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CONSTRUCTIVISM 1.0.INTRODUCTION Now days the method of teaching is totally different from those days.

The students are more advanced compare with last days.This situation occurs because of contructivism .The contructivism is a theory which made by and observation about the scientific study based on how people learn.According to (Poh Swee hiang 2003) contructivism is knowledge cannot exist out side the mind of pupils but it is built in the mind based on experiences.Based on Wikipedia Constructivist teaching is based on theory of learning. Constructivist teaching is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction as opposed to passively receiving information. Learners are the makers of meaning and knowledge. Constructivist teaching fosters critical thinking, and creates motivated and independent learners.This theoretical framework holds that learning always builds upon knowledge that a student already knows; this prior knowledge is called a schema. Because all learning is filtered through pre-existing schemata, constructivists suggest that learning is more effective when a student is actively engaged in the learning process rather than attempting to receive knowledge passively. A wide variety of methods claim to be based on constructivist learning theory. Most of these methods rely on some form of guided discovery where the teacher avoids most direct instruction and attempts to lead the student through questions and activities to discover, discuss, appreciate, and verbalize the new knowledge. Constructivism is more a philosophy, not a strategy. Rather, constructivism is an underlying philosophy or way of seeing the world. This way of seeing the world includes notions about: 1. The nature of reality (mental representations have "real" ontological status just as

the "world out there" does). 2. The nature of knowledge (it's individually constructed; it is inside people's minds,

not "out there"). 3. The nature of human interaction (we rely on shared or "negotiated" meanings,

better thought of as cooperative than authoritative or manipulative in nature). 4. The nature of science (it is a meaning-making activity with the biases and filters

accompanying any human activity).

5. classical classroom teaching is different compare with constructivism teaching. classical classroom teaching the pupil work in alone, objective of lesson plan achieve by the repetation .

In a constructivist classroom, learning is Students are not blank slates or empty cups upon which knowledge is etched. This means there is already existing schema in their minds. They come to learning situations with already formulated knowledge, ideas, and understandings. This previous knowledge is the raw material for the new knowledge they will create. Example: An elementary school teacher presents a class problem to measure the length of the "Mayflower." Rather than starting the problem by introducing the ruler, the teacher allows students to reflect and to construct their own methods of measurement. One student offers the knowledge that a doctor said he is four feet tall. Another says she knows horses are measured in "hands." The students discuss these and other methods they have heard about, and decide on one to apply to the problem. 2.0 CHARACTERISTICT OF A CONTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOM There are four main Characteristict Of A Contructivist Classroom. Cognitive exploration Encourages inquiry and direct, hand-on mind-on activities Student autonomy Student are in charge of their own learning Social interaction Student work together in groups with opportunities for cognitive conflict. Student centred Students ideas and opinions are important.Teacher acts asa a facilitator. 2.1 Cognitive exploration

The student is the person who creates new understanding for him/herself. The teacher coaches, moderates, suggests, but allows the students room to experiment, ask questions, try things that don't work. Learning activities require the students' full participation (like hands-on experiments). An important part of the learning process is that students reflect on, and talk about, their activities. The constructivist classroom is student-centered with the teacher acting as facilitator and guide. The teacher assists student learning but does not give lectures or tell students how to approach problem solving. The teacher uses guided discovery by giving students a problem and allowing them to work individually or in groups to find patterns and solve the problem. Teachers may listen and offer advice or additional resources, but ultimately allow students to form their own conclusions. Students also help set their own goals and means of assessment. Examples: A language teacher sets aside time each week for a writing lab. The emphasis is on content and getting ideas down rather than memorizing grammatical rules, though one of the teacher's concerns is the ability of his students to express themselves well through written language. The teacher provides

opportunities for students to examine the finished and earlier drafts of various authors. He allows students to select and create projects within the general requirement of building a portfolio . Students serve as peer editors who value originality and uniqueness rather than the best way to fulfill an assignment.


Student autonomy

Students control their own learning process, and they lead the way by reflecting on their experiences. The focus here is on the student, their interests, their learning skills, and their needs in a board sense.This process makes them experts of their own learning. The teacher helps create situations where the students feel safe questioning and reflecting on their own processes, either privately or in group discussions. The teacher should also create activities that lead the student to reflect on his or her prior knowledge and experiences. Talking about what was learned and how it was learned is really important. Example: Students keep journals in a writing class where they record how they felt about the class projects, the visual and verbal reactions of others to the project, and how they felt their own writing had changed. Periodically the teacher reads these journals and holds a conference with the student where the two assess (1) what new knowledge the student has created, (2) how the student learns best, and (3) the learning environment and the teacher's role in it.


Social interaction

The constructivist classroom relies heavily on collaboration among students. There are many reasons why collaboration contributes to learning. The main reason it is used so much in constructivism is that students learn about learning not only from themselves, but also from their peers. When students review and reflect on their learning processes together, they can pick up strategies and methods from one another. A collaborative approach to the research is occurring through involving the teachers as much as possible, both in analysis and interpretations. Transcripts are returned to teachers regularly for annotation and further elaboration and meetings are convened once a term to allow researchers and teachers to scrutinise the data and to compare and contrast emerging interpretations. Example: In the course of studying ancient civilizations, students undertake an archaeological dig. This may be something constructed in a large sandbox, or, as in the Dalton School's "Archaeotype" software

simulation, on a computer. As the students find different objects, the teacher introduces classifying techniques. The students are encouraged to (1) set up a group museum by developing criteria and choosing which objects should belong, and (2) collaborate with other students who worked in different quadrants of the dig. Each group is then asked to develop theories about the civilizations that inhabited the area.