the form of names of the (characters, objects, places, etc.) and events. These will provide the learners good support in their efforts to make sense of the poems.

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If more than half of the class strength is low proficient learners you can use this as a whole class activity. If there are around 6 or 7 seven students who are low proficient you may put them in one group and interact with them as a team. If there are only 3 or four of them, you can interact with one learner. When he /she starts following your instructions go to the next student. The sub text that can be generated from this part of the story will be something like the following:

The images of a boy living in a street of a town crowded traffic with buses, motors and tramps. Crowded houses, smoke, the cloudy sky etc The boy living in a village- lonely, sounded by tall trees, birds on the branches and the flowers etc In the case of CWSN (children with special needs the sub texts can be orally generated and the children may be asked to represent it visually (through drawing) as we do in a picture story and label the picture. If the general proficiency level of the whole class is very low, generate sub texts through whole class negotiation with the help of pictures depicting the sub text. This is to be displayed on a chart and the learners may be asked to associate this with the reading passage. In the case of the learners whose level of proficiency is extremely low, generate the sub text orally and write in their notebooks; this can be read graphically and then associated with the reading passage. Collaborative Reading Divide the learners into groups. Give them the following directions: You have tried to read the first poem. Now take turn and share with others the events you were able to identify. Share only one event at a time. When one member says the idea others can identify the sentence that contains this idea. Continue sharing till you complete all the ideas. Now take turn and share with others sentences / words you were not able to understand. I will display a chart containing glossary that can help you.

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Finally, take turn and share with others the parts of the poems you liked the most.

Display the glossary related only to those poems that have been given for reading; this can supplement the glossary that is already given in the textbook. Move round the class and monitor whether they are collaborating as per the instructions given to them. You may ask: 1. Groups, did you complete sharing ideas you understood? 2. Did you share what you were not able to understand? 3. Did you share the parts you liked the most?

Now you can mediate for sharing between the groups in the following manner: Group 1, are there any words / sentences that you did not understand? Which group can help group 1? Group 2, what are your problems, etc.

At this stage all learners in the class will have a fairly good understanding of the poem. Loud Reading Ask a few comprehension questions relevant to this part of the poem: Read the poem aloud with proper pauses, stress, tone, rhyme and rhythm. Give the following instructions for loud reading. 1. Now you are going to read aloud in your groups. 2. Divide the poem into various parts according to the number of members in your group. 3. Decide among yourselves who will read which part. 4. Each one of you can take turn and read aloud your part. Others can offer suggestions to make loud reading better. Continue interaction Which group wants to read aloud for the whole class? After the loud reading by a group give feedback interact with them in the following manner: 1. What changes will you like to make if you read the poem aloud again? 2. What are the points that come to your mind? Elicit whatever indicators they think are appropriate (You should not impose or prescribe any of them.) Come to an agreement on each of the points they make and write them on the chart (e.g., others can hear our reading, we must stop at some points, etc.) Give chance to the members to reflect on their loud reading based on these agreements.
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Invite suggestions from others in terms of the indicators that have been agreed upon.

You may give your own positive and qualitative feedback so that they can reflect on their present level of performance and go to the next higher level (without being prescriptive).

Note: Please remember that we need not work for all the indicators of oral reading such as pause, stress, tone rhyme and rhythm, etc. at this point. There is no hurry. These indicators will be emerging in the class in due course with their ownership. Also indicators are to be written down in from the point of view of the learners not from the technical point of view using terms such as stress, pause, pitch, rhythm, etc.

Extrapolating the text (Scaffolded Reading ) Display a chart containing a set of analytical, reflective and inferential questions to make the learners think, extrapolate the text and construct their own texts from it. Ask these questions and elicit individual responses at random. Write down select responses on the chart. - What do you mean by the line the houses all wait in a row? - Why is there smoke everywhere? - What happens if smoke is everywhere? - What causes noises in the town? - What is the central theme of the poem? - Why does the child want to the town in the second poem? - Can you say why the town child wants to the village and the country child wants to the town? - Why are they not satisfied with their lives? - What do the two poems tell us? - Where is the population high? What problems will we face if the population increases? - Can you find any similarity between the reading passage " the town mouse and the country mouse" and these two poems? What is it?
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go

Mind Mapping: Take up the mind mapping with help of the learners. Ask them to say a few words or sentences which they remember from the poems and associate them with their own experiences. E.g., the learners say some words / sentences from the poems, town, village, there is smoke every where, there is no one to play with, the lanes are so quiet Ask them to recall more ideas (words, sentences, expressions, etc.) and make inter connections to develop a concept map of ideas, words, events, etc. all picked up from their individual reading experience. The learners can do this work in their notebooks. They can begin mapping with anything that comes first to their mind (which will be different from learner to learner). Since individual perceptions are different, how they interconnect the ideas may also vary. They may be asked to add their reflections (like their likes and dislikes, their associations, etc.) also into the concept map. One or two students can present their concept map before the whole class. They may be put in small groups each group can consolidate their concept maps on a chart. They can also draw pictures to represent certain ideas (this will be a task that even CWSN and children with low proficiency level can do ). Let groups present their concept maps. All these can be compiled together to make a Big Book of concept maps. This can be displayed at the reading corner. Note: you need not go for concept mapping after reading each passage because it might take a whole period However, it is a good tool that can be used to check reading comprehension and proficiency in analytical reading. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation a. Evidence for carrying out the classroom process A chart containing the analytical questions that were posed and the select responses of the children to these. Glossary related to the part of e passage that was given for reading.. The sub text that was generated for helping the low-proficient learners Pictures if any, used for helping low proficient learners.

b. Port folio evidence The mind maps developed in the learners notebook / port folio sheet.
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c. Evidence for collaborative work The Big Book containing the mind maps that were developed by the groups.

d. Recording assessment of the performance of the learners Interaction - You may note down the striking responses with the names of the learners in the assessment column of your lesson plan. Mind map the names of learners who developed comprehensive mind maps Names of learners who contributed to the Big book by drawing pictures in it. Post Reading: (Construction of an essay}) It is better to go for some discourse tasks after completing the transaction of reading a poem. Since these are two poems, there is a lot of scope for asking the pupils to write an analytical essay based on the two poems. Remember, the more opportunities we provide for the learners to produce language, the more will be their growth in language proficiency. This cannot be substituted by the several tasks related to language elements that are assigned to them. Objectives Produce an essay suitable for a given context. Gain confidence in writtenl communication.

Process Initiate a discussion on the life in a town and in a village. 1. What are the problems of life in a town? 2. What are the problems in a village? 3. How can you make the life better in both a town and a village? Let the learners write the essay individually Let them share their ideas and enrich their essay Elicit indicators for refining the essay 1. The main points in the first paragraph, second and the third 2. The linkers used 3. Sentence structure 4. Word forms used

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Give feedback Let the learners write the essay individually based on the feedback Project Initiate a discussion Ask them to do the project as directed Let the groups make presentations on the project Give feedback Extensive Reading Process Suggestions: Dont ask too many questions on the story. Dont translate the story into mother language. Dont explain the story. Let the learners read and understand on their own. Encourage the learners to read the stories extensively. Ask them to share their individual reading eaperience

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UNIT-IV Assessment and Feedback

English 1. Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) What does continuous and comprehensive evaluation (CCE) mean? Let us interpret the terms continuous and comprehensive; it is continuous in the sense that it is process intertwined with learning which takes place every day; it is comprehensive as it includes the concepts, skills and processes the child has learnt. In language pedagogy the term comprehensive means it includes the discourses that are targeted at a certain level and the various skills of language. CCE is an attempt to shift from rote-learning to constructing knowledge and applying it as and when required. CCE is an ongoing process and is an integral part of the lesson. At every point of classroom transaction, we will have to assess what the child has learnt for which the same activities that are used for teaching /learning are used. In, fact for the children there is no noticeable difference between teaching and assessment. The questions in the examination paper will not simply be based on information given in the text books but will create slots for the learner to use language in a meaningful way applying she has learnt. So mugging up will not be of any use. Why is the CCE being adopted? The main reason for the shift in evaluation system is-the questions are predictable and demand certain fixed responses which do not provide any slot for the learners to use their creativity and imagination. The fear of failure leads all stake holders to several malpractices and tragic consequences. NCF 2005, SCF 2011 and RTE 2009 have emphasized the importance of implementing CCE where all assessments have to take place in a non-threatening atmosphere without causing here causing any burden for the learners. The thrust is on formative aspects of learning instead of relying on a single paper-pencil test at the end of the academic year. Assessment has to take care of developing all the innate potential of the learners to the fullest extent. A truly professional teacher needs to be patient, innovative and assess his/her pupils progress in every period in each class and give proper feed back to each and every pupil so that language acquisition takes place in a smooth, natural and non-conscious manner. Language acquisition is an

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organic growth and it cannot be measured every day. The teacher needs to know that acquisition of a second language like English does take place but it is not visible or measurable every hour. It happens slowly and gradually in phased manner. Types of assessment It is as part of translating the concept of CCE that we have conceived formative and summative assessment. The two types of assessment have their own characteristics. Formative assessment is a process that takes place every day while transacting the lessons. It is a process that has two dimensions: 1. It is helpful for the learner to learn further 2. It is a process which is learning itself. The teacher assesses the performance of the learners based on clearly defined indicators. She gives them feedback which helps them to reflect on their own learning and go to the next stages of learning. It is in this sense that we say assessment is for learning. When the learners assess themselves with the help of indicators they have identified they come to know what they have been able to do and what is expected from them as learning. this introspection (or looking into oneself) motivates the learner to set goals and make efforts to achieve them. Therefore, assessment in this sense is conceived as learning. For the teacher formative assessment works in a different way. She can reflect on the classroom processes she has used and make modifications if any are needed for taking the learners to the next attainable levels of learning. Assessment therefore, helps to equip the teacher as a professional. Summative assessment is the terminal assessment of performance of the learners at the end of instruction. Under the end term Summative Assessment, the students will be tested internally or sometimes even by external agencies. The Summative Assessment will be in the form of a pen-paper test. It will be conducted at the end of each term. In order to ensure standardization, and to ensure uniformity, appropriate sample papers will be provided by the department. Even in summative assessment we cannot go for content-based tests, a practice that has been in vogue for years. We have to assess the learners ability to use language by producing contextually relevant discourses that have been targeted as learning outcomes for each class. Here also the

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assessment is based on the same indicators that are used for formative assessment. The performance in summative assessment can be quantified and recorded using grades. The focus of summative assessment is on the written work where the areas such as discourse features, grammar and vocabulary awareness and conventions of writing will be taken care of it. But there is a major shift here from the earlier practice. The awareness about grammar and vocabulary are not tested in isolation ( by fill in the blanks kind of questions) but as embedded in the context of discourses. The child will have to construct discourses appropriate to the given context which can be assessed based on indicators. Therefore, even summative assessment is an occasion for the child to come out with her creative expressions. For the purpose of reporting the oral performance of the learners are also to be recorded. This can be done by consolidating the assessment that takes place every day which the teacher will have recorded in her diary. The domains of listening and speaking and reading comprehension are assessed and recorded only through formative assessment. Strategies of Assessment Teachers assessment The teacher assesses the performance of the learners as evident from the portfolios. Their notebooks, the group products (big books), classroom observations, all of which will be reflected in her diary. Self-assessment by the students Self- assessment checklists are included in all units of the textbook. After undertaking various linguistic tasks, the learners are given an opportunity to introspect on their achievement. Discourse specific indicators have been given, each of which demands the learner to assess his / her own performance. He /she can clearly compare any two stages of his her own growth with regard to language performance. A lot of learner autonomy can be promoted through self-assessment. The filled in assessment checklists of the learner can also be made use of by the teacher in his /her overall assessment of the achievement of the learner. Peer assessment: The peer assessment enables students to see the performance of each other and have an understanding of how others are performing vis--vis oneself. Students come to understand the
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nature of good work more deeply, as they must use this understanding to judge a peer's work. This helps them understand their goals as learner, for example how marks are gained and lost. These goals are learned from concrete to abstract; this is the most powerful way to learn. The most important advantage of self-assessment and peer assessment is that they make students realize that success or failure depends not on talent, luck or ability, but on self reflections, efforts and going through the right processes. This is motivating and empowering. These two forms of assessment would provide an opportunity for the teacher to discuss with the students about the performance rubrics, which have been developed by children collectively through negotiations. This may further lead to standard setting of the performance or bench marking which will facilitate for future assessment practices among students. Group-work assessment: It is important to encourage group work and make an assessment of this as to how a student is able to perform in cooperation/collaboration with others. In addition to providing the teacher the help of extended arms, it also facilitates for development of meta-cognitive skills among students that is very much the need of the hour. Initially, the teachers may monitor the conduct of assessment by the students in detail. There may be discussion sessions on the assessment procedures so that each student comes to know about the strengths and weaknesses of the students in making assessment. Once considerable inputs are given to students, the teacher may reduce the frequency and supervision and focus only on very important aspects of assessment. Though initially the teacher will have far greater responsibility, gradually the amount of work will be reduced with the students taking up the assessment job themselves. 2. Learning outcomes (Class-wise competencies)

1. Listening and Speaking Narrative: Listen to emotionally charged narratives dealing with Nature, social issues and human drama Talk about the characters and events in the story Dialogues: Listen to dialogues as embedded in the context of dramas and novels
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Talk about what they understood from listening Engage themselves in effective dialoguing with others on themes that are relevant to them

Songs / Poems / Rhymes:

Listen to authentic Songs and Poems involving images and figurative expressions Talk about the theme Construct poetic composition on various themes involving images and figurative expressions Sing poems and songs and recite poems with proper expressions and voice modulations. Write scripts for choreographing a song.

Descriptions: Listen to descriptions of persons, places and events involving figurative expression Talk to others about the events

Slogans: Write the script for choreographing a song Listen to Slogans developed for specific purposes Say slogans written for specific purposes rhythmically Prepare slogans Announcements: Listen to announcements related to specific occasions and for specific purposes Talk about the announcements and respond accordingly Make announcements for class /school functions and other social contexts Speeches: Listen to speeches on various themes Talk about what they understood from the speech Make speeches on various occasions before an audience Riddles & Jokes: Listen to riddles and jokes and make their own riddles and present them before the class Listen to compeering made on various occasions Talk about how compeering can be bettered Compeer class / school and other social functions

2. Reading and Responding Dialogues: Read dialogues as embedded in the context of dramas and novels Talk about what they understood from reading Engage themselves in effective dialoguing with others on themes that are relevant to them Role-play dialogues related to specific contexts using appropriate actions and voice modulations with discourse markers Biography: Read biographical sketches depicting the characteristics, contributions and philosophy of people Talk about what they understood from reading Talk about their impressions on the characteristics and contributions Narratives: Read emotionally charged narratives and short stories dealing with Nature and social issues and human drama Talk about the characters and events in the narratives and short stories Songs/Poems / Rhymes: Read authentic Songs and Poems involving images and figurative expressions. Talk about the theme Sing poems and songs and recite poems with proper expressions and voice modulation Diaries: Read specimens diaries that contain powerful thoughts and feelings Talk about what they liked in the diary Letters: Read personal letters (written for various purposes) using persuasive and emotive language Talk about the theme of the letter Slogans: Read Slogans developed for specific purposes Say slogans written for specific purposes rhythmically Notices:
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Read notices written using argumentative language and contains exhortations and talk about the contents of the notice Posters: Read posters written in persuasive language maintaining brevity Talk about the message contained in the poster and the striking features of the poster Announcements: Read to announcements related to specific occasions and for specific purposes Talk about the announcements and respond accordingly Make announcements for class /school functions and other social contexts Drama: Read authentic drama scripts revealing the dramatic craft Talk about its theme Talk about the characters and main actions Enact dramas and discuss how the performance can be improved in terms of stage setting, dialogue delivery, actions, etc. Choreography: Reading choreography script related to interpreting a poem from multiple points of view Talk about its features Perform the choreography Compeering: Read compeering scripts highlighting certain events and persons Compeer functions Profile: Read profiles of great people Talk about their impressions on the persons News Reports: Read News reports that appear in different news papers Talk about what they read Compare how the news is reported in different ways by different news papers Project Report: Read project reports of various kinds containing the details of the project such as
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the purpose , process data collection and findings and talk about the findings Reviews: Read critical reviews on films, dance and music concerts, etc. Talk about what they read Essays: Read authentic essays on various themes depicting proper organization and cohesion and revealing the point of view of the writer. Discuss the main theme and sub themes of the essay

3. Conventions of Writing Follow multiple-step instructions for preparing applications (e.g., for a public library card, bank savings account, sports club, membership in a non-governmental organization). Understand short simple messages on postcards, for example holiday greetings. Identify main ideas and the theme Connect and clarify main ideas by identifying their relationships to other sources and related topics. Identify important information in news summaries or simple newspaper articles in which numbers and names play an important role and which are clearly structured and illustrated. Identify the topic sentence, main and supporting ideas in a paragraph. Skim short texts (for example news summaries) and find relevant facts and information (for example who has done what and where). Scan a schedule and locate the details of a train / bus. Demonstrate the ability to recognize public notices and signs (including timetables and advertisements). Understand a simple personal letter in which the writer tells or asks about aspects of everyday life. Consult a dictionary to obtain information on the meaning and use of lexical items;

Analyse text that uses cause-and-effect organizational pattern. Read and understand different discourses like slogans / proverbs. Develop the habit of reading for information and pleasure.

4. Creative Writing Dialogues: Write pieces of dialogues in the context of drama Descriptions: Write descriptions depicting the characteristics of persons and scenic details of events and places. Write about the persons, places and events that they read using a few attributes. Write about their reflections on the persons, places and events Narratives: Write the beginning, the middle and the end involving events , dialogues and sensual perceptions Mind Mapping: Develop mind maps about persons, events, social issues and places they read and incorporate their reflections wherever possible Short Story: Write the beginning, the middle and the end involving events , dialogues and sensual perceptions Profile: Write short profiles and biographical sketches depicting the characteristics and contributions of people Songs/Poems/Rhymes: Write songs and poems on various themes involving images Letters: Write personal letters for various purposes in proper format Diary: Write diaries that contain anecdotes Notices / Invitations: Write notices / invitations containing features Slogans:
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Write slogans for various purposes Drama: Write drama scripts containing details such as stage setting, actions and dialogues Posters: Write posters for various purposes in persuasive language Announcements: Write announcements for related to specific occasions and specific purposes Choreography: Write choreography script

Compeering: Write compeering scripts highlighting certain events and persons for authentic occasions Essay: Write essays on various themes depicting proper organization and cohesion and revealing the point of view of the writer 5. Vocabulary Spell roots, suffixes, prefixes, contractions, and syllable constructions correctly. Give the correct spelling of comparatives and superlatives. Give the correct spelling of irregular verbs. Give the correct spelling of words with prefixes and suffixes. Expand most common abbreviations. Understand and explain frequently used synonyms, antonyms and homographs. Form words using different prefixes / suffixes from the base. Use these words in speech/writing. Guess the meanings of certain words phrases in the contexts. Play/devise language games /puzzles involving words / phrases /idioms. Develop her vocabulary by reading extensively and by using meta-linguistic awareness 6. Grammatical Awareness

As adjectives as to compare two things .Adverbs of frequency. Adverbs of duration Prepositions of direction. Phrasal verbs. Modal auxiliaries for suggestions, offers, and requests. Conditional clauses: Connectors to join two or more words or statements. Indefinite article. Interrogatives.

Nouns which can be either singular or plural depending upon our perception. Collective nouns and classifiers. Demonstrative pronouns. Interrogative pronouns. Quantifiers. The compound sentence. Simple present tense for an action taking place at the time of speaking. Simple past tense after wish

ENGLISH CLASS WISE COMPETENCIES CLASS VII

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1. Listening and Speaking Narrative: Listen to emotionally charged narratives dealing with Nature and social issues and human drama Talk about the characters and events in the story Dialogues: Listen to dialogues as embedded in the context of dramas and novels Talk about what they understood from listening Engage themselves in effective dialoguing with others on themes that are relevant to them Songs / Poems / Rhymes: Listen to authentic Songs and Poems involving images and figurative expressions Talk about the theme and features of the poem Construct poetic composition on various themes involving images and figurative expressions Sing poems and songs and recite poems with proper expressions and voice modulations. Write scripts for choreographing a song. Descriptions: Listen to descriptions of persons, places and events involving figurative expression Talk to others about the events Describe events and places using various attributes Expressing ones own impressions on events Describe events and places using various attributes Slogans: Write the script for choreographing a song Listen to Slogans developed for specific purposes Say slogans written for specific purposes rhythmically Prepare slogans maintaining brevity Announcements: Listen to announcements related to specific occasions and for specific purposes Talk about the announcements and respond accordingly. Make announcements for class /school functions and other social contexts Speeches: Listen to speeches on various themes Talk about what they understood from the speech Make speeches on various occasions before an audience Riddles & Jokes: Listen to riddles and jokes and make their own riddles and present them before the class Listen to compeering made on various occasions Talk about how compeering can be bettered Compeer class / school and other social functions 2. Reading and Responding Dialogues: Read dialogues as embedded in the context of dramas and novels Talk about what they understood from reading Engage themselves in effective dialoguing with others on themes that are relevant to them Role-play dialogues related to specific contexts using appropriate actions and voice modulations with discourse markers
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Descriptions: Biography: Read biographical sketches depicting the characteristics, contributions and philosophy of people Talk about what they understood from reading Talk about their impressions on the characteristics and contributions of people Narratives: Read emotionally charged narratives and short stories dealing with Nature and social issues and human drama Talk about the characters and events in the narratives excerpts and short stories Songs/Poems / Rhymes: Read authentic Songs and Poems involving images and figurative expressions Talk about the theme and features of the poem Sing poems and songs and recite poems with proper expressions and voice modulation Diaries: Read specimens diaries that contain powerful thoughts and feelings Talk about what they liked in the diary Letters: Read personal letters (written for various purposes) using persuasive and emotive language Talk about the theme of the letter Slogans: Read Slogans developed for specific purposes Say slogans written for specific purposes rhythmically

Notices: Read notices written using argumentative language and contains exhortations and talk about the contents of the notice Posters: Read posters written in persuasive language maintaining brevity Talk about the message contained in the poster and the striking features of the poster Announcements: Read to announcements related to specific occasions and for specific purposes Talk about the announcements and respond accordingly Make announcements for class /school functions and other social contexts Drama: Read authentic drama scripts revealing the dramatic craft Talk about its theme Talk about the characters and main actions Enact dramas and discuss how the performance can be improved in terms of stage setting, dialogue delivery, actions, etc. Choreography: Reading choreography script related to interpreting a poem from multiple points of view
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Talk about its features Perform the choreography Compeering: Read compeering scripts highlighting certain events and persons Compeer functions Profile: Read profiles of great people Talk about their impressions on the persons News Reports: Read News reports that appear in different news papers Talk about what they read Compare how the news is reported in different ways by different news papers Project Report: Read project reports of various kinds containing the details of the project such as the purpose , process data collection and findings and talk about the findings Reviews: Read Critical Reviews on films, dance and music concerts, etc. Talk about what they read Essays: Read authentic essays on various themes depicting proper organization and cohesion and revealing the point of view of the writer. Discuss the main theme and sub themes of the essay 3. Conventions of Writing Understand information about people (place of residence, age, etc.) in newspapers / magazines / reading cards. Identify main ideas and the theme Identify important information in news summaries or simple newspaper articles in which numbers and names play an important role and which are clearly structured and illustrated. Clarify an understanding of texts by creating outlines, logical notes, summaries, or reports. Skim small advertisements in newspapers, locate the heading or column she wants and identify the most important pieces of information (price and size of apartments, cars, computers) and identify where it takes place and at what time it starts. Use titles, tables of contents, and chapter headings to locate information in expository text. Consult a dictionary to obtain information on the meaning and use of lexical items; Understand a simple personal letter in which the writer tells or asks about aspects of everyday life. Understand feedback messages or simple help indications in computer programmes. Understand a questionnaire (entry permit form, hotel registration form) well enough to give the most important information about herself (name, surname, date of birth, nationality). Analyze text that uses cause-and-effect organizational pattern. Read and understand different discourses like slogan / proverb /simple narrations/anecdotes/descriptions and answer not only factual questions but also inferential and evaluative questions. Develop the habit of reading for information and pleasure. 4. Creative Writing
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Dialogues: Write pieces of dialogues containing discourse markers and expressions related to social conventions in the context of a drama Descriptions: Write descriptions depicting the characteristics of persons and scenic details of events and places with discourse markers Write about the persons, places and events that they read using a few attributes with discourse markers. Write about their reflections on the persons, places and events with discourse markers Narratives: Write the beginning, the middle and the end involving events , characters, dialogues and sensual perceptions dealing with nature , social issues and human drama Mind Mapping: Develop mind maps about persons, events, social issues and places they read and incorporate their reflections wherever possible Short Story: Write a short story / narrative involving a sequence of events and dialogues and containing sensual perceptions and images. Profile: Write short profiles and biographical sketches depicting the characteristics and contributions of people Songs/Poems/Rhymes: Write songs and poems on various themes involving various images Letters: Write personal letters for various purposes in proper format Diary: Write diaries that contain powerful thoughts and feelings Notices / Invitations: Write notices / invitations containing features Slogans: Write slogans for various purposes Drama: Write drama scripts containing details such as stage setting, actions and dialogues Posters: Write posters for various purposes in persuasive language Announcements: Write announcements for related to specific occasions and specific purposes Choreography: Write choreography script Compeering: Write compeering scripts highlighting certain events and persons for authentic occasions Essay: Write essays on various themes depicting proper organization and cohesion and revealing the point of view of the writer 5. Vocabulary Spell roots, suffixes, prefixes, contractions, and syllable constructions correctly.
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Give the correct spelling of irregular verbs. Give the correct spelling of words with prefixes and suffixes. Expand most common abbreviations. Understand and explain frequently used synonyms, antonyms and homographs. Understand and explain shades of meaning in related words. Identify and interpret figurative language and words with multiple meanings. Form words using different prefixes / suffixes from the base and use these words in speech/writing. Recognize the origins and meanings of frequently used foreign words in English and use these words accurately in speaking and writing. Guess the meanings of certain words phrases in the contexts. Play/devise language games /puzzles involving words / phrases /idioms. Develop her vocabulary by reading extensively and by using meta-linguistic awareness

6. Grammatical Awareness Adverbs of reason . Adverbials of manner . Adverbials of time . Other uses of. Phrasal verbs. Modal auxiliaries to express duty. Conditional clauses. Connectors to show reason . Connectors to show place . The definite article: Reporting verbs said, told, asked to introduce indirect speech. Reporting statements with or without tense change. Reporting questions . Reporting commands and requests. Nouns which can be used as adjectives. Quantifiers both and all. Question tags. Be+ going to + infinitive to talk about future. Regular and irregular verbs. Gerunds and gerund phrases . Past continuous tense to talk about an action which was going on when a second one took place. Transitive and Intransitive verbs. Sentence: Parts of a sentence 3. The broad areas of assessment The areas of assessment for English have been categorized as follows: 1. Listening and speaking 2. Reading comprehension 3. Conventions of writing
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4. Awareness of grammar and vocabulary 5. Creative expressions (various discourses) It may be noted that though these are the domains of assessment, it does not mean that these are to be assessed as discrete components. Since language needs holistic treatment all these can be assessed in the domain of discourses only, which alone can be treated as units of meaningful communication. We have selected the discourses for each class maintaining gradation. For example, the discourse conversation is targeted from classes 1 to 8. However the features of conversation will not be the same for all classes. There is a hierarchy of these indicators. The table shown below shows the discourses that the children have to construct orally and in the written from classes 1 to 8.

Details of the Discourses targeted at the upper primary level Sl.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Details of the Discourses Conversations Descriptions Rhymes /songs /poems Narratives Diary Letter Notice Drama Profile I II III IV V VI VII VII

10. Paragraph 11. Essay 12. Report 13. Compeering 14. Slogans 15. Speech 16. Review 17. Debate /discussion 18. Biographical sketches
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As can be seen from the table some discourses are common for all classes; some of them are introduced in higher classes only. We must know how the learning outcomes are stated in terms of discourses integrating discourse features and language skills. The domains we have identified need to be elaborated. For example, reading comprehension. There are two questions: (1) (2) What is to be read? How do we know that what has been read is comprehended?

Notice that reading different varieties of discourses does not involve the same level of difficulty. Reading and comprehending a story / narrative is relatively easier than reading a report or essay. The story allows predictions of what might happen whereas the essay may not easily lead to predictions. Therefore, we have to specify what material is to be read at a certain level. Secondly, we have to have ways for finding out the levels of comprehension. We can understand that the child has understood something through reading only when he responds to it by way of speaking or writing. Therefore, we will have to specify in what way the child has to respond to material given to him / her for reading. This is true of the domain Listening comprehension also. We can tackle this problem by stating the indicators under the various domains of assessment in the following manner. These domains contain skills such as listening, speaking, reading and writing, conceptual areas such as grammar and vocabulary, and the various discourses. See tables 1 to 5. 4. Grading Indicators Table 1 Listening and speaking I 1 2 Listen to simple instructions and directions and interactions and responds accordingly Listen to a variety of discourses and responds accordingly in the classroom situations II III IV V VI VII VIII

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3 4 5 6 7 8 9

*Recites rhymes/ songs and poems *Tells stories, narrates experience and produces a variety of level-specific oral discourses *Role-plays, enact drama /skit, Pause Stress Pitch Tone

10 Rhythm 11 Reflections of emotions (wherever relevant) 12 Tempo

*Note: There are level-specific indicators for each of these discourses (songs, rhymes, stories, etc.) which have been stated under Table 6. This table is meant for the aspects of spoken language. E Table 2 Indicators for Reading Comprehension I 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 Reads level specific pictures, cartoons, graphs, tables, etc. and decodes the ideas Reads a variety of discourses with comprehension Reads discourses analytically and identifies the themes and sub themes Reads and develops ones own perceptions Reads critically by agreeing or disagreeing with the author Reads a text from multiple perspectives Refers dictionary, thesaurus, and other reference materials II III IV V VI VII VIII

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Note: The level of reading material will be decided considering the discourse features. Table 3 Indicators for conventions of writing Classes Indicators I 1 2 II 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Capitalization Approximation of use with beginning of the names and sentences Uses wherever it is applicable Punctuation Marks Full stop Comma Question mark Quotation marks Exclamatory Apostrophe Hyphen Colon Semi-colon Parenthesis Space between words and sentences Spelling Abbreviations, acronyms Ellipsis *Write a variety of discourses maintaining the conventions of writing and Layout *Note: There are level-specific indicators for each of these discourses (songs, rhymes, stories, etc.) which have been stated under Table 6. I II III IV V VI VII VIII

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Table 4 Indicators for Vocabulary and Grammatical awareness

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Vocabulary and Word level structure (Morphology) Prefixes Suffixes Tense forms Auxiliaries and modals (be, have, do, will, shall, et aspects-progressive ,perfective and passive Agreement (Person, number, gender) Reflexives and reciprocals (myself, each other ...) Gerunds (verbal nouns) Compounding Phrasal verbs Collocations Syntax and word level grammar The structure of simple sentences Subordination (adverbial connectives with when, if, as, because, since, etc.) Complementation (I think that ...) Conjunctions (and , or) Elliptical constructions (leaving out some parts) Clefts (It is true that ... Relativization (the book that I bought) Embedding (the book on the table ...; the dog that chased the cat that ... Passivization Parenthesis (Inserting units of language into a structure)

III Awareness of the structure of Phrasal categories 22 Noun phrase


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23 24 25

Prepositional phrase Adverbial phrase Verb phrase

Caution: The competencies related to grammar and vocabulary can be assessed only in the context of oral and written discourses for which the indicators related to discourse features are also to be taken care of. Table 5 Indicators for Discourse-wise Features for Creative Expressions 5.1. Conversations / Dialogues Gradation of Indicators I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Begin conversation Initiation Respond appropriately to the initiation contain one or two exchanges Contain three or four exchanges Express ides and feelings relevant to the context Proper sequence of exchanges Sustaining the conversation Contextual relevance and maintaining of social norms Use of discourse markers (well, precisely, etc.) Dialogues required in the context of debates and discussions Coherence 10 11 12 Avoiding digression Uses connectives contextually Uses pronouns properly I I II I Classes I V V V V I II VIII

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13

Uses formulaic expressions

5.2. Descriptions Gradation of Indicators I 1 Describe objects/things/persons in their immediate environment and state one or two attributes Coherence 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Does not digress Uses connectives contextually Uses pronouns properly Sentences are relevant to the context Describe objects/ things/persons creating images Uses a variety of sentence forms Proper sequence of ideas Describe a persons characteristics, scenic details of places Includes personal reflections on the event or person Uses figurative expressions about a person ,place or event II II I Classes I V V V V I II VIII

5.3. Song/Rhyme/Poem Classes Grading Indicators 1 2 3 4 Keeps the rhythm Sings the line with action Follows regular structural pattern Identify the rhyming words
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II

II I

I V

V VII I

VII I

5 6 7 8 9

Adds lines to the poem as per music and thematic grid Reflection and feelings expressed are suitable to the theme Adds sufficient lines relevant to the theme Images, thoughts and feelings to be expressed Uses figurative expressions

5.4. Narrative/Story Classes Gradation of Indicators 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 One event and an exchange of dialogue Sequencing of events and dialogues with a beginning, middle and ending Predictions on what happens next Reflections on characters and events Contextual relevance of dialogues Formulaic expressions Characterization Settings in a story or a narrative Emotive dialogues (Feelings, thoughts and emotions) Evoke mental images Conclude the narrative/story naturally Coherence Does not digress Uses connectives properly Uses pronouns properly Expresses ideas in a logical manner I II II I I V V V VII I VII I

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5.5. Diary Grading Indicators I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 States events Expresses thoughts and feeling Expresses personal reflections, thoughts and feelings Uses variety of sentences Expresses events other than routine Uses language to the mood of the situation Contains self criticism and future plans Reveals a point of view Coherence Uses linkers contextually Uses pronouns properly II II I Classes I V V V V I II VIII

5.6. Letter Gradation of Indicators I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Personal letters for various purposes Letters other than personal ones Conveys the message Uses argumentative, persuasive and emotive language as demanded by the context Expresses ideas sequentially Coherence Does not digress Uses connectives properly Uses pronouns properly II II I I V Classes V V VII I VII I

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5.7. Notice / Message / Invitation Gradation of Indicators I 1 2 3 4 Simple messages for audition Notices for various occasions and purposes showing the context Notices containing, venue, date, time, salutation, invitation, programme, Writes notices for special purposes with persuasive language and exhortations. Coherence 5 6 7 8 Does not digress Uses connectives contextually. Uses pronouns properly. Maintains sequential order. II II I I V Classes V V V I II VIII

5.8. Poster / Placard / Slogans Classes Gradation of Indicators 1 2 3 4 5 6 Posters, slogans and placards for specific purposes Posters using persuasive and argumentative language Maintains brevity Maintains rhythm Uses illustrations Revealing context and purpose I II II I I V V V V I II VIII

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5.9. Drama / Skit Gradation of Indicators I 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 Characterization Contextually relevant dialogues Dialogues revealing emotions and feelings Stage directions (actions and movements of the characters) hints for setting the scene Dramatic conflict Beginning- rise of actions ending Reference to costumes and props Logical sequencing II II I I V Classes V V VII I VII I

5.10. Paragraph Writing Gradation of Indicators I 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 Conveys the main idea and supporting ideas Sequences the ideas Gives suitable examples Gives a suitable title Coherence Does not digress. Uses connectives. Uses pronouns properly. II II I Classes I V V V V I II VIII

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5.11. Essay Writing Gradation of Indicators I 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 Divides the essay into paragraphs meaningfully Conveys the main idea and supporting ideas Sequences the ideas Gives suitable examples Uses indexing Uses persuasive / argumentative / interactive language Has a title Point of view Coherence Does not digress. Uses connectives. Uses pronouns properly. Conveys the message effectively. II II I Classes I V V V V I II VIII

5. 12. Debate / Discussion Gradation of Indicators I 1 2 3 4 5 6 Organizes ideas as main points and sub points Presents arguments in a sequential order Cites suitable examples, quotations, evidences Maintains a point of view Defends ones own point of view Uses discourse markers for agreeing, disagreeing, substantiating, enumerating, etc. II II I Classes I V V V V I II VIII

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7 8 9 10

Uses polite expressions respecting others views Coherence, Does not digress. Uses connectives. 5.13. Compeering Gradation of Indicators I II II I Classes I V V V V I II VIII

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Arranges the programme sequentially as required by the context Presents the background Highlights the persons and the events Contains reviews and reflections relevant to the context Uses polite and humorous expressions Follows the conventions of the stage Uses language spontaneously and in a lively manner

5.14. Report Gradation of Indicators I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Contains relevant ideas ,concepts and information Organization of the data Compares, contrasts, interprets data, Draws inferences based on data Includes personal reflections on the issue/topic Sequential order of ideas Uses indexing Coherence I I II I Classes I V V V V I II VIII

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8 9 10

Does not digress Uses connectives contextually Uses pronouns properly

5.15. Review Gradation of Indicators I II 1 2 3 States the context of the Review (story/novel/drama/essay) Make personal impressions Highlights and comments on certain features of the item reviewed (e.g. Characters/theme/setting /events/turning points etc.) 4 Citations from the text to substantiate the point. (Authenticity) 5.16. Speech Gradation of Indicators I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Makes speeches/Talks contextually Sequences ideas Uses argumentative / persuasive / interactive language to substantiate views and ideas Uses discourse markers Cites examples, quotations, etc. Coherence Does not digress Uses connectives contextually Uses proper pronouns I I II I Classes I V V V V I II VIII II I I V Classes V V VII I VII I

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Note: Speech here is a discourse and is to be conceived as the speech people deliver before an audience. The word is not used in the usual sense of speaking. 5. Translating grading indicators into classroom assessment We have seen the performance indicators stated under the ideational domains of grammar vocabulary and the domains of skills, and discourses. In a holistic approach to language none of these can be given undue prominence without putting at stake the others. What are the implications of stating indicators under these domains in the context of translating CCE into classroom practice? Since assessment is inseparable from learning it is something that has to take place at every stage of transaction. Can we imagine some stage of transaction which does not lead to learning? Let us see how these indicators can be made use of in the context of classroom transaction. Recall that the learning outcomes have been stated in terms of discourses. Grammar, vocabulary and language skills can be assessed only by embedding them in discourses targeted at a certain level of transaction. This implies that we have to compile indicators stated in Tables 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. By compiling these indicators we will be getting a full inventory of indicators relevant for a certain level. What has been stated above leads us to a few questions: 1. Will it be possible to consider the full inventory at all instances of assessment? 2. What are the slots in classroom transaction to assess all these domains? 3. How will we assess the performance of all children in all these domains in a class with 30 to 40 students or even more? 4. Even if we manage to assess their performance will it be possible to record the assessment as and when it is done? It is not necessary to consider the full inventory at all instances of assessment and record them. Nor will it be a manageable feat. Therefore, we will choose a few indicators from each of these domains at a given instance of assessment in such a way that by the time the academic year is completed the whole inventory can be taken care of. Remember that we have conceived four formative and two summative assessments. Performance can be assessed in terms of some of the indicators in the first

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phase of formative assessment, some more in the second, the third and the fourth phases. The first phase of summative assessment can cover all what has already been assessed formatively. Conversations / Dialogues No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Indicators Discourse features Begin conversation Initiation Respond appropriately to the initiation contain one or two exchanges Contain three or four exchanges Express ides and feelings relevant to the context Proper sequence of exchanges Sustaining the conversation Contextual relevance and maintaining of social norms Use of discourse markers (well, precisely, etc.) Maintain coherence Avoiding digression Use connectives contextually Use pronouns properly Use formulaic expressions Vocabulary and Word level structure (Morphology) 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Prefixes Suffixes Tense forms Auxiliaries and modals (be, have, do, will, shall, et aspects-progressive ,perfective and passive Agreement (Person, number, gender) Reflexives and reciprocals (myself, each other ...)
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22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Gerunds (verbal nouns) Compounding Phrasal verbs Collocations Syntax and word level grammar The structure of simple sentences Subordination (adverbial connectives with when, if, as, because, since, etc.) Complementation (I think that ...) Conjunctions (and , or) Elliptical constructions (leaving out some parts) Clefts (It is true that ... Relativization (the book that I bought) Embedding (the book on the table ...; the dog that chased the cat that ... Passivization Parenthesis (Inserting units of language into a structure) Awareness of the structure of Phrasal categories

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

Noun phrase Prepositional phrase Adverbial phrase Verb phrase Convention of oral production of Discourses Pause Stress Pitch Tone Rhythm Reflections of emotions (wherever relevant)

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46 47 48 49

Tempo Speed of articulation Reading Reads level specific pictures, cartoons, graphs, tables, etc. and decodes the ideas Reads a variety of discourses with comprehension Reads discourses analytically and identifies the themes and sub themes

50 51 52 53

Reads and develops ones own perceptions Reads critically by agreeing or disagreeing with the author Reads a text from multiple perspectives Refers dictionary, thesaurus, and other reference materials

Assessment in terms of the whole inventory is appears to be unmanageable. However, it is not so. See how we can meet the challenge. 1. The inventory in its full is related to what the learners have to achieve by the time they complete 8th standard. In class 7 all of these are not targeted. You can see from the indicators how many of them are really needed in the other classes. 2. In a particular lesson does not address all the grammar and vocabulary areas. So we can select only those indicators that need to be covered at a certain point of transaction. 3. The indicators coming under the domains of writing conventions, grammar and vocabulary, oral production, reading are common for all discourses. Therefore, quite conveniently we can cover them by dividing among them the various discourses. What has been covered under one discourse need not be aimed at in the other discourses. 4. We can divide them among the four phases of formative assessment so that what has been taken care of in the first phase need not be considered in the remaining three phases.

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5. At a certain stage of transaction we will be addressing only one domain (say for example, reading) which implies that only those indicators relevant for reading need to be considered. This is true of the indicators belonging to the domains of oral production and writing conventions where we will not need indicators belonging to the other domains. Let us take a concrete example. See the assessment of reading. The reading passage has been divided into three segments for making classroom transaction for effective. What are the indicators that can be targeted first? See the table below: Indicators for assessing reading Class VI - Unit 1 No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Indicators Reads a variety of discourses with comprehension Reads discourses analytically and identifies the themes and sub themes Reads and develops ones own perceptions Pause Stress Pitch Tone Rhythm Reflections of emotions (wherever relevant)

Only these indicators are relevant for assessing. When it comes to recording formative assessment, we need to record only if evidence available for the internalization of the features of articulation. As and when the learners reach the desired level of proficiency in terms of any of the indicators, it can be recorded. There are two more reading passages in the same unit and also in the units that are to follow. We have envisaged a modular mode of transaction. You can see that in the module that has been given to you specifies what these modules are. There are modules such as Interaction at various stages, listening to a narrative or some other discourse, reading a passage, constructing discourses
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orally and in writing both individually and in groups, editing the written work which, doing textual exercises related to language. At the end of the transaction of each of these modules / sub modules some kind of assessment will have to be done. These are all slots for assessment available as part of classroom transaction. Apart from these there will be performances taking place before the parent community which also will give us snapshots of their achievement which are worth recording. Out of 30 or 40 students in the classroom assessment can be done with regard to the performance of 3 or 4 students after the transaction of a certain module. We need to record the performance of only those learners whose performance shows tangible evidence of learning. we will have to wait till we get evidence of learning from the others and focus further on providing meaningful input to the learners and thereby making them confident enough to perform independently. The transaction module will clearly tell you when assessment is to be recorded. In most cases the recording of oral performance can take place after the class is over. Since some of the evidences will be available in the form of portfolios, big books and the note books of the learners in the form of written discourses and other writings, these will be always be available for assessment as per r, some of the assessments can be done by children themselves. Consider now the assessment of a written discourse in class VI.

Learners ownership on the Indicators What is most important is that none of these indicators are to be imposed on the learners or prescribed. They are to be evolved with the ownership of the learners through negotiation and feedback. If this is not done, the indicators will remain as mere statements which will not help the learner in any manner. While evolving these indicators it may so happen that all the targeted indicators have not emerged from the learners. Only when they get further meaningful inputs hey will be reaching a state where they can contribute some of these indicators. Once these indicators are evolved with the learners ownership these will be a part of their thinking process and will be providing an inbuilt self check mechanism which will put them on the right track. They can track their own learning process as they will know clearly what they have achieved and what they are yet to achieve and in which direction they are progressing.

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6. Recording Assessment Since we have conceived a holistic approach to language, providing learning experience to the learners and assessing their achievement can be only in the form of oral and written discourses. This is why we have stated the indicators under the domains that have been mentioned above which cover both discourse specific and skill- specific indicators. How will we record assessment? Can we have the same strategy for formative and summative assessment? From the above discussion we can come to the following consensus on recording assessment: 1. The can classroom transaction module contains various slots where assessment can take place. Please revisit the module and identify the slots. 2. At each instance of assessment we have to consider only a few indicators that are relevant for that particular slot. 3. Formative assessment is nothing but helping the learner learn further. It is not for comparing one child with the others in terms of performance by grading as A, B, C. 4. What we have to record is whether the child has progressed from a certain level of proficiency to the next level. For example, in the first instance of assessment suppose a child was not pausing at meaningful places while reading aloud a given passage in the first instance. The teacher intervenes and gives feedback. If the child is able to pause at meaningful places at the second instance of reading ( perhaps at a later point) this is a tangible change manifested by the learner, which provides us evidence of his learning from the earlier level to the next level. 5. We can select the indicators relevant for a class and a specific discourse at a certain instance of assessment. We can compile these selected indicators to make an inventory and assess children based on that. 6. As has been stated earlier we need not record the performance all children at a given instance of assessment. We can assess the performance of only those learners who have made observable changes in performance which provide evidence for learning. In the case of low proficiency level learners, we have to focus further on classroom process and through pedagogic strategies (such as feedback, self assessment, on-spot support, etc. ) to ensure that
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they are also progressing over a period. The progress they have made in this manner can be assessed and recorded. 7. You may have noticed that the transaction module gives you suggestions on the evidences that will be available for assessment. These include i. Evidence from charts

Evidences will be available from the charts containing the select responses of the learners at various points of interaction. These responses will provide us evidence of what they are able to do at a given point. ii. Evidence from portfolios

Evidences will be available in the form of portfolios of the learners. These consist of discourses the learners have constructed individually. These are all creative expressions. These will be readily available at any time and can be assessed based on the indicators (from the inventory developed for assessing that particular discourse). iii. Evidences from the students notebook

Evidences of learning will be available from their notebooks also. What they have written in the notebook by themselves can reveal several aspects of learning. Whatever indicators are relevant can be considered for assessing this. For example, suppose the child has written answer to an analytical question for which there is no direct answer from the reading passage. The question will have demanded the child to respond spontaneously and she may have written it at her won level of understanding. This writing is an important evidence for us in a number of ways: iv. It reveals her use of vocabulary It reveals her awareness of grammar (sentence structure, word structure, etc.) It may contain some discourse features The legibility of writing Her awareness about writing conventions (spelling, punctuation, etc.) Evidence from big books
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Big books are made by compiling all the group products developed by children through collaboration as per the instructions given to them. These will be edited through proper feedback given by the teacher. Since the production of group products involves collaboration it reflects the general performance level of the class. This is so because there will be collective ownership of the whole class on these products involving even the low proficient level learners. Sometimes it also throws light on the contribution of the individual learners. v. Self assessment and peer assessment of the learners There are some tools for self assessment included in the textbook. They are meant to help the learners reflect on the quality of their performance in terms of some select indicators. Since these reflections are recorded in the space given in the textbook they will be always available for the teacher to know how far the learner has progressed in various domains ( reading, listening, writing a discourse, editing, etc.). On several occasions we can ask children to share their work and assess among themselves based upon a set of commonly agreed upon indicators. vi. Teachers diary All these evidences mentioned above have a place in the teachers diary. She has to note down the names of children who have achieved certain competencies at all points of transaction with evidences quoted from the aforesaid documents. It is not necessary and not practical, too) to record in the diary as and when a certain class room module is transacted. This can be done only after the completion of the class. Here in most cases what the teacher will have to record in the diary in a day-to-day manner will be the assessment of oral performance alone. The assessment related to work can be done at any time that will be convenient to her because these evidences will be always available. But the teacher will have to record this also over a period. Quality Aspects of Formative Assessment Formative assessment looks for quality parameters in terms of each indicator specified for a class and for a particular discourse. Since quality aspects cannot be quantified there is no point in using grades for formative assessment. Instead, we can write assessment in terms of qualitative statements
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revealing what the child is able to do rather than what she is not able to do. These statements can also contain suggestions (feedback) which will help the learner reflect on these and learn further. Qualitative statements are also helpful for sharing the learners achievement with the parents. Merely reporting their children have procured certain grades (e.g., She has A in writing; B in speaking, etc.) will not make any sense for them. The advantages of qualitative statements are: 1. There is no comparison made between any two children (e.g. someone has A, or someone has C. Etc.). Therefore, no children feel inferior or superior to their peers. 2. It reveals what a child is able to do at a certain point of learning. 3. It also helps the teacher to reflect on her classroom practice and decide on further specific inputs that are to be given to the learners. A certain grade is only the consolidation of a number of indicators which does not tell anyone about what specific indicators are yet to be covered. Consolidation of Day-to-day formative assessment The state has envisioned four formative assessments and two summative assessments for an classes in an academic year. Formative assessment will be taking place every day. In addition to these there are four formative assessments, one each in the four quarters, which should reflect the consolidation of all the assessments taken place during classroom transaction. There are a few questions to be addressed in this context. Since we cannot quantify and convert the quantified things into grades how will we record the consolidation of all the series of assessments that have taken place prior to the each phase of formative assessment? We propose the following: The module contains a sheet which tells us which units and what discourses are to be taken care of for each phase of formative assessment. The teacher will need a spread sheet containing the names of students, the discourses and the indicators categorized under the 6 domains. Look at the specimen given below: Class 8
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Sri Devi

Domains of Govind Kiran Rani Skills and Discourses 1 1 Listening and Responding Listen to simple instructions and directions and interactions and responds accordingly 2 Listen to a variety of discourses and responds accordingly in the classroom situations 3 4 *Recites rhymes/ songs and poems *Tells stories, narrates experience and produces a variety of level-specific oral discourses 5 6 7 8 9 10 *Role-plays, enact drama /skit, Pause Stress Pitch Tone Rhythm Reflections of emotions (wherever relevant) Tempo Pranav

Johnson

1. This specimen contains the format to record the performance of learners in one domain namely, Listening and Responding with the highest level of indicators required for class 8. We know that all these indicators will not be there in the lower classes.
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Umesh

Afreed

2. We will need similar formats for the other domains also. 3. The teacher can select the indicators relevant for her class in the first phase of assessment. Obviously, all these indicators will not be needed at all phases. 4. Which indicators are to be selected in each of the four phases? This is also fairly easy to understand. Since indicators are evolved with the ownership of learners as and when each indicator is evolved the teacher can identify it in the inventory and consider it for assessment. 5. In due course, all the indicators can be evolved through negotiation. The teacher can also supplement to what the learners have contributed. 6. The teacher can put a tick against under the name of the student against those indicators that have already been registered during the classroom process that has taken place before phase 1 of formative assessment. The data for this will be available from the entries made in the teachers diary. The Reporting Formative Assessment 1. The spread sheet given above will be a very important document for the teacher to continuously track the progress of each child in terms of the learning achievement she has made at a given point with regard to all the competencies. 2. This document is to be maintained throughout the academic year and can also be used as a cumulative progress to track the progress of the learners over the years. 3. This will be an up-to-date record of this and will be useful for all stake holders including the child, the teacher, the parent, the HM, and the administrators. 4. This document will be very transparent as each entry in it will have supportive evidence in the form of the entries made by the teacher in the diary and the evidences available in the forms of charts, portfolios, notebooks and other documents. 5. The procedure suggested here blocks the possibility of mechanically filling in the columns in the pretext of recording assessment. How will we consolidate the entries made in the spread sheet for making an entry in the progress card? We will need a format like the following: Consolidation from the spread sheet required for Progress card (for all classes)

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Name of the Skill Domain Listening Sl. No Name of the Student and Speaking Reading comprehensi on Conventio ns of Writing Awareness of Grammar and Vocabulary 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Kiran Rani Pranav Govind Sri Devi Johnson Afreed Umesh achieved progressing Achieved Progressing progressin g Needs help Progressing Needs help progressing Needs help Creative Expressions (Discourses)

This format can be used for recording both formative and summative assessments but what we will have to write in the columns will be different for the two. In formative assessment we can write in statements based on the recording in the spread sheet. How do we derive the statements? The information from the spread sheet can be transferred to the progress card through the following procedures. We will look at the entries made in the spread sheet under the name of the individual learner. See how many indicators under each domain have been covered. If there is a tick against all the indicators in a certain domain, it means that the child has achieved a certain level of proficiency in that domain. So we can write achieved against this domain in the report card.

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In similar way, if most of the indicators have been covered, we will record it as progressing. If less than half of the indicators have been covered it means that the child needs further help in this area. Therefore, we can write needs help against this domain. The other domains are also to be covered in the same way and entries made in the same way. In summative assessment we have to use the same set of indicators. Whatever has been covered under F1 and F2 are to be considered for setting the question paper for S1. The grading will be done based on the indicators as has been suggested for recording formative assessment. But in summative assessment we can use A, B, C grades in the place of achieved, progressing and needs help, respectively. In summative assessment there will be assessment of written work only. The assessment of oral performance is to be carried over to the report from the spread sheet. Report Card Kiran Class 8

Name of the Skill Domain Listening Assessment and Speaking Reading comprehensi on Conventio ns of Writing Awareness of Grammar and Vocabulary F1 F2 S1 S2 F3 Achieved Progressing Achieved Achieved Progressin g Achieved Progressing Progressing Progressing Needs help Creative Expressions (Discourses)

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F4 S2

7. Feedback How do we respond to the performance of students? It is disappointing; it is terrible; it is ugly; I wish I could find one single grammatically correct sentence in their writing; they know nothing. writing. How can we help our learners improve their writing? Giving appropriate feedback is one of the ways to improve student writing. Good feedback will encourage learners and make them learn better. The most important aspect while giving feedback is adopting a positive attitude to student writing. While marking mechanically we may not realize that we are showing the student only his mistakes negative points. If the student receives only negative feedback, they may easily be discouraged. Teachers who love students will not be hesitant to appreciate their performance verbally (good, excellent) or even visually (smile, gesture, thumbs up). This is certainly a kind of feedback for the learners giving them assurance that they are going in the right track. This has been in vogue from good old days onwards because teachers have always known that such feedback can motivate children. This is just one side of the story. There are also teachers who are keen to point out the errors that learners make and are cynical about the poor standards of the learners. From the pedagogic point of view whatever the teacher does in the class is to be directed towards facilitating knowledge construction. Since the classroom that we have envisioned is neither teachercentred nor learner -centred but learning centred we have to use feedback as a powerful tool for elevating the learners to the next higher level of performance. How to overcome this; I dont know! This is what teachers often talk about students

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What is not feedback? Pointing out errors is not feed back Mere appreciation of the learners work is not feedback Grading their work is not feedback Prescribing dos and donts is not feedback Giving them a model to follow is not feedback

Then what exactly is feedback? How can we make feedback effective? What are the points to be taken care of while giving feedback? An effective feedback is Level specific (you cannot give the same kind of feedback to stage 1 learners and stage 3 learners) Discourse specific (the feedback required for refining a narrative is different from that given for refining a conversation) Learner-specific (all learners cannot be given the same feedback. For example CWSN need different kind of feedback) Process-specific (whether it is individual writing or writing in groups; is it the first draft or a later one. Etc.) Above all, the language that teacher has to use for giving feedback also matters Analyze the learner products given below based on the following: 1. What evidences of learning do we get from each product? 2. How do we bring these evidences to the attention of a. Learner b. Teacher / HM / parent / expert 3. What are the errors that can be found in these write ups? 4. What feedbacks can be given to the individual writers? 5. How do we address learners errors?

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Student Sample: This opinion piece about a work of literature was produced in class.

What evidences of learning do we get from this product? The writer of this piece tells the reader the name of the book (in the title of the paper). My fabit (favorite) Book is do you Want to be my FRIEND states an opinion or preference about the book. my fait (favorite) pot (part) is the hos (horse)

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I also read your favourite book. I like it. The horse and mouse are good friends, arent they? Your picture is very good. Did you read any other book? What is the story about? Who are there in the story? Keep on reading.

Student Sample: K, Narrative This narrative is a process piece that was produced in class.

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What evidences of learning do we get from this narrative? The writer of this piece establishes a situation by naming a place. Disnand (Disneyland) recounts several loosely linked events and the order in which they occurred. I had a fun on vacshne (vacation). . . . I see lot (lots) of rids (rides). I went on the mader hon (Matterhorn). . . . I went my house. provides a reaction to what happened. I had a fun on vacshne (vacation). offers a sense of closure. I went my house. demonstrates command of some of the conventions of standard written English.

This piece illustrates consistent control of beginning-of-sentence capitalization and endof- sentence punctuation. The writer also uses capital letters appropriately in the title of the piece. Why do we give opinion statements like these highlighting the positive aspects of the student-writer? This will be necessary to convince the parents and all those who are used to looking at students writing sceptically. It is also necessary to convince teachers who have always been cynical about the poor academic standards of the learners. When our teachers get well-versed with materializing continuous assessment it is expected that they only need to write statements like these in the response sheets and portfolios of learners. There wont be any need to grade the students writing in formative assessment.

How will you give feedback to this narrative? Positive statements alone will not take the learner to go to the next higher level of learning. For this, feedback is essential. It will help the learners reflect on what they have worked out and refine their writing. Go through the feedback given by a teacher for the above narrative:

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Well done dear! You can write excellent narratives. Your narrative has a beginning and a nice ending. There are many events in between. Thats really good. Do you want to write about other happenings? Where did you go first, to Disney land or to the desert? You saw many rides at Disney land. You went on a merry go round! What was in your mind then? Did you tell something to your friends then? You had fun on vacation. Hadnt you? I am happy about it! Ajay, very good. Your picture is very beautiful. You draw morning and evening scenes. Do you like honey? Lotus is very cruel, is nt it? Which flower do you like? Rose or lotus? The butterfly cried. Why did it cry? We have to look for the evidences of learning and should not get annoyed by the possible errors the learners may have made. In fact every error the learner makes is an evidence of her learning. We should remember that every negative comment we make makes the child feel insecure. Her anxiety builds up and she will feel less and less motivated to go for another writing venture. This is true of her speech productions as well. Our negative comments will drain out her confidence and the next time she will not be ready to open her mouth. How do we look for evidence for learning in the errors of the learners? Here follows one more write- up. It is a story (narrative) written by a class 2 learner.

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Go

through

the

following

narrative

written

by

student

of

class

2.

1. Are there evidences of language acquisition in this piece of writing? 2. Does the piece of writing give us evidence of the writers control over syntax and morphology? 3. Does she have any awareness of using capital letters and punctuations? 4. What are the discourse features that the learner has acquired? 5. What are the conventions of writing revealed here? 6. Why has the learner made these errors? Let us try to annotate this piece of narrative. The writer 1. has internalized the structure of the discourse, narrative; it contains events and dialogues logically sequenced.
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2. has internalized some conventions of making a request. 3. has used a language loaded with emotions. 4. has absolute control over the sequencing of words in a simple sentence the sentence structure is intact. 5. has used different forms of the verbs (present tense, past tense, infinitive) as required by the context. 6. has some awareness about the internal structuring of a noun phrase (Article- AdjectiveNoun), Prepositional Phrase ( Preposition + Noun Phrase), and verb phrase ( Verb + Complement ) 7. knows where to use state verbs and action verbs. 8. is progressing in using capital letters and small letters. 9. has some idea about using punctuations such as the full stop. The learner needs inputs on spelling. Though he has achieved the targeted discourse level competencies, he can be elevated to the next level for which again some inputs are needed. See how this can be done: Well done. Do you have a garden at home? Are there rose flowers in your garden? Do butterflies come? Will they drink honey? They come in the morning, dont they? In the evening they go to the lotus flowers. Anyhow, your conversation is very nice to read.

Student Sample: Class 5, Narrative This narrative was produced in class 5, and the writer likely received support from the teacher.

My first tooth is gone I recall one winter night. I was four. My sister and I were running down the hall and something happend. It was my sister and I had run right into each other. Boy! did we cry. But not only did I cry, my tooth was bleeding. Then it felt funny. Then plop! There it was lying in my hand. So that night I put it under my pillow and in the morning I found something. It was not my tooth it was two dollars. So I ran down the hall, like I wasent supposed to, and showed my mom and dad. They were suprised because when they lost teeth the only thing they got is 50.
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Looking for evidences of learning The writer of this piece establishes a situation in time and place appropriate for what is to come. I recall one winter night. I was four. My sister and I were running down the hall and something happened. recounts a well-elaborated sequence of events using temporal words to signal event order. o My sister and I were running down the hall and something happened. . . . But not only did I cry . . . Then it felt funny. Then plop! There it was lying in my hand. includes details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings. o Boy! did we cry. o Then it felt funny. o So I ran down the hall, like I wasnt supposed to, and showed my mom and dad provides a sense of closure. o They were surprised because when they lost teeth the only thing they got is 50. demonstrates growing command of the conventions of standard written English. o o This piece illustrates the writers largely consistent use of beginning-of-sentence capitalization and end-of-sentence punctuation (both periods and exclamation points). The pronoun I is also capitalized consistently, and almost all the words are spelled correctly. The writer sets off a parenthetical element with commas and uses an apostrophe correctly. Summing up What is the moral? We need a third eye to view the writing of children positively. We must also know how to look for the evidences of learning keeping all the indicators in our minds.

8. Specimen question papers for summative assessment

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Summative Assessment Class VII English (1) Many people attained success in life despite their hardships in life. How do they become successful in life? Here is one such story. The boy on the street It was late in the evening. Shankar was sitting on a bench and watching children playing in the park. Sir, he heard a soft voice. He turned his head. It was a small boy in shabby school uniform. His school bag was hanging down his left shoulder. In his right hand he was holding a few paper cones. Yes? Shankar asked. Will you buy some nuts, Sir? He stretched the paper cones towards Shankar. Shankar looked at the boy. He felt a sudden attachment towards the boy. He could read the boys story in his dark eyes. It was a story he knew very well the story of poverty, hunger, and hard work. In a way it was Shankars own story. Shankar bought all the paper cones and gave him a twenty-rupee note. The boy put his hand into his bag and fished out some coins. No, said Shankar. Keep the change. No, Sir! Its not fair. He thrust a five rupee coin into Shankars hand. The next moment he was gone. Shankar watched the boy walking away. Twenty years ago. Shankar was then not a man with a bank balance and a fine car. He was a poor boy, an orphan. But he had a mind to work hard. There was a turning point in his life; someone stretched out a helping hand to him.

Who do you think that someone was?

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How did that person help Shankar? How did Shankar become a smart rich man? Task 1: Narrate the flashback of Shankar.

(2) There are many around us who live a life of pain and hardship. Instead of help what they get is only neglect. Havent you read about such incidents in the newspapers? Read the story given below. Rashid was reading the newspaper. Great! Sachin is the man of the match. He was thrilled to read the news. He turned over the page. His eyes got stuck on one of the headlines. Hotel Manager Arrested Hyderabad 23rd May 2011 The town police has framed a case against the manager of a leading hotel in Hyderabad for beating up Sunil, a 10-year old boy who was working in the hotel. It has been reported that the boy had spilt a cup of tea on a customer. The boy was admitted to the hospital with severe injuries. The hotel manager was later arrested by the police. Rashid felt sorry for Sunil. How can I help him? There may be several others like him. How can I help them all? Can I give them money? He counted his savings. Not much only thirty rupees. Then he had an idea. Ill write to my friends. Together we can form a club to help children like Sunil. He took a sheet of paper and started writing the letter. Task 2: Can you write the letter Rashid would have written to his friends?

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(3) Dont you think that it was nice of Rashid to write to his friends for helping children who have no one to take care of? Here is the story about a boy who lives in the streets. Ramesh hurried home. Today I can give food to my sister. He looked at the roti rolled up newspaper with an inward happiness. He held it close to his heart. The curry was leaking out of the news paper spreading out a nice smell. Ramesh was hungry, too but he did not mind it. He was thinking about his sister who had not eaten anything for two days. While walking along the road he looked at the big house on the other side of the fencing. There were two boys playing cricket in the yard. Its a sixer, the boy in black jeans shouted. The ball flew over the fence and fell right on Rameshs hand. The roll of roti slipped out from his hand and fell into the drainage. The ball rolled along the road and came to a stop at the side of the road. Rameshs heart broke. Tears gathered in his eyes. What shall I give my sister? Did you see my cricket ball? It was the boy in black jeans. Ramesh looked at the boy with eyes blurred with tears. The boy jumped over the fence and reached near Ramesh. Cant you hear? the boy asked. Ramesh did not answer. He pointed to the roti lying in the drainage. You spoiled my food. The boy looked into the drainage and saw the roti. You can wash and eat your roti. The boy shouted and burst out laughing. He took the ball and jumped back over the fence.

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Ramesh felt the earth pulling him down. Unable to stand he sat on the roadside and began crying. I see that your cruel eyes Are falling on me I know that your harsh words Are mocking at me Task 3: Add more lines to the song. You can make use of the following hints: Hints: feel, sense, think, find sharp, hard, bitter, rude, grim aiming, shooting, working, laughing thoughts, ways, deeds,

(4) There are people in our country who take pains for others. Here is an article from a leading magazine about such a person.

The Helping Hands Twelve years ago Krishna Rao started teaching street children. He was a retired teacher who was touched by their eagerness to learn. He started with a bunch of six or eight boys and taught them Hindi in an old shed. But the members grew and he could not manage alone. That was when he sought the help of young men and women of the town. Now there are more than fifteen such street schools in the town. Krishna Rao has no children of his own. But he denies it. Who says that Ive no children? Ive dozens of them, he says. The District Collector has decided to award him with a cash prize on

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the 2nd of October at the Gandhi memorial hall. Krishna Raos response is: I didnt do it for an award. But the money will be useful. Task 4: Try to make a brief news paper report on the award winning function. (5) Task 5: Edit the following passage: Sharada teacher entered the class. All stood up. Everyone look at the bundle in her hands. That bundle has our progress cards! Children murmured. The teacher put the bundle the table. After call the roll, she slowly uncovered it and took the progress cards out. A smile spred on her lips. As usual, this time also our Sneha came first in the class. Claps rose up from every corner the class. Sneha, come on. sharada teacher beckoned her. Sneha stood up and slowly walked to the teacher. With shivering hands she received the progress card from the teacher. Well done, my dear child. keep it up She held Sneha close to her. Teacher Sneha wanted to say something but the words broke in her throat. Her eyes welled up. She looked at the children. She saw Kavitha smiling and showing her thumbs up. Why you are crying, Sneha, Sharada teacher asked. Grading Indicators Narrative Writes events and dialogues Uses emotive language Evokes mental images Concludes the narrative
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Letter Poem

Uses pronouns properly manner Uses well formed sentences Uses proper word forms Maintains format

Conveys message Uses persuasive language Sequences ideas Uses connective wherever necessary Uses pronoun Proper conclusion Uses well formed sentences Uses proper word forms Maintains format Maintains conventions of writing

Adds lines relevant to the theme Maintains pattern Maintains rhythm Reflects feelings Uses proper word forms Maintains format Maintains conventions of writing

News report Contains relevant ideas and information Organization of ideas Personal reflections

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Sequence of ideas Does not digress Uses connectives properly Proper conclusion Uses well formed sentences Uses proper word forms Maintains format Maintains conventions of writing

Editing Identifies word order problems Identifies missing words Edits following conventions of writing

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Unit V CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Lifelong learning and the continuous professional development are almost the same thing. Learning throughout ones life is a good aim to have for every teacher, especially for a teacher of English. This is especially important in the context of the changing belief systems in tune with the emergence of new paradigms. But it is very disheartening to know that most of the teachers of English are happy with the way they are going perhaps with the belief that they are doing a reasonably fair job and they have been well trained. So they do not want to develop to any further extent. But there are a few teachers who always strive to push their boundaries and actively create challenges for themselves. They learn from their own experiences and add to their skills and their self knowledge, often on their own. Many of us are somewhere in the middle. We want to develop professionally but we feel we do not get time for learning within the busy schedule of our work. Professional development takes place in two ways one is a narrow way and the second is is abroad one. 1. The narrow view is to acquiring some specific sets of skills and knowledge in order to deal with some specific new requirements like attending teachers training to handle new textbooks or to use new teaching aid. 2. The broad view conceives CPD as a much deeper, wider and longer-term process, in which the professionals continuously enhance not only their knowledge and skills, but also their thinking, understanding and maturity, they grow not only as professionals, but also as persons; their development is not restricted to their work roles, but may also extend to new roles and responsibilities. However some experts on ELT and some experienced English teachers suggest certain ways for the continuous professional development (CPD). They are:
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Experts Help: We can learn a lot from the experienced and expert practitioners in the field of ELT by attending the workshops and seminars on our own. The teachers are lucky for whom the talks are available in their vicinity. But others can read the articles and books written by experts and can participate in online events or blogs with invited professionals as an alternative if the experts are not available in the flesh somewhere near them. Workshops: The teachers often can get a lot more out of smaller, more intimate workshops where there is more opportunity to discuss and debate ideas and opinions and take away ideas for class room activities to ones own reflection. Online communities: These include an interactive virtual conference such as the annual IATEFL (International Association for Teachers of English as a foreign language) online conferences sponsored by the British Council or the blogs on the Teaching English website or other forums and discussion boards set up to encourage participation around ELT topics by teachers from all over the world. We can get online membership from the British council to post our own blogs or read others blogs and share our opinions or add our own comments with a better understanding of what language is and how it is learnt. We must also be alert about the increasing spread of linguistic imperialism that are being created and propagated by individuals and agencies within the country and outside it. Informal Talks: Staff room is the best place for our informal chitchat. We can join other

teachers discussing their next lesson or the material they are using. This is the most effective and one of the easiest ways of developing professionally, especially if you are really serious about borrowing ideas from your colleagues and trying out them in your own English classes. Individual Reading: Bacon says reading makes a man, conference a ready man and writing an

exact man. Reading is the most important professional requirement of a teacher, especially on
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English teacher. The teachers can read internet Journals, materials as well as actual text books. Sometimes the reference books may be very expensive, so we may make it a habit to go to the library in our area and read the latest arrivals on ELT. Reading groups: While reading is done individually, what is learnt can be formalized in discussion in a reading group? We may read a text to our colleagues or during Cluster Resource Centre (CRC) meetings and we may come together a few weeks later and discuss the contents. We learn so much through sharing of our ideas, impressions and discussing issues the reading material raise. Action research: We may be involved in action research on day today classroom challenges faced by us and find solutions. For example, at the primary level, we may take up research on why our pupils are not able to read English words? At upper primary level problems of students in speaking, etc. The findings can be shared in Teacher Centre meetings. SSA is supporting teachers in doing action research studies. Giving sessions: This may be in school meetings, and teacher centre meetings, where teaching ideas are shared. Local ELTC meetings will provide as platform for giving sessions. Participating in any sessions at any stage is very effective for professional development due to the planning and research which takes place before the session and the discussion and feedback which the session provokes later. We grow professionally before and after the session. Writing: According to Bacon, writing makes an exact man, teacher may write short articles or even books. Keeping a diary and reflecting on our teaching is a very good way to start with. We have to write an article and re-write it many times so that it can be refined considerably. Those who have done a course like P.G.C.T.E. from English and foreign language university or participated in the teacher development programme from Regional Institute of English, South India know the importance of writing and re-writing the assignments. A need-based writing programme for the teachers would be to undertake the production of material for children to read. In the revised pedagogy we have aimed at helping the children to produce a variety of discourses at all levels of their learning. We have also conceived classroom
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processes to materialise this goal. Teachers also apply these processes in their own enterprise in the domain of creative writing,

Doing a formal Course: Course like P.G.C.T.E. from English and foreign language university, the teacher development programmes from Regional Institute of English, South India will be more helpful for teachers.. British council is also offering some courses for in-service teachers. Membership of professional bodies We can be members of professional bodies. There are already some of these in the field. Teachers can also work for building up an academic networking among themselves by blogging, podcasting or through other internet programmes such as face book, twitter for sharing their field experiences with other teachers across the world. Other Ways: There are certain other ways for our professional development. Engaging in new professional activities and doing things for the first time Peer observation Exploring different methods, strategies and techniques within the parameters of the emerging paradigm In fact the possibilities are many. The only decisive criteria for our actions should be our own critical thinking looking at everything including our actions from multiple perspectives.
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Following reflective and explorative practices Participating in projects in a group with fellow professionals Forming a local group like English clubs to discuss and take turns to lead sessions

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