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# DEPARTMENT OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERING University Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

## EAS 3923 AEROSPACE LABORATORY III SEMESTER 2, 2012/2013

LAB REPORT EXPERIMENT 1 & 2 STATIC TEST FOR AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE METAL & NON-METAL
Group Members: No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Name Teh Wen Sun Mohd Nizam Bin Hassan Tee Siok Boon Chan Teng Yan Ali Yousefian Syafiq Syahmi bin Sazali Matric No. 158496 160541 159484 157388 159896 157654 Task Introduction Discussion no.1- 4 Objectives, Apparatus, Method, Conclusion, References Discussion no. 5-7 Theory Results

## Date of Experiment Name of Lecturer Name of Demonstrator Name of Technician

28/03/2013 Dr Dayang Laila Abang Abdul Majid Mr Ahsan Nur Mubarak Zahari @ Annuar Mr Mohd Suhardi Ali

1.0 Introduction In this experiment, static test for aircraft structure which includes metal and non-metal is carried out. For metal, aluminium 6061 plate is used. For non-metal, carbon-glass fibre composite plate is used. From the experiment, the value of Modulus Young of the aluminium and composite material is determined in order to identify its material behavior so that suitable material could be selected for design of aircraft part in relevant to air stress. In order to determine the value of Modulus Young, the deflection of plates due to load is determined, then the graph of force against the deflection of the plate is plotted. From the graph, the gradient of the curve corresponds to
3 3

## . Hence, Modulus Young can be determined.

The Modulus Young has importance in calculated the deflection or extension of beams due to applied loads, enabling an induced stress to be converted into a strain. As strain is defined as the (change of length)/(original length), then the movement of the structural member can be calculated. In other words, The Modulus Young represents the strength of material. The higher the value, the stronger is the material. Knowing the strength of material is very important when engineers want to select the materials to design an aircraft. Besides, static load test is significant to determine which material should be used to design parts of aircraft relevant to the conditions. This is to avoid the damage or permanent deformation of the relevant aircraft structures when they are exposed to a critical environment condition when the airplane is cruising in the free stream. In addition, the test is also use to analyze the structure to ensure that it will meet the ultimate design condition without collapse. 2.0 Objectives To give early exposure in practical about how materials can be tested for static load To investigate the important of Modulus Young for material behaviour.

3.0 Theory Deflection is displacement of a structural member under a load. In this experiment, a fixed and free end beam was used. Deflection can be calculated by Castiglianos method.

V
M x = 0; According to Castiglianos theorem,

= ,

F =

= (
0

3 ) = ( ) = 3 0

3 ( ) 3

The gradient of the graph (F/) indicated the strength of the material. The steeper the slope the stronger the material is. In short, from the slope of the curve, we can choose either to use the aluminium material or the composite material to be a part of aircraft structure. Moment of Inertia I measures the resistance of an object to changes in rotation direction. In this experiment, the member used is rectangular section. For rectangular beam,

3 12

where h is the dimension in plane of bending The reason for finding the value of deflection of the plate is to determine the slope of the curve. From the slope of the curve, we can determine the values of Youngs Modulus. Metals have mechanical properties of higher strength, ductility, high bending stiffness, and
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toughness compared to non-metal. According to technical data, aluminium 6061 has modulus of elasticity at 70-80 GPa. However, composite materials (non-metal) are more chosen to be used in aerospace industry nowadays due to its high strength -to-weight ratio. Carbon-glass fibre composite material that is joined using matrix such as carbon-glass and fibre has higher strength to weight ratio. Carbon-glass fibre composite has modulus of elasticity is in the range 200350GPa. 4.0 Apparatus Load cells Specimens- aluminum plate and carbon composite plate G-clamp Ruler Tape

5.0 Method 1. The aluminum plate was placed on the edge of the table by using G-clamp. 2. The 0.1N load cell was placed at the edge of the aluminum plate. 3. The initial deflection was measured by using a ruler and recorded. 4. The loading was increased at 0.1N increment. 5. The previous procedure was repeated for three times. 6. The reading was taken and load vs displacement graphs were plotted. 7. These steps were repeated by replace the aluminum plate with carbon composite plate.

6.0 Results 6.1 Metal element: Aluminium 6061 Length, L = 30 cm Force (N) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 Width, b = 7.1 cm Thickness, h = 0.09 cm average (cm) Deflection, (cm)

1 2 3 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.60 0.60 0.65 0.62 0.90 0.95 0.90 0.92 1.20 1.35 1.30 1.28 1.60 1.65 1.55 1.60 1.90 1.85 1.90 1.88 2.35 2.40 2.30 2.35 2.60 2.55 2.70 2.62 2.90 3.00 3.00 2.97 3.20 3.30 3.20 3.23 3.50 3.70 3.70 3.63 4.10 4.10 4.00 4.07 4.40 4.20 4.40 4.33 4.80 4.70 4.60 4.70 5.00 5.20 5.10 5.10 5.30 5.40 5.30 5.33 5.60 5.70 5.60 5.63 6.00 6.10 6.00 6.03 6.40 6.50 6.30 6.40 6.80 6.70 6.80 6.77 Table 1: Deflection measured for metal element Graph of Force against Deflection for Aluminium Beam

2.25 2 1.75 Force F (N) 1.5 1.25 1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5

y = 0.2992x

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

Deflection (cm)

## Graph 1: Force against Deflection for Aluminium Beam

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6.2 Non-Metal: Carbon-glass Fibre Composite Length, L = 34.4 cm Force (N) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 Width, b = 9 cm Thickness, h = 0.09 cm Deflection, (cm) average (cm) 1 2 3 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.60 0.50 0.60 0.57 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 1.10 1.10 1.20 1.13 1.40 1.50 1.50 1.47 1.70 1.70 1.60 1.67 1.90 1.90 1.90 1.90 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.40 2.50 2.40 2.43 2.60 2.60 2.60 2.60 2.90 2.90 2.90 2.90 3.10 3.10 3.20 3.13 3.40 3.50 3.40 3.43 3.80 3.70 3.80 3.77 4.10 4.10 4.10 4.10 4.30 4.20 4.30 4.27 4.40 4.50 4.50 4.47 4.70 4.80 4.70 4.73 5.00 4.90 4.90 4.93 5.20 5.30 5.30 5.27 Table 2: Deflection measured for Non-Metal element

2.5

2 Force F (N)

F = 0.3766

1.5

0.5

## Graph 2: Force against Deflection for Carbon-glass Fibre Composite Beam

5

7.0 Discussion 7.1 From the graphs you have constructed, obtain the line equations. Discuss the relation between both load and displacement. For Metal (Aluminium 6061), the line equation obtained is F = 0.2992 . Hence, the gradient (load/displacement) is 29.92 N/m. From the graph, we can conclude that as the load increases, the vertical displacement (deflection) of the beam increases proportionally. This is consistent with Hookes law of elasticity . For Non-Metal (Carbon-glass fibre composite), the line equation obtained is F = 0.3766 . Hence, the gradient (load/displacement) is 37.66 N/m. From the graph, we can conclude that as the load increases, the vertical displacement (deflection) of the beam increases proportionally. This is consistent with Hookes law of elasticity where it states that the deflection of a material is directly proportional to the force/load applied as long as the proportionality limit is not exceeded. 7.2 From the deflection formula, calculate E for both metal (Aluminum) and non-metal (Composite). Ref: Mechanics of Materials For fixed and free end beam with load applied at the free end of the beam, the maximum deflection measured at the free end of the beam is given by = 3 3 3 12

43 ( ) 3

## 4(0.3)3 (29.92) 0.071 (0.09 102 )3

= . For Non-Metal (Carbon-glass fibre composite), Modulus Young = 4(0.344)3 (37.66) 0.09 (0.09 102 )3

= .
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7.3 Briefly discuss the difference between these two materials. The Youngs modulus of carbon-glass fibre composite (93.46 GPa) is higher than that of aluminium 6061 (62.43 GPa). Youngs modulus indicates the slope of the elastic portion of the curve that shows the tendency of the material to the elasticity. The higher the value of Youngs modulus, the higher the load required to stretch the carbon-glass fibre composite. This means that carbon-glass fibre composite has higher stiffness than aluminium 6061. 7.4 Draw a graph between load and the displacement of the materials. Graph of load against vertical displacement
2.5

## 2 F = 0.3766 Force F (N) 1.5 Aluminium Composite F = 0.2992

0.5

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

## Deflection (cm) Graph 3: Comparison of slope between aluminium and composite

7.5 From these experiments, what is the significant of Modulus Young in real life? Give your opinion. Modulus Young measures the tendency of a material to deflect or stretch due to a load applied and hence the stiffness of the material. In real life, Modulus Young is used to determine the suitability of a material in sustaining high load. For example, in design of aircraft wing, it is important to choose wing that has high stiffness so that the wing is capable of withstand high compressive stress due to the air. A wing that is high in Modulus Young could not change its structure easily even due to high stress. Therefore, materials are selected based on Modulus Young in order to have stronger aircraft structure.
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7.6 Find and compare the bending stiffness of the two materials. Suggest way(s) to increase the bending stiffness for a cantilever wing. For aluminium 6061, 3 0.071 (0.09 102 )3 Bending stiffness = = ( ) = 62.43 109 ( ) = 0.26 Nm2 12 12 For carbon-glass fibre composite, 3 0.09 (0.09 102 )3 Bending stiffness = = ( ) = 93.46 109 ( ) = 0.51 Nm2 12 12 Composite has a higher bending stiffness compared to aluminium. Since the fibre in the composite is stiffer, each fibre will be carrying a larger stress. Hence, the composite has higher bending stiffness. To increase the bending stiffness of a cantilever wing, the moment of inertia of the wing has to be increased. To increase the moment of inertia, stiffeners, stringers, spars, and ribs are added into the wing structure. All of these components will lead the wing to have higher moment of inertia, and hence contribute to higher bending stiffness. 7.7 Comparing the same thickness of 0 swept, 0-0-0 stacking sequence carbon-glass-carbon what would you expect the Youngs Modulus to be? Would there be any effect on Youngs Modulus with variation of stacking sequence? Composite of 60-0-60 stacking sequence is used in this experiment. However, 0-0-0 stacking sequence carbon-glass-carbon would have lower Youngs modulus compared to the one used in this experiment. For 0-0-0 stacking sequence carbon-glass-carbon composite, the angles of top and lower ply are the same and thus it does not contribute much change in moment of inertia due to force applied and hence lower Modulus Young is developed. For composite with 60-0-60 stacking sequence, each ply of fibres has its own directional which constraint the move when it is laminated with plastic and it becomes more resistant to forces in more directions. Hence, it has higher Modulus Young. The results obtained in this experiment are somewhat deviated from actual value. This could be due to errors in measuring the deflection. The location of measurement was not exactly taken at the end of the beam. Error could be arisen when load is not placed at one particular place throughout the experiment and is not at the end of the beam.

8.0 Conclusion At the end of the experiment, an exposure in practical about how materials can be tested for static load was gained. The importance of Modulus Young for material in determination of the best aircraft structural material behavior was investigated. 9.0 References 1. Elliott, R. (2001). Deflection of Beams. Retrieved from: http://www.clag.org.uk/beam.html 2. Hibbeler, R.C. (2011). Mechanics of Materials, 8th edition. US: Prentice Hall Inc. 3. Hoppel, C.P.R., and Teresa, S.J.D. (1999). Effect of an Angle-Ply Orientation on Compression Strength of Composite Laminates. Maryland: Amry Research Laboratory. 4. Kalpakjian, S. (2010). Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 6th edition. New York: Pretice Hall. 5. Sun, C.T. (1998). Mechanics of Aircraft Structures. Canada: John Wiley & Sun