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Student Guide Book

Subject: Physical Metallurgy 1 (MMS 210802)

Prof. Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Faculty of Engineering University of Indonesia 2010

Preface
Physical Metallurgy 1 is the basic knowledge in the stream of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering. It covers the microscopic phenomenon and mechanism which control behaviour of materials. It lays foundation for further subjects related to manufacturing and processing, because it studies the relationship between structure, processing, properties and performance of materials. This guidebook is intended to provide guidelines for students taking this subject. By reading this guidebook, it is expected that students understand the learning objectives and should be able to prepare themselves prior to each topic. It is also to guide students in working in group so that they may make the most of the group exercises. Any comments, critics, correction to this guidebook is thankfully accepted.

Depok, September 2010 Lecturer,

Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si. NIP. 19690421 199202 2001

Table of Content
Endorsement Page Preface Table of Content Chapter 1. General Information Chapter 2. Learning Objectives Chapter 3. Outlines of Subject Chapter 4: Teaching Methods and Learning Activities Chapter 5: Exercises and Assignments Chapter 6. Assessment References 1 4 5 7 9 15 18

General Information
Chapter

1. Subject 2. Subject Code 3. Semester 4. Credit 5. Year 6. Type of Subject 7. Prerequisite

: : : : : : :

Physical Metallurgy MMS 210802 3 3 SKS 2010/2011 Basic Competence Subject (Mata Kuliah Dasar Keahlian) Mineralogy and Crystallography

8. Relationship between this subject and other subjects in Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

Student Guide Book

Physical Metallurgy

Figure 2. Relationship of this subject with other subjects in Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering 9. Lecturer : Prof. Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si. 2nd Floor, Dept. Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Phone: 786 3510, bondan@metal.ui.ac.id

10. Description of the subject As a materials engineer, you must have understanding on the structure, the processing /fabrication and degradation of materials which overall determine the performance of the material during application.

This is illustrated in Figure 3.

ore/feedstock

processing atoms, molecules, electrons, crystals components devices structures

microstructure

materials

fabrication

protection against degradation

recycling

Figure 3. Scope of metallurgy and materials engineering

Student Guide Book

Physical Metallurgy

Physical Metallurgy covers the basic of structure of solid materials, including the crystal structure, defects, and how they are determined by many factors, such as: processing routes, type of materials, alloying, etc. The structure of materials will also determine how a material can be utilized and how it reacts to loading and other external factors. So in fact, Physical Metallurgy covers the interrelationship between microstructure materials fabrication, as shown in Figure 3. Learning activities will be conducted through various method, which consists of: interactive lecture, question-based learning, discussion, demonstration and unguided structured assignments. Assessment will be made continuously through a set of exercises, group discussion, mid semester exam and final exam. This guide book will help students prepare for learning activities throughout the semester for this subject. Preparation may include reading, preparation of worksheet and practice. Achievement of students will entirely be due to their activities and preparation. Construction of knowledge will be made through exercises, and questions available in this book. Students are expected to do the exercises, and they may move to further stage as they ready for that. Overall, students are expected to be active learners by acquiring knowledge through thinking and exercising. Students may also use this guidebook to self-assess their achievement.

Student Guide Book

Physical Metallurgy

Learning Objectives
Chapter

2.1. Terminal Learning Objectives Upon completion of this subject students are expected to be able to design structures of materials in order to obtain particular characteristics of materials. 2.2. Supportive Learning Objectives

1. Students are expected to understand how dislocations form and move in crystalline materials. 2. If the students are given a particular crystal structure (FCC, BCC or CPH) of materials they can examine slip system for dislocation on the structure and how it affects mechanical properties of the materials. 3. Students are able to distinguish fatigue and static fractures in term of dislocation movement and fracture appearance. 4. If students are given a fatigue fracture surface, they can analyze the initial crack and predict the type of loading that may cause it. 5. Students can differentiate movement of dislocations at low and high temperature, which may lead to creep mechanism. 6. Students are expected to be able to illustrate 6 (six) mechanisms to hinder dislocation movements in order to increase strength of materials. 7. If the students are given various microstructures of materials, they may predict the difference of mechanical properties of each material. 8. If students are given information on processing routes of materials, they may predict the mechanical properties of the materials. 9. If low-strength materials are given to the student, they may design a set of process to increase the strength of the materials.

Student Guide Book

Physical Metallurgy

Outline of Subject
Chapter

Supportive Learning Objective 1, 2

Topic 1. Review on crystal structure 2. Crystal Defects

Sub-topic 1.1. Review on crystal structures 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Point Defects (0-dimension) 2.3. Line Defects (Dislocations) (1dimension): 2.3.1. Edge Dislocations 2.3.2. Screw Dislocations 2.3.3. Burgers Vector 2.3.4. Movement of Dislocations 2.3.5. Energy of Dislocation 2.3.6. Dislocations in FCC, BCC and HCP structures 2.3.7. Effects of dislocations in properties of materials 2.4. Planar Defects (2-dimension) 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Fatigue stress 3.3. Fatigue failure 3.4. Fatigue test 4.1.Creep and high temperature failure 4.2.Creep testing 4.3.Stress rupture life time behaviour 4.4.Factors affecting creep 4.5.Creep mechanisms 4.6.Materials for high creep resistance 5.1.Introduction 5.2.Strain (Work) hardening 5.3.Grain boundary strengthening 5.4.Solid Solution strengthening 5.5.Precipitation (two-phase) Strengthening 5.6.Steel Alloys Strengthening 5.7.Composite Strengthening

Reference [1] Chap.3 [1] Chap. 4 [2] [4] [6]

3, 4

3. Fatigue and Fracture of Materials 4. Creep of Materials

[1] Chap. 8 [5] [1] Chap. 8 [2] [5]

6,7,8,9

5. Strengthening Mechanism

[1] Chap.7 [2] [3] [4] [5]

Student Guide Book

Physical Metallurgy

Texbooks and Reference Books: [1] Callister, W.D, Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 7 th ed., Wiley., 2006 [2] Abbaschian, R and Reed-Hill, R.E, Physical Metallurgy Principles, 4th ed, Brooks Cole, 2008. [3] Smallman, R.E and Bishop, R.L, Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, 6th ed., Butterworth Heinemann, 1999. [4] Philips, R, Crystals, Defects and Microstructures, Modeling Across Scale , Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001. [5] Mangonon, P. L, The Principles of Materials Selection for Engineering Design , Prentice-Hall, 1998 [6] Hull, D and Bacon, D,J, Introduction to Dislocations, 4th ed., Pergamon, 2001

Student Guide Book

Physical Metallurgy

Teaching Methods and


Chapter

Learning Activities
Week/Date 1/ 2 Sep 10 1. Subtopic Review on crystal structure 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Point Defects (0-d) 2.3. Line Defects (Dislocations) (1-d) 2.4. Planar Defects (2-d) IDUL FITRI BREAK 2.3.1. 2.3.2. 2.3.3. 2.3.4. Edge Dislocations Screw Dislocations Burgers Vector Movement of Dislocations 2.3.5. Energy of Dislocation 2.3.6. Dislocations in FCC, BCC and HCP structures 2.3.7. Effects of dislocations in properties of materials 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Fatigue stress 3.3. Fatigue failure 3.4. Fatigue test 3.5. Case study in fatigue 2 Supportive Learning Objective 1 Learning Methods Orientation Exercise Feedback (O) (L) (U) Interactive Individual Group Lecture exercise, exercise Group discussion , Self study Interactive Lecture Interactive Lecture Group exercise, Self study Group exercise, Group discussion , Self study SCELE Media/ Module WB,I/ Module 1

2/ 9 Sep 10 3/ 16 Sep 10

2 2

WB,I / Module 2 Journal review, Presentation WB,I / Module 2

4/ 23 Sep 10

SCELE

SCELE

SCELE/ Module 2

5/ 30 Sep 10

3, 4

Interactive Lecture,

6/ 7 Oct 10

Interactive Lecture, SCELE

Group exercise, Group discussion , Case study SCELE

WB,I / Module 3

SCELE

WB,I / Module 4

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Physical Metallurgy

7/ 14 Oct 10

8/ 21 Oct 10 9/ 28 Oct 10 10/ 4 Nov 10

4.1. Creep and high temperature failure 4.2. Creep testing 4.3. Stress rupture life time behaviour 4.4. Factors affecting creep 4.5. Creep mechanisms 4.6. Materials for high creep resistance Review Midsemester Exam 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Strain (Work) hardening Midsemester exam Guest lecture by Dr. H. Rachmantio, founding father of DTMM

Group discussion, SCELE

Study case, SCELE

Study case, SCELE

WB,I / Module 4

Lecture, SCELE Interactive Lecture, SCELE Interactive Lecture

SCELE

SCELE

WB, I/ Module 4 WB, I/ Module 5

6, 7

Self study, Virtual lab, SCELE

SCELE

11/ 11 Nov 10

12/ 18 Nov 10

5.3. Grain boundary strengthening 5.4. Solid Solution strengthening 5.5. Precipitation (two-phase) Strengthening 5.6. SteelAlloys Strengthening 5.7. Composite Strengthening Review Final exam period, see the Exam schedule in SIAK NG

Enwiden students view on the real materials world 7,8

Interactive Lecture

Self study, Virtual lab Self study, Group Exercise Self study Self study Group exercise

WB,I / Module 5

13/ 25 Nov 10 14/ 2 Dec 10 15/ 10 Dec 10 16 17

7,8

Interactive Lecture Interactive Lecture Interactive Lecture

WB,I / Module 5 WB,I / Module 5 WB,I / Module 5

9 9

Student Guide Book

Physical Metallurgy

Exercises and Assignments


Subtopic Week
1/ 2 Sep 10

Chapter
1. Review on crystal structure 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Point Defects (0-d) 2.3. Line Defects (Dislocations) (1-d) 2.4. Planar Defects (2-d) IDUL FITRI BREAK 2.3.1. 2.3.2. 2.3.3. 2.3.4. 2.3.5. Edge Dislocations Screw Dislocations Burgers Vector Movement of Dislocations Energy of Dislocation

Assignment Group Individual Assignment Assignment


Assignment 1, due date: 2 Sept 10 in class

2/ 9 Sep 10 3/ 16 Sep 10

Journal review, due date: 30 Sep10 in class.

Reading: Ref. [2] (Reed-Hill) Chapt. 4 and 5.

4/ 23 Sep 10 5/ 30 Sep 10 6/ 7 Oct 10 7/ 14 Oct 10

2.3.6. Dislocations in FCC, BCC and HCP structures 2.3.7. Effects of dislocations in properties of materials 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Fatigue stress 3.3. Fatigue failure 3.4. Fatigue test 3.5. Case study in fatigue 4.1. Creep and high temperature failure 4.2. Creep testing 4.3. Stress rupture life time behaviour 4.4. Factors affecting creep 4.5. Creep mechanisms 4.6. Materials for high creep resistance Review Midsemester Exam 5.8. Introduction 5.9. Strain (Work) hardening Midsemester exam Guest lecture by Dr. H. Rachmantio, founding father of DTMM 5.10. Grain boundary strengthening 5.11. Solid Solution strengthening 5.12. Precipitation (two-phase) Strengthening 5.13. SteelAlloys Strengthening 5.14. Composite Strengthening Presentation

Assignment 2, due date: 30 Sep 10 in class. Case study, due date:7 Oct 10 in class Reading: Ref. [2] (Reed-Hill) Chapt. 19.

Assignment 3, due date: 14 Oct 10 in class

8/ 21 Oct 10 9/ 28 Oct 10 10/ 4 Nov 10 11/ 11 Nov 10 12/ 18 Nov 10 13/ 25 Nov 10 14/

Assignment 4: due date: 4 Nov 10 in class Assignment 5, due date: 11 Nov 10 in class Assignment 6, due date: 2 Dec 10 in class + 1 group Presentation

Student Guide Book

Physical Metallurgy

2 Dec 10 15/ 10 Dec 10 16 17

Review Final exam period, see the Exam schedule in SIAK NG

Assignment 1: Review on Crystal Structure 1. Face Centered Cubic a. Draw the hard sphere model of FCC. b. Calculate the atomic packing factor (APF). c. Draw the plane (111), (100) and (101) in FCC structure. d. Calculate the planar density of plane (111), (100) and (101) e. Calculate the linear density of direction [111], [100], [101] f. Which is the densest plane and direction in FCC? 2. Body Centered Cubic a. Draw the hard sphere model of BCC. b. Calculate the atomic packing factor (APF). c. Draw the plane (100) and (110) in BCC structure. d. Calculate the planar density of plane (100) and (110) e. Calculate the linear density of direction [100], [110] f. Which is the densest plane and direction in BCC? 3. Close Packed Hexagonal a. Draw the hard sphere model of CPH. b. Calculate the atomic packing factor (APF). c. Draw the plane (10 1 0) and (0001) in CPH structure. d. Calculate the planar density of plane (10 1 0) and (0001) e. Calculate the linear density of direction [10 1 0], [11 2 0] and [01 1 1 ] f. Which is the densest plane and direction in CPH? Understanding on the densest plane and direction in crystal structure is essential in understanding dislocations and their movement. Assignment 2: Partial Dislocations and Cross-Slip In an FCC metal, a screw dislocation approaches an obstacle and is momentarily stuck. After the stress is increased, the screw dislocation can bypass the obstacle by cross slipping:

If the same screw dislocation were initially dissociated into two partials:

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Physical Metallurgy

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Can cross slip happen in this scenario? Why or why not? Discuss in your group and report your group results of discussion.

Assignment 2: Perfect Dislocation and Its Movement Make a Thompson's tetrahedron from a piece of cardboard. Thompson's tetrahedron is a tetrahedron consists of 4 different (111) type planes in a FCC crystal. Draw ALL vectors of dislocation on each plane of the tetrahedron, containing [110] and 1/6 [121] directions. This construction will help you in understanding the perfect dislocations in FCC system. Assignment 3: Stress Rupture Lifetime

Using the LarsonMiller data for S-590 iron shown in the figure above, predict the time to rupture for a component that is subjected to a stress of 140 MPa(20,000 psi) at 800C (1073 K). Assignment 4: Strain hardening Two previously undeformed specimens of the same metal are to be plastically deformed by reducing their cross-sectional areas. One has a circular cross section, and the other is rectangular; during deformation the circular cross section is to remain circular, and the rectangular is to remain as such. Their original and deformed dimensions are as follows: Circular (diameter, mm) Rectangular (mm) Original dimensions 15.2 125 x 175 Deformed dimensions 11.4 75 x 200 Which of these specimens will be the hardest after plastic deformation, and why? Assignment 5: Virtual Lab Open: http://www.aluminium.matter.org.uk/content/html/eng/default.asp?CATID=64 &PAGEID=997788167 Do the virtual experiment there to prove that Hall-Petch equation does work! Assignment 6: Precipitation strengthening An as-cast Al-6Si-2Cu-0.1Mg-12Zn-0.6Fe-0.2Mn alloy (wt. %) was solution treated at 525 oC for 1 h , quenched and aged at 200 oC up to peak hardness. The hardness of the alloy increased from 65 BHN to 95 BHN as shown by the age-hardening curve in Fig. 1. The microstructures at as-cast and as-peak aged, as

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Physical Metallurgy

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well as micro-compositional analysis of each phase, are shown in Fig. 2 (a) and (b), respectively. Describe: a. Why the hardness of the alloy increased? b. Describe the strengthening mechanisms that contribute to the increase in hardness of the alloy.
110 100
200oC 25oC 150oC

kekerasan (BHN)

90 80 70 60 50 40 0,0001

200oC 200oC 150oC 150oC 25oC 25oC

0,01

log waktu aging (jam)

100

10000

Fig.1. Age hardening curve at 200 oC for the alloy

3 4 2 x

Fig.2 (a) As-cast microstructure (65 BHN), (b) peak-aged microstructure (95 BHN)
No. Komposisi (% berat) Al 1,40 51,41 47,30 85,88 Si 98,60 18,52 Cu 52,70 Fe 24,17 Mn 5,89 Zn 14,12 Warna Abu-abu tua Abu-abu muda Putih Abu-abu Indikasi Fasa Terbentuk Kristal silicon Al-Fe-Mn-Si CuAl2 Matriks kaya Al

As-cast :

1 2 3 4

No.

Peak aged :

1 2

Al 3,10 63,83

Komposisi (% berat) Si Cu Fe Mn 96,90 4,38 0,18 23,94 2,10


Physical Metallurgy

Zn 5,58

Warna Abu-abu tua Abu-abu muda

Indikasi Fasa yang Terbentuk Kristal silicon Al-Fe-Mn-Si


12

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3 x

80,27 73,53

2,27 3,12

0,31 3,79

17,15 19,56

Abu-abu Putih

Matriks kaya Al -

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Physical Metallurgy

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Case study: Fatigue Using the chart of fracture surface appearance, identify the type of load, nominal stress and stress concentration level for the two shaft examples given.

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Physical Metallurgy

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Journal Review: A recent research article is provided Your assignment is to read the article carefully, and think critically about what you have read. You will then prepare a short review of the article, in about 3 pages. About the first third of your review should be a synopsis of the paper, inclusive of methods and main results. The remainder of the review should offer a critique of the paper, and present some creative thoughts for future questions to be addressed.

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Assessment and Code of Conduct


Chapter

6.1. Instrument 1. Group assignments 2. Individual assignments 3. Journal review 4. Case study (short report of case study) 5. Midsemester exam (written test, restricted response essay, extended response essay) 6. Final exam (written test, restricted response essay, extended response essay) 1.2. Assessment No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Component Group and individual assignments Journal review Case study Mid semester exam Final exam Total Weight 10 % 15 % 15 % 30 % 30 % 100 %

6.3. Grading
85 A 80-84.9 A75-79.9 B+ 70-74.9 B 65-69.9 B60-64.9 C+ 55-59.9 C 50-54.9 C40 49.9 D 0-40 E

6.4. Code of Conduct


o o o o No cheating. Cheating will be sanctioned with E mark. No sandals No smoking Attendance is required min 75 %. Why? Knowledge can be transferred through handout, but values cant be! So, please come and we may share good values in life.

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Matrix for Mid semester exam Cognitive Domain 1 C2 (comprehension) C3 (application) C4 (analysis) Total Instrument Restricted response essay (Interpret information on a graph and details of phenomenon) Restricted response essay (Apply a concept on real case in manufacturing) Extended response essay (Analysis of a case) Number of question/problem 2-3 1-2 1-2 4-7 Weight 45 % 20% 35% 100%

6.6. Matrix for Final Exam Cognitive Domain C3 (application) C4 (analysis) C6 (evaluation) Instrument Restricted response essay (Apply a concept on real case in manufacturing) Restricted response essay (Analysis of a case) Extended response essay (Evaluation of a given set of data and condition that possesses the best properties) Number of question/prob lem 2-3 1-2 1 Weight 30 % 45 % 25%

Total 6.7. Examples of questions for mid semester and final exams.

46

100%

Restricted response essay C2 (Comprehension) 1. Briefly explain the differences between recovery and recrystallization processes. 2. What is the driving force for recrystallization? 3. Is it possible for an undeformed specimen to be recrystallized? Explain why. C3 (Application) 1. When making hardness measurements, what will be the effect of making an indentation very close to a preexisting indentation? 2. Why a tool steel containing 0.9 % C, 0.5 % Cr, 0.1 % V and 0.5 % W (wt. %) is suitable as wearresistant material?

Bloom Taxonomy
Physical Metallurgy 17

Student Guide Book

Extended response essay


C4 (Analysis) A stainless steel propeller shaft on a large yacht failed after two years in service. The loading conditions were rotating bending. The shaft is made of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel, and the fracture surface is as shown, which is typical of a fatigue failure. On the fractography, show where the crack initiation, crack propagation and the final failure area.
Picture taken from: http://www.fract.ses.soton.ac.uk/

C6 (Evaluation)
a b

Figure 1 above are TEM micrographs of Al4Cu-0.3Mg (wt. %) aged at 200 oC for different duration. a. Based on the size and distribution of the precipitates, compare the hardness of the alloy in Figure 1 (a) and 1 (b). Give reason for your answer. b. Predict the stage of ageing of the two samples (a) and (b) and evaluate their mechanical properties c. Which condition will you choose if the materials to be used as fuselage of aircraft. Give scientific reason for your answer.

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Figure 1. Structure of curriculum of Dept. Metallurgy and

References
Textbooks and References [1] Callister, W.D, Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 7 th ed., Wiley., 2006 [2] Abbaschian, R and Reed-Hill, R.E, Physical Metallurgy Principles, 4th ed, Brooks Cole, 2008. [3] Smallman, R.E and Bishop, R.L, Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, 6th ed., Butterworth Heinemann, 1999. [4] Philips, R, Crystals, Defects and Microstructures, Modeling Across Scale , Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001. [5] Mangonon, P. L, The Principles of Materials Selection for Engineering Design , Prentice-Hall, 1998 [6] Hull, D and Bacon, D,J, Introduction to Dislocations, 4th ed., Pergamon, 2001 Related Journals [7] Acta Materialia, Elsevier [8] Materials Transaction, American Society of Materials [9] Journal of Materials Science, Springer

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Physical Metallurgy

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