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Pulau Bulan (Bulan Island) is located 2.5km south-west of Batam.

It was known as Bulang in the 18th and early 19th century. It was part of the old Malay Lingga-Riau-Johor Empire. There were three factions in that empire. The Sultan ruled at Lingga, the Bugis Yamtuan Muda (Viceroy) controlled Riau and the Temenggung (Minister of the Justice/Internal Security) held Bulang as his fief. The Temenggung's dominion was a distinctive territory, which the Riau Malays refers to as daerah Bulang (Bulang area). They say that this is because the Temenggungs base was located on the two small islands of Bulang Lintang and Bulang Gebang. From this base, he ruled a large dominion which spanned from Karimun, Buru, Galang, Moro, Batam, Terong, Sugi, Bulang, Pekaka, Temiang, and Singapore to Johor. These sites are now politically separated into three nation states, namely, Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia. Singapore, was then just one of the many islands under the rule of the Temenggung. In 1806, Abdul Rahman became the Temenggung, ruling his fief from Bulang. A succession dispute arose 1812 when Sultan Mahmud died. The Yamtuan Muda Raja Jaafar and the Bugis supported the younger son, also called Abdul Rahman, and the Malay factions, led by the Bendahara (based in Pahang) and the Temenggung (based in Bulang), supported the elder son, Hussein, also known as Tengku Long. The ex-Sultans fourth wife, Tengku Putri Hamidah (who was also the sister of Raja Jaafar) also supported Tengku Longs claim and refused to give up the royal regalia. Unfortunately, Tengku Long was away at Pahang at the time of his fathers death. Raja Jaafar managed to install the younger son as the Sultan (without using the royal regalia). Tengku Long, having sailed from Pahang where he had married the Bendaharas (Tun Ali) sister, went to see his stepmother, Tengku Putri Hamidah at Pulau Penyengat. Back by the Tengku Putri, he assembled a force and got the aid of his brother in-law (Bendahara Tun Ali) to recover the throne. Raja Jaafar, wily man that he was, complained of the Bendaharas piratical intention to the British Resident in Malacca (which was under British control temporarily from 1795 to 1818), who sent a Mr. Adriaan Koek to warn the Bendahara that to intervene in the affairs of Lingga-Riau would displease Great Britain. Tun Ali thus retreated and took his forces at Bulang back to Pahang. The situation thus became an armed stand-off for many years between the Malays and the Bugis factions. In 1818, the Dutch resumed control of Malacca at the end of the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. They send the same Adriaan Koek, who promised Raja Jaafar military support with which he could overcome his enemies. Seeing the writing on the wall, Temenggung Abdul Rahman and his followers left Bulang and went to settle in Singapore. The next year, 1819, Raffles (and Farquhar) arrived and founded modern Singapore. And what is the connection between Pulau Bulan and Singapore now? Pulau Bulan is now dedicated to pig farming, and is the only farm approved by the Singapores Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA) to export live pigs to Singapore. The pig farm is operated by Indo Tirta Suaka, a subsidiary of the Salim Group, and occupies an area of 1,500ha. Every day, except Sunday, about 1,000 live pigs take an overnight, seven hour ferry ride from Pulau Bulan to Singapore (The Piggy Express?). Instead of a Temenggung ruling Singapore from Bulang, it is now Singapore which imported pigs from Pulau Bulan. Thus the position is now reversed.

--- Anderiguru Daing