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Corrections - is typically carried out by government agencies and involves the punishment, treatment, and supervision of persons who

have been convicted of crimes. Penology - The study of the punishment of crime and prison management.Is a section of criminology that deals with the philosophy and practice to repress criminal activities via an appropriate treatment and supervision of persons convicted of criminal offenses. Punishment - is the infliction or imposition of a penalty as retribution for an offense."The penalty inflicted". Prison reform - is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons and aiming a a more effective penal system. Prison - is a place in which people are physically confined and usually deprived of a range of personal freedoms. Jail - is a short term detention facility. Halfway house - also called recovery house or sober house - is a place to allow people to begin the process of reintegration with society while still providing monitoring and support; this is generally believed to reduce the risk of recidivism or relapse when compared to a release directly into society. Rehabilitation - it came from latin word "habilis" literally fit or suitable. Its meaning was expanded to mean "restore to sound operation" or "to establish the good reputation". Solitary confinement - is a special form of imprisonment in which a prisoner is isolated fro any human contact, though often with the exception of members of prison staff.



a place of detention; a place where a person convicted or suspected of a crime is detained. BJMP DILG holds people awaiting trial and people sentenced for a short duration.

a place of long term confinement for those convicted of serious crimes. Bureau of Corrections DOJ holds people convicted of crimes;sentenced for a longer term.

Zebulon Reed Brockway - regarded as the father of prison reform in the United States. Believed that the primary reason to have a prisoner in custody was to rehabilitate and not simply to punish. Warden at the Elmira reformatory from 1876 to 1900. He introduced the following:

1. a program of education 2. training in useful trades

3. 4. 5. 6.

physical activity indeterminate sentence inmate classification incentive program.

Alexander Maconochie - (1787 -1860) - a Scottish naval officer,geographer and penal reformer. His two basic principle of penology were that:

1. as cruelty debases both the victim and society, punishment should not be vindictive but should aim at the reform of the convict to observe social constraints. 2. a convicts imprisonment should consist of task, not time sentences with release depending on the performance of a measurable amount of labor.

Modern Form/Method of Punishment

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Execution - for capital offenses. ex. death by lethal injection Imprisonment/Incarceration Fines Probation and Parole House Arrest - is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to his or her residence. Travel is usually restricted if allowed at all.

Ancient Form/Method of Punishment

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

shame punishment exile/banishment payment to the victim branding - (Stigmatizing) - is the process by which a mark is burned into the skin of a living person. flogging - (flagellation) - is the act of methodically beating or whipping the human body. mutilation - (maiming) - is the act of physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of any living body usually without causing death. burning beheading torture

* In the Philippines so far, 17 persons were executed by hanging, 84 persons were executed by electric chair, 7 persons were executed by lethal injection. * Majority of inmates confined in national prison did not finish high school, 6% never went to school or were illiterate and 3% earned a college degree.