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case Study

energy efficient city Ludwigsburg


annex 51 - energy efficient communities: case Studies and Strategic Guidance for Urban Decision Makers

Imprint
A project of the International Energy Agency (IEA/Paris) Supervising Agent IEA in Germany Dr. reinhard Jank, Head of evaluation eneff:Stadt Volkswohnung Karlsruhe GmbH ettlinger-Tor-Platz 2 76137 Karlsruhe Promotion federal Ministry of education and research (BMBf) Project executing organisation Projekttrger Jlich National energy funding Dr. Daniel rohe 52425 Jlich Performance Stuttgart University of applied Sciences Institute of applied research (Iaf) centre of applied research - Sustainable energy Technology (zafh.net) and centre of sustainable urban development Prof. Dr. Ursula eicker, Prof. Dr. Detlef Kurth Dr. Monika Herrmann (project coordinator) Ursula Pietzsch, M.a. arno Knbl, M.a., graduate assistant c. Lars Schuchert, Dipl.Ing. (fH), graduate assistant Schellingstrae 24 70174 Stuttgart www.hft-stuttgart.de Partners city of Ludwigsburg Department for Sustainable Urban Development Werner Spec, Lord Mayor albert Geiger, Head of Department for Sustainable Urban Development Sandra Klmel, M. eng. (Project coordinator) Wilhelmstrae 11 71638 Ludwigsburg Title Wood- fired power station Ludwigsburg, Source: city of Ludwigsburg Publisher city of Ludwigsburg and zafh.net The project which this report is based on was funded by the federal Ministry of education and research under the grant number 03Sf0387. The responsibility for the content of this publication rests with the publishers. Translation Dr. Karoline Brombach, Stuttgart University of applied Sciences Stuttgart april 2011

2 IMPrINT

content
Preface .............................................................................................................. 4 01 Introduction The project annex 51 ......................................................................................... 6 energy efficient communities as part of a sustainable urban development policy ... 7 case study on energy efficiency, administrative reform and governance ................ 9 02 Background of the Sustainable Urban Development Strategy Town history and local identity ......................................................................... 10 Structural data of urban development ................................................................ 10 Governance structures ...................................................................................... 12 03 Energy and CO2 Balance energy production and energy supply ................................................................ 17 approaches to energy efficiency ........................................................................ 18 Integrated energy concept................................................................................. 19 Potentials of renewables in city and region ......................................................... 20 Transport.......................................................................................................... 22 final energy consumption and cO2 balance ...................................................... 23 Scenarios of the citywide energy Strategy .......................................................... 25 assessment of the development trend ............................................................... 28 research in the context of sustainability and energy efficiency ........................... 30 04 Stakeholder and Process Analysis research questions and stakeholders ................................................................ 32 Methodology..................................................................................................... 32 results............................................................................................................. 34 05 Planning Sustainable Urban Development Strategic objectives Integrated Urban Development concept as superordinate strategy ...................................................................................... 40 Integrated sustainability management steering sustainable urban development .................................................................................................... 42 District Development Plans ............................................................................... 43 energy ............................................................................................................. 43 06 Implementation, Funding and Marketing of Energy Efficiency: Planning instruments and funding programmes Implementation by planning tools ...................................................................... 46 Integration of funding and research projects ...................................................... 47 Marketing and communication .......................................................................... 48 07 Examples for Implementation.............................................................................. 50 08 Conclusions and Lessons Learned conclusions...................................................................................................... 57 Lessons learned .............................................................................................. 60 Appendix .......................................................................................................... 66 (Bibliography, Websites, abbreviations)

cONTeNT

Preface
Case Study Energy Efficient City Ludwigsburg
Dear ladies and gentlemen, for the City of Ludwigsburg and its political representatives, energy efficiency and security of energy supply will become a central locational factor. This concerns the local economy as well as the quality of life of the citizens. In the future, energy efficiency and the amount of renewable energies will make the difference between competing cities. Only cities that can guarantee stable costs and security of energy supply will belong to the prospering, successful and liveable cities in Germany and worldwide. We just finished the Citywide Energy Strategy for Ludwigsburg together with the Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy University of Stuttgart. The results show the great challenge of identifying and implementing effective measures to reach the aim of climate neutrality. The study at hand of the Institute of Applied Research at Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences (HFT) points out that we share this challenge with many German and European cities. Therefor, we established an internationally observed steering instrument via our urban development strategy Perspectives for Ludwigsburg . Energy is one of the eleven topics of our urban development strategy. The aim is to reach a sustainable energy supply by energy saving, energy efficiency and intensified use of renewable energies. Within the integrated sustainability management, the topics are continuously adjusted. One precondition is horizontal cross-linking. It is very important to understand this policy as a cross-linking task within the structure of administration. This includes master plans, goal indicators and method competence as well as political acceptance of participation. Our urban development strategy was given a new dimension by the Leipzig Charter and the National Urban Development Policy. Vertical cross-linking will be an important next step for a sustainable policy: from local level to the state level and European level up to an international level. For this reason it is a great pleasure for me that the City of Ludwigsburg was chosen as a case study for Energy Efficient Communities within the programme Annex 51 of the International Energy Agency (IEA, Paris). This gave us the possibility to analyse the previous process - and most important - to obtain recommended procedures of which we but also other cities can profit.

4 Preface

The aim of this study is to show how energy efficiency can be reached on municipal level and how energy efficiency can be implemented into the political decision making process by correspondent administrational structures. The study is directed at towns and local authorities as well as at regional associations, but also at planners and energy agencies. I would like to thank Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences (HFT) for the development of this study, Dr. Reinhard Jank (IEA), Dr. Daniel Rohe (Projekttrger Jlich) and the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) for the funding the study, but also all those who have contributed to it via background talks, interviews and supply of information.

Werner Spec Lord Mayor

Preface

01

Introduction
The project Annex 51
The project energy efficient city Ludwigsburg was developed in the context of annex 51 - energy efficient communities: case Studies and Strategic Guidance for Urban Decision Makers, supervised by the International energy agency (Iea, Paris). The project was coordinated by zafh.net and Zentrum fr Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklungsplanung (centre for Sustainable Urban Development Planning) within the Institut fr angewandte forschung (Iaf - Institute of applied research Iaf) of Hochschule fr Technik (HfT - University of applied Sciences) Stuttgart. It was supported by staff members of Ludwigsburgs referat Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung (Department for Sustainable Urban Development). annex 51 aims at developing municipal strategies that, through continuous optimization, lead to improved energy efficiency and reduction of cO2 emissions on communal or neighbourhood level. Therefore, a long-term and holistic approach is seen as essential. It includes reduction of energy consumption, access to innovative energy networks, production of energy from renewable sources, traffic planning, but also education and information. In order to secure the best efficiency possible, also short-term and medium-term measures are necessary. furthermore, climate protection targets may be enforced through modern management methods, such as delegation of responsibilities within administration, marketing, or conflict resolution strategies. SUBTASK A State of the Art

State of the art of organisation, implementation instruments and planning tools for municipality, city developers and urban planners

SUBTASK B - Case Studies

SUBTASK D

Case studies on energy planning and implementation of energy concepts for urban districts, development areas and further urban growth areas

Instruments and tools for successful municipal energy politics Guidelines, planning models, papers, workshops

SUBTASK C - Case Studies

Case studies to formulate an integrative municipal energy and climate concept, including implementation strategies

Figure 1: Subtasks annex 51, source: Iea

6 INTrODUcTION

Annex 51 comprises of four independent subtasks. Subtask D is worked out on the basis of subtasks A, B and C. The results are compiled and to be published in a manual for urban energy planning (subtask D). The case studies of subtask C describe how ten cities from Europe, Asia, U.S.A. and Canada improve energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions: their strategies, their experiences and success factors. The City of Ludwigsburg is still in the early stages of this process. Therefore, its focus lies on the following subjects:
n

Methods and instruments that support urban decision makers in developing and implementing efficient medium-term to long-term energy strategies. n Methods that help urban decision makers to judge the energy efficiency of existing or future energy sources and systems. The case study Energy Efficient City Ludwigsburg at hand was conducted on borough level (inner city and outer districts) and supervised by Dr. Reinhard Jank (IEA). The work plan for the other projects of subtask C is being compiled under the direction of Professor Jacques Kimman, Hogeschool Zuyd (Heerlen, Netherlands).

Energy efficient communities as part of a sustainable urban development policy


In Germany, the concept of energy efficient communities is part of a superordinate strategy: sustainable urban development policy. Its goals have been laid down by the European Union in the Leipzig Charter on Sustainable European Cities in 2007. This charter is being implemented within the framework of the German programme National Urban Development Policy. Here, strategic guiding visions for urban development such as the compact city, the climate conscious city, the City as a location for business or the socially balanced city are formulated. It is a declared goal to prevent the European city from ongoing urban sprawl and segregation and meet the challenges of demographic and climate change. Thus, the climate conscious and energy efficient city is part of a comprehensive integrated strategy for sustainability that - besides ecological themes - also accounts for social and economic aspects. In order to attain a climate conscious city, two strategies can be differentiated: climate protection (mitigation, for example by carbon reduction) and adjustment to climate change (adaptation, for example by retrofitting the existing building stock). The energy efficient city is part of the mitigation strategy, which, for example, focuses on reducing the energy demand and on shifting to renewable energy supply. It also accounts for the induced energy demand that is generated, for example, by additional traffic volume or disadvantageous spatial distribution of infrastructure and therefore is closely connected to the development goal of the compact city. In 2007, the member states of the European Community agreed on reducing the consumption of primary energy by 20 percent until 2020. With an energy saving ordinance and other regulation, Germany took measures to reduce energy consumption and to promote the use of renewables. Origins in the Agenda 21 process The implementation of Agenda 21 goals on the local level, for the first time, required all communities to devise a superordinate strategy for urban development that was based on a bottom-up process of participation supported by municipal administration. In order to monitor implementation strategies, the need for sustainability indicators was stressed (United Nations 1992). Seattle (Washington / USA) was one of the first cities worldwide that developed a set of indicators to measure local sustainability. In Germany, the City of Heidelberg (145,000 inhabitants) started to implement sustainability goals within the municipal urban development strategy 2010 Verantwortung fr die Zukunft (responsibility for the future) already in
Introduction

1994. The process was accompanied by comprehensive participation and publicity. Yet, altogether only few cities linked their urban development strategies to energy efficiency goals. In many German cities, Agenda 21 activities ran out by the end of the 1990s or were narrowed down to ecological objectives. The City of Ludwigsburg is one of the few cities where the Agenda group was institutionalized (as an energy agency: LEA - Ludwigsburger Energieagentur e.V.) and still keeps up its work today. The Agendas goals have been taken up and developed into a comprehensive Urban Development Strategy. Planning urban development Steering the development of settlements is an important factor for sustainable and energy efficient urban development: Where will new housing estates be developed, where will new infrastructure and transportation routes be located, where will urban regeneration measures take place? In the light of climatic and demographic change and shifting towards renewables, these strategic decisions are crucial. They allow to prioritize measures at an early stage. Urban development strategies are planning instruments fit to develop a guiding vision for sustainable development that integrates sectoral planning. Even though the policy framework for energy efficiency and climate protection is set at European, national and state level, in Germany, the municipalities play a key role. Due to the principle of planning and financial autonomy, they have a comparably great freedom to decide and design their own approaches. In the South of Germany, the Lord Mayor is directly elected and therefore holds a powerful position. Some mayors use their room for manoeuvre to develop superordinate concepts and establish special administrative units in order to promote innovative measures. Moreover, communities can assert direct influence on energy and housing policies when part of the energy supply and building stock are in public hands, for example via municipal utilities and housing associations. Integrated approaches of sustainability policy In this study, energy efficiency is examined from a citywide perspective. That means, the focus does not lie on the efficiency of single buildings, but of entire neighbourhoods and the whole city. Therefore, the settlement structure, the distribution of land use and the transport sector come into view when considering energy efficiency measures. By now, there is large knowledge on energy available in Germany. In future, energy efficiency, energy security and energy independence will become important locational factors (BMU 2009). Even though the national standards are high, there are still strong barriers to local implementation, especially in regard to adjusting the existing urban structure. Therefore, the implementation strategy of the City of Ludwigsburg, that includes a reorganization of administration, is examined in detail here. In Germany, the responsibilities for building, energy, environment, traffic, economy and technology are distributed among various ministries on national and state level. In city administrations, they are often assigned to different departments, which is a constraint to integrated approaches and comprehensive steerage. Usually, approaches to energy efficiency are sectoral and confined to singular projects that are only rarely part of a citywide or regional development strategy. For example, funding of low-energy housing estates takes place without considering location or infrastructure. Or self-contained energy carriers are tested, but without aligning them to a citywide energy strategy. Already in 2001, the German Institute for Applied Economic Research (IAW) pointed out that the inevitable administrative reforms had to be connected to the fields of environment and sustainability, as a case study on the City Horb am Neckar had shown. According to IAW, sustainable communities are characterized by: implemented administrative reform, an environmental management in place, self-concept as community of citizens, active support for local Agenda 21 activities (IAW 2001:198). Instead of replacing existing administrative structures, the concept of sustainable

8 Introduction

communities builds on them. Based on citizen participation and together with all stakeholders, a collective development strategy is being worked out. Steering takes place via indicators that monitor all municipal activities in regard to sustainability. The City of Ludwigsburg is in the process of implementing a comprehensive sustainability management system. Based on the Urban Development Strategy, various energy efficiency measures are tied together and aligned with the strategic goals for ecological, economic, participatory and social development. Therefore, the concept of an energy efficient city is understood as an integrated strategy to safeguard the Citys future in the face of energy and climate challenges.

Case study on energy efficiency, administrative reform and governance


The City of Ludwigsburg has been chosen for case study because it implements a comprehensive and integrated sustainability strategy based on a citywide concept for urban development. For the Citywide Energy Strategy, a multitude of activities in the areas of climate policy, climate change adaption, energy, transport, industry and land use have been compiled by the Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER) at Stuttgart University. These activities show that a special priority is given to energy policy in this community. Furthermore, outstanding energy efficiency standards have been realized in building and conversion projects in Ludwigsburg. A unique feature of the City of Ludwigsburg is the strategy of the mayor and his administration to use the comprehensive administrative reform for establishing sustainable structures that advance the subjects of urban development, energy and climate protection. Many other cities promote climate protection in campaigns with doubtful success. In Ludwigsburg, the administration makes well-directed use of the instruments it already has at hand while trying to achieve a balanced municipal household that contributes to fairness among generations. In the context of subtask C of Annex 51, Ludwigsburgs activities for an energy and climate protection strategy within the integrated urban development concept are described. Zafh. net and the Centre for Sustainable Urban Development planning of University of Applied Sciences Stuttgart (HFT) evaluated the measures and projects and deducted exemplary lessons learned. They may be compared to the other case studies in subtask C and serve as input for the manual for urban energy planning developed in subtask D.

Case Study Energy Efcient City Ludwigsburg Governance communal strategy for energy and climate protection Guiding principles of energy efcient urban development planning Implementation strategies and instruments Collective analysis of the Ludwigsburg approach Recommended procedures Lessons Learned Annex 51 Guide Book Energy Efcient Cities
Figure 2: Structure of case study, picture HFT

Introduction

02

Background of the Sustainable Urban Development Strategy


Town history and local identity
The city of Ludwigsburg was founded comparatively late in the 18th century as a baroque residency and centrally planned city. after the residency was relocated to Stuttgart, it developed into a garrison town. With the beginning of the 20th century, it was transformed by industrialization. Due to the numerous barracks, Ludwigsburg became a central military base for the US army after the Second World War. In the Southeast of the city, the large garrison Pattonville was built that comprised an army high school and housing (Lpple 2009: 311f). Due to growth of population and housing shortages, low priced housing was quickly been built after the war. Today, these housing estates, such as Grnbhl, Hirschberg or Schlsslesfeld, are in urgent need for energy-efficient renovation. During the 1960s and 70s, functional office buildings, schools and administrational buildings emerged. Because of its history, Ludwigsburg features many listed buildings and post war housing estates that place special demands on energy-efficient renovation. after withdrawal of the military in the 1990s, the inner city barracks were converted and various uses settled there (music school, film and media centre, start-up centre, art, culture). Due to monument protection, energy-efficient renovation only took place partly. In 1995, the former barrack site Krabbenlochkaserne was converted into the housing area rotbumlesfeld that features nature-oriented rainwater management and roof greening. at present, the last military site in Ludwigsburg, the flakkaserne, is turned into a modern housing area called Hartenecker Hhe. With almost 18 hectares, it is the largest barrack site in town.

Structural data of urban development


Population and demographic forecast as a medium-sized town (86,000 inhabitants), Ludwigsburg is an important centre in the North of Stuttgart with intense regional links. It is part of the region of Stuttgart and the Stuttgart metropolitan region, one of the most urbanized regions in europe with strong economic powers, a high quality of life and ongoing in-migration. Ludwigsburg is the third largest city in the region of Stuttgart. 43,331 inhabitants live in the city core (districts Mitte, West, Nord, Ost, Sd), 42,119 in the outer districts Pflugfelden, eglosheim, Hoheneck, Oweil, Grnbhl, Neckarweihingen and Poppenweiler. The citywide population density is 2,014 inhabitants/km2. after the population figures remained comparably stable during the last years, a slight decrease is expected from 2012 on. Until 2025, the number of residents is prognosed to drop to the level of 1996. The decrease of the natural population figures is cushioned by ongoing in-migration (Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Wrttemberg 2008).

10 BacKGrOUND

The Blhende Barock The green lung of Ludwigsburg, Picture: M. Herrmann

Settlement and transport structures The county of Ludwigsburg (Landkreis Ludwigsburg) comprises an area of 687 km2. 43 km2 belong to the City of Ludwigsburg. In 2009, 46.7% of the total municipal territory was occupied by settlement and traffic (including buildings, open spaces, factories and leisure), 45.2% by agriculture, 5.4% by forests, 2% by water and 0.7% by other uses (Website Stat. Landesamt BW 2008 a). Ludwigsburg is one of three secondary centres in the county. It is part of a regional development axis and, according to the regional plan, a regionally important growth pole for industry, commerce, services and housing. Like the rest of the region, the Ludwigsburg conurbation can be easily reached by public transport as well as by individual traffic. It is very well connected to the regional road network with direct feeders to national (A81) and state (B27) motorways and to the railway system (S-Bahn lines S4/ S5). National and international trains and airplanes depart from Stuttgart. Local railway sidings and shipping peers at the river Neckar are available for the transport of goods. The good car traffic connections also have negative consequences. Alongside the motorways, there are considerable gas, dust particles and noise emissions. Fragmented landscapes and spatial barriers add to an increase in energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Economy In Ludwigsburg, the change from industry to service society has successfully been carried out. In 2008, 76.6% of the employees subject to social security worked in the services sector, 23.2% in manufacturing and only 0.2% in agriculture and forestry. 98 enterprises in Ludwigsburg employ 50 or more wage earners. The five key industries are: automotive suppliers, engineering, finance, software development and media.Trade is also a large employer. In the Western part of Ludwigsburg, an economic cluster Zukunftspark Energie und Elektromobilitt (business park energy and electromobility) was formed that attracts new firms from the fields of energy efficiency, electromobility, eco-design and green industry. Because Ludwigsburg is so attractive, more people commute in (2008: 31,213) than out (2008: 19,469). The large commuting volumes for the entire county show that Ludwigsburg is well-integrated into the economic network of the Stuttgart region. In the year 2007, 52,480 in-commuters and 76,781 out-commuters were counted for the county of Ludwigsburg (Website Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Wrttemberg 2008 b). Municipal housing stock The housing association Wohnungsbau Ludwigsburg GmbH (WBL) was founded in 1953 and owns about 2,200 housing units. Additionally, it manages 700 apartments according to federal law (Wohneigentumsgesetz WEG). Almost 10% (7,500 persons) of the citizens of Ludwigsburg live in apartments owned by WBL. WBL rents out, sells,
Background

Ludwigsburg

Figure 3: Location of Ludwigsburg in Germany

11

Figure 4: Borough of Ludwigsburg city districts Source: City of Ludwigsburg, Department for Planning and Surveying, 2010

administrates and builds new apartments. It engages in energy-efficient renovation of housing and plays an important role in urban development and ecological projects. Planned investments have been partly held back due to late approval of public funding and tenant relocation. This is why only 2.84 million Euro of the planned investment budget of 4.25 million Euros were spent in 2009. Development of the inner city Sustainable urban development aims for brownfield development before greenfield development. The City of Ludwigsburg pursues this approach not only by the exemplary conversion of many former barrack sites, but also by targeting inner city development. Since 2004, 50 million Euros have been invested in around 100 projects in the inner city. For large parts, funding came from federal and state regeneration programmes such as Stadtteile mit besonderem Entwicklungsbedarf Soziale Stadt (Districts With Special Development Needs the Socially Integrative City) in the districts Eglosheim and Grnbhl. Another goal is to support and promote inner city retail in order to reduce CO2 emissions caused by suburban shopping trips.

Governance structures
Organisation and restructuring of administration The city administration of Ludwigsburg is divided into three departments: Department I: economy, culture, administration (head: Lord Mayor); department II: education, sports, social affairs (head: First Mayor); department III: building, technology, environment (head: Building Mayor). The Lord Mayor is responsible for the overall direction of administration.

12 Background

The Referat Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung (Department for Sustainable Urban Development) is an interdepartmental unit that was established in 2008. It is directly subordinate to the Lord Mayor. In the unit, the grown activities in sustainable urban development are tied together and organized in processes in order to link them with all areas of administrative action. The departments workforce comprises of 17 persons (including head of unit and assistant) who work in the areas of economic development, integrated urban development, Europe and energy. The interdepartmental unit breaks the existing linear structure of administration. It has to be involved in all decision-making processes that are related to sustainable urban development. The current structure of administration (figure 5) is the outcome of a consequent reform that was initiated by the head of administration and has been implemented since 2004. Before the reform, a classical administrational structure existed: spearheaded by the Lord Mayor, three departments were responsible for four to six fields of work. In the light of social change and dwindling financial resources, the reform aimed for creating a future-oriented administrative structure that is fair for all generations. Rather than copying existing concepts of other municipalities, Ludwigsburg chose an individual path. The city administration was reorganized while primarily drawing from its own human resources. The head of administration opted for a process of change that directly included the persons affected by it. The staffs immense knowledge about their fields of work was used to develop specific solutions that respond to the local conditions. The entire project Restructuring of administration was divided into nine subprojects; each of them devoted to the reorganization of one field of work. For each subproject, the head of administration had devised a project charter. It contained central goals for the development of a new structure: shorter decision-making paths and a faster and more flexible administration. Individual responsibility was encouraged and became an important motivational factor. For example, by introducing central accounting offices within the departments, the overall costs for SAP licences could be reduced. Furthermore, cost-output accounting and strategic controlling were established and further developed. The creation of the new subdivisions art and culture, economy, media, tourism, community volunteer services and education, families, sports was a major change.

Assistance

Head Albert Geiger Deputy Frank Steinert

Economic Development

Integrated Urban Development

Europe and Energy

Business support and business development Pilot function Assistance for locally interested business rms Marketing of business sites Impulse City Center (Offensive Innenstadt) Local supply in districts

Basic issues of Sustainable Urban Development Supervision master plans of SEK Urban redevelopment measures Supervision STEPs Soziale Stadt projects Supervision of important projects (e.g. Hartenecker Hhe)

EU coordination Basic issues Europe EU funding acquisition Supervision EU projects Metropolitan Region Basic issues energy Supervision energy projects

Figure 5: Structure and responsibilities of Referat Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung, source: City of Ludwigsburg

Background

13

Urban development process and work in project groups The further development of the structure of the municipal administration was combined with the Urban Development Process (see chapter 5). at the beginning in 2004 the agency Urban Development Strategy with two experienced employees was arranged close to the mayors office. This agency was in charge of steering the whole process and the integration within the administration. The process was accompanied by intense participation that was supported by a new Department for active citizenship. another task of this department is an effective combination of paid work and volunteering.
Lord Mayor Werner Spec Head of Administration DEPARTMENT I DEPARTMENT II DEPARTMENT III Mayor Hans Schmid
Staff Function Staff Function

Economy, Culture, Administration

Education, Sports, Social Affairs

Building, Technology, Environment

Lord Mayor Werner Spec


Staff Function

First Mayor Konrad Seigfried Interdisciplinary coordination Coordination of the sustainability aims

Department for Sustainable Urban Development Head: Albert Geiger Economic Development Business Assistance, Pilotage Function, Agency, inter alia Integrated Urban Development Sustainable Urban Development, Urban District Development Plan, Soziale Stadt Projects, inter alia Europe and Energy Funding Acquisition, EU Coordination Basic Principles Energy, Project Energy, inter alia

Ofce Lord Mayor Governance

Puplic transport, environmental protection

Revision Organisation und Staff Finances Housing Art and Culture Movies, Media and Tourism

Active Citizenship Safety and Order Citizens support Education, Family, Sports

Advisory Service Building Urban Planning and Surveying Construction and Building Management Civil Engeneering and Green Spaces Technical Services

Figure 6: Present structure of administration after process of reorganization, source: city of Ludwigsburg

When the urban development strategy was determined about in 2006, the tasks of the agency Urban Development Strategy were re-integrated into the line and staff organisation. Planning tasks like the work on master plans and indicators were in the responsibility of the Department Urban Planning and Surveying. for administrative themes, a new department steering assistance close to the mayor was funded soon, the daily experience made clear that steering of processes and contents had to be combined again. for this reason, the Department for Urban Development was established. The new steering unit acts as driver of the administration to steer and activate sustainability themes. The new basic conditions and increasing complex tasks demand a further development of the work process. Therefore, comprehensive tasks should be completed conjointly, e.g. in project groups, outside of the linear structure. This principle of project groups was first implemented in Ludwigsburg in 1995 with the redevelopment of the former barrack Krabbenlochkaserne (today rotbumlesfeld). a comprehensive project group with staff members from different departments like housing, urban planning, civil engineering and finances was set up. a project group is responsible for the whole content of the project and is authorised to make decisions. The project group is controlled by the project steering group that defines the project aims and the superior direction of the project. constant

14 BacKGrOUND

members of the project steering group are the mayor, heads of the concerned departments and the project manager. This principle was also followed during the reorganisation of the former building law department and building administration to the citizens building bureau in 2000. The concept of one-stop building services follows the integration principle of different task areas. At the same time, the former organisation structure was changed to a flat hierarchy with a management level and several teams without division managers. Political constitution According to state law (baden-wrttembergische Gemeindeverfassung), the municipal council is the main political body of a city and is elected by the citizens. The city councils have to act entirely independent from the municipal administration or the mayor. The council meetings are public. Each city councils who is not biased has the right to speak, propose a motion and vote. Furthermore, the municipal council can demand to move certain issues on the agenda if one fourth of the city councils supports the request ( 34 Abs. 1 Gemeindeordnung/ GemO). The municipal council of Ludwigsburg has 40 members. It is chaired by the Lord Mayor, Werner Spec (no party affiliation), who was directly elected in 2003 and again 2011 for a term of eight years. Parties
Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands (CDU) Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) Freie Whler Bndnis 90/Die Grnen Freie Demokratische Partei (FDP) LUBU (Liste Unabhngiger Brgerinnen Und Brger) DIE LINKE Die Republikaner (REP)

Seats
10 8 7 7 4 2

fraction in %
24,80 18,73 17,82 17,48 9,79 5,32 3,66 2,41

1
1

Figure 7: Parties of municipal council and seating, Source: City of Ludwigsburg, picture HFT

Participation strategies, involvement of interest groups In 2002, a study group AK Klima (climate protection and energy) was founded that had developed from local Agenda 21 activities in Ludwigsburg. In February 2003, it organized the 1. Ludwigsburger Energieinfotage (1st Ludwigsburg energy information days) with presentations, exhibitions, information and actions that centered on energy saving. Since the event won an award of the state of Baden-Wrttemberg, it is repeated annually. Furthermore, the study group documented a collection of best practices in energy efficiency. Experts and interested citizens from different backgrounds are part of the AK Klima, such as the real estate owners association Haus und Grund, energy suppliers, the solar initiative, the cycling initiative and many others. In 2004, architects and engineers of the working group founded the Bauberatung Energie, a free-of-charge advisory service for homeowners offered by volunteers. It developed into the local energy agency LEA e.V., that was founded in November 2006 as a non-profit association. It offers services for the entire county and was co-financed by the state of Baden-Wrttemberg during the first three years. Besides the county of Ludwigsburg, its members are 11 municipalities, energy suppliers, owner and tenant associations, the solar initiative Ludwigsburg, private enterprises and the housing association WBL.

Background

15

Members of AK Klima are involved in the municipal decision-making and participation processes of, for example, the Urban Development Strategy or the district energy concept for Hartenecker Hhe. Energy was an important subject during the future conferences. A working group economy and energy emerged from the citizen participation process for the district development plan Neckarweihingen. Together with local craftsmen and energy consultants, it organized the 1. Neckarweihinger Energie und Umweltmesse (1st energy and environment fair Neckarweihingen) in 2008. The working group gave many inputs on energy and set goals such as the energetic improvement of local municipal buildings. These goals are will be considered for future administrative actions in Neckarweihingen and other districts. During the development of the Citywide Energy Strategy, comprehensive citizen participation took place:
n Regular

expert monitoring by representatives of LEA, AK Klima, Energetikom, municipal energy supplier (SWLB) and city administration, sciences, n Roundtable discussion on May 18th 2010 with more than 50 experts from the business world, organizations and local stakeholders. Discussion, enhancement and assessment of a catalogue of measures based on the thematic fields in the Citywide Energy Strategy, n Future conference energy on July 9th/10th 2010 with 70 to 90 citizens. Preliminary results and implementation possibilities. By incorporating the subject of climate protection and energy into the Urban Development Strategy and into the administrative structure, it gained particular importance. As a matter of course, it has become a vital part of the political discussion and is cross-linked to other themes (for example, mobility, economy). Energy projects mutually complement each other according to the strategic goals (see chapter 5). In the field of climate protection and energy, important impulses for the administration come from citizen participation and civic comittment, which is a good premise for implementation. Since 2004, a subdivision Brgerschaftliches Engagement (Active Citizenship) exists within the city administration. This contact point acts as a broker and consultant for voluntary services while cross-linking the fields of education, culture, environment and ecology. It also takes care of citizens working groups when district development plans are being worked out. From the urban development processes, the City of Ludwigsburg concludes that citizen participation is a reasonable and essential instrument that has to be cultivated.

16 Background

energy and cO2 Balance


Energy production and energy supply
The municipal energy supply company Stadtwerke Ludwigsburg-Kornwestheim GmbH (SWLB) was founded in 1858 to provide gas for lighting. In 1860, the municipality of Ludwigsburg took over the operation and delivered gas and water, since 2006 also electricity. Today, the company has 200 employees. SWLB has remained a city-owned company for 150 years in contrast to many other municipal energy suppliers. During the last ten years, the scope of functions of energy supply companies in europe has changed dramatically due to globalization, the credit crunch and climate change. Within short time, the responsibilities of SWLB have notably expanded. Since it merged with the energy supply company of a neighbouring town (Kornwestheim) in 2008, its catchment area expanded to 180,000 inhabitants. SWLB now delivers electricity, water/sewerage, district heating, but also offers contracting and services (SWLB 2010). SWLB is an owner-operated municipal enterprise that re-invests its profits locally and also carries a clear social responsibility. for example, it supports concepts for energy efficient buildings together with the local energy agency Lea by offering infrared thermography of buildings, even though this narrows its profits. SWLB owns ten cogeneration plants and twelve heating plants, one wood chip heating plant, a gas fuelling station, a waste gas plant, six public swimming pools, a skating rink and an inner city car park (SWLB 2009: 1). In November 2009, SWLB opened the largest wood chip fired Orc cogeneration plant in Baden-Wrttemberg. With an electric power of 2.1 MW, this milestone produces 10,000 MWh electricity and 48,000 MWh heat from biomass. It covers 70% of the required district heating energy and supplies 3,000 households. By using 42,000 tons of regionally produced wood chips annually, the plant saves 18,000 tons of cO2. With total costs of 16 million euros, the plant is the largest investment of SWLB so far. SWLBs local gas distribution network is connected to the state gas network (energie Baden-Wrttemberg aG enBW) by three feeders. enBW is the third largest energy provider in Germany. It delivers gas for Ludwigsburg and Kornwestheim, but also for the neighbouring municipalities. The network is part of the sales territory of the companies Gasversorgung Sddeutschland GmbH and eNI Gas & Power Deutschland S.P.a.: GVS-eNI (Website SWLB). In 2013, SWLB will take over the operation of the local electricity network, further details will be decided in 2011.

03

eNerGY aND cO2 BaLaNce

17

Approaches to energy efficiency


Documentation and benchmarking For more than 20 years, the city of Ludwigsburg engages in questions of energy policy and power supply. The first energy strategy was adopted by the municipal council in 1988. Since then, a variety for measures have been implemented, such as an intensification of district heating in the inner city and connection of municipally-owned buildings to the pipeline, improvement of cost efficiency by optimizing the utilized capacities of existing heating stations and construction of a combined heat and power plant, crosslinking of existing heating stations, retrofitting of energy-intensive buildings, etc. In the year 2007, the seventh energy report of the City of Ludwigsburg was published (Stadt Ludwigsburg 2007). It states that the energy consumption of municipally owned buildings and facilities remained constant for more than ten years, but could not be decreased. The growing energy costs are rooted in high rises in prices for heating (more than 40%) and electricity (around 10%). Therefore, further investment in buildings and facilities is necessary. The report compares Ludwigsburgs energy consumption with other German communities in regard to savings, usage and costs. Several city comparisons (for example Immobile Benchmarking, European Energy Award) have shown that, in general, Ludwigsburgs energy consumption is below average. Ludwigsburg is a member of the Climate Alliance and therefore committed to continuous reduction of greenhouse emissions. Climate Alliance members aim for reducing their CO2 emissions by 10% every five years. An important milestone is halving the per capita emissions by 2030 at latest (from 1990 baseline) (Klimabndnis 2007). Furthermore, Ludwigsburg plans to join the Covenant of Mayors. By assessing the present situation using new data (electricity, heating and transport), a first benchmark can been established (compare assessment of the development trend in chapter 3). The energy efficiency standards for new buildings in Ludwigsburg are not higher than the benchmarks of national law. There is no municipal council order that clearly defines a target value for CO2 reduction. Energetikom Centre for energy competence and eco-design This local and regional flagship project (Energetikom e.V.) opened doors in June 2009. The centre is a public-private think tank that promotes innovative projects on climate protection and energy efficiency. It aims for bringing together stakeholders from the fields of energy saving, efficiency technology, renewable energy sources and eco-design. The centre, among other things, builds on activities of local Agenda 21 groups, of the municipal building and energy advisory services (Bauberatung Energie BBE) and of the local energy agency LEA e.V. Energetikom offers information and consulting for building owners and energy users. It provides guidance for planning, financing and implementing energy measures. At the same time, Energetikom supports the City of Ludwigsburg in implementing the energy measures of the Urban Development Strategy and in developing a regional energy cluster. Energetikoms main fields of activity are:
n

Wood chip heating plant in Ludwigsburg, pictures: Schuchert, HFT

Information and consulting: together with LEA and other local partners (engineers, building firms and banks) a one-stop-agency for private and commercial builders shall be established. Advice for each phase of an energy measure is provided under one roof.

18 Energy and CO2 balance

n Education

and training: Due to skills shortages there is a great regional demand for qualified advanced training. This gap is closed by incorporating the Akademie der Ingenieure from Ostfildern (Esslingen) into the centre, a private supplier of advanced training for engineers. n Cooperation and networking: By bringing together local, regional and international actors on various levels, energy questions can be approached in an interdisciplinary way, innovative projects can be initiated and sustainable urban development can be promoted. n Research and development: The existing research institutions in the region show great interest in cooperating in the fields of energy technology/energy supply/ environment protection. The centre may serve as a platform for thematic working groups of the neighbouring firms and universities.

Integrated energy concept


Citywide Energy Strategy Ludwigsburgs Citywide Energy Strategy (CES) has been developed by the Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER) at Stuttgart University. In a joint pilot project funded by the state of Baden-Wrttemberg, the application of a digital heat map was tested and a citywide energy concept for heat supply was developed. Other work packages focused on electricity and transport and were funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) in the course of the National Climate Initiative. The Citywide Energy Strategy gives priority to a holistic, citywide perspective. Heat, electricity and the transport sector were analyzed in regard to their present and future contribution to energy efficiency, potential for renewables, and climate protection. The CES does not contain specific benchmarks but is aligned with the goals of the Urban Development Strategy. Results and proposed measures were discussed during the citizen participation process. The goal is to develop an integrated strategy for energy efficiency and climate protection in Ludwigsburg. By analyzing the energy system of an entire city, various existing measures and technologies can be compared and evaluated in regard to cost efficiency. The guiding objectives are specified within the Urban Development Strategy.

energy think tank

ENERGETIKOM energy competence and eco-design

apprenticeship, education, professional training

information

target group/ user

start-ups, companies, architects, consulting engineers, craftsmen, nancial institutes information/ advice centre for private, commercial constructors and energy consumers by the further development of the Energy Agency Ludwigsburg towards a one-stop agency economic facilities and institutions cities and municipalities from the region

Figure 8: Structure of Energetikom, source: City of Ludwigsburg integrated energy concept

networking

supporting pillars

research and development

co-operation

advice

Energy and CO2 balance

19

Potentials of renewables in city and region


Renewable energy sources in the City of Ludwigsburg and in the Stuttgart region In terms of energy efficiency, the City of Ludwigsburg cannot be examined in isolation. It is part of the Stuttgart metropolitan region, which is a motor of growth within Germany and Europe. The region is highly urbanized and has strong economic links, which leads to increased flows of traffic. At the same time, also rural areas border to the City of Ludwigsburg. The question is how city and region can equally benefit from an energy supply that is based on renewables. The aim of the potential analysis was to find out the scope for renewable energy for electricity and heating generation for the City of Ludwigsburg (cp. IER 2011:5). Renewables potentials for heating in Ludwigsburg In 2009, the substudy Renewables potentials for heat supply has been conducted as a part of the Citywide Energy Strategy. It investigates how renewables can contribute to Ludwigsburgs heat consumption. In 2007, 4.8 GWh were generated from renewables. The larger part of heat (3.6 GWh) was produced from wood. Solar and geothermal heat together provided around 1.2 GWh. Compared to the citys total heat demand of around 906 GWh, heat from renewables contributed about 0.5% in 2007 (compare IER 2009: 17). Due to the construction of the new wood chip heating plant, the fraction increased to 6% (55 GWh). The current renewables potential amounts to around 203 GWh in the city of LudwigsAufbau und Vorgehensweise fr das Energieund Klimaschutzkonzept burg. That means that Ludwigsburg 22.5% of the total heat demand of 906 GWh (2007) could

be provided by renewable energy sources. This fraction could increase to 28% until
Module INDUSTRY-NETWORK (3)

Module HEAT (1)


- Heat Register LB -

Module ELECTRICITY (2)


- Electricity Balance LB -

Module TRANSPORT (4)


- Climate Balance / Transport LB -

Status quo heat consumption and production, climate and environmental effects, potential and use of renewable energies

Status quo power consumption and production, climate and environmental effects, potential and use of renewable energies

Status quo fuel and energy consumption in transport, climate and environmental effects, use and production of alternative fuel

- Goals and scenarios Determination of Goals (energy efciency, renewable energies, CO2-reduction, other environmental effects, rate of self-supply)

- Strategy Heat Identication, effectivity, implementation, actors, costs, nancing of measures in the heat sector

- Strategy Electricity Identication, effectivity, implementation, actors, costs, nancing of measures in the electricity sector

- Strategy Mobility Identication, effectivity, implementation, actors, costs, nancing of measures in the mobility sector

OVERALL ENERGY AND CLIMATE PROTECTION STRATEGY in Ludwigsburg - Module (5) Potential, measures, economics, costs, actors
Figure 9: Operational scheme of the energy and climate protection strategy Ludwigsburg, source: IER 2009

20 Energy and CO2 balance

puplic participation

expert commission

2025 if improvement in efficiency and a 20% reduction of the heat demand take place (IER 2009). Solar heat has the highest potential (about 164 GWh), followed by wood and geothermal energy (both 16 GWh). The existing potentials are currently not adequately exploited especially the considerable solar thermal potential. Therefore, heat generation from renewables should be extended gradually in Ludwigsburg. By extending the assessment of wood potentials to the surrounding county (Landkreis Ludwigsburg), the heat generated by wood combustion could augment from 16 GWh to 158 GWh. Expanding geothermic use from 1% of the settlement area to 5% would result in 80 GWh of produced heat instead of 16 GWh. Altogether, a total potential of 410 GWh was calculated. Thus, 45% of an assumed constant total demand of 906 GWh could be covered by renewables. If the demand went back by 20% until 2025, even a coverage of 56.5% would be possible (IER 2009:41).

Expandable overall potential of heat supply, based on user energy: 408,6 GWhth 200 [GWh/a]
164.2

160

158.6

Potential Heat Supply

120
78.8

80

40
4.2 1.6 1.2

Solar heat

Geothermical, total

Wood

Straw

Energy crop. Biowaste + (biogas) animal excrement

Figure 10: Extended potential of renewables for heating, source: IER 2009 41

Expandable overall potential of electricity generation, based on renewable energy: 162,9 GWh 100 [GWh] Potential Electricity Generation 80
78.8

60

53.4

40
27.3

20
(4 per plant) 2.8 0.7 0.7 Biowaste Water power

0
Photovoltaics Wind energy

Wood Energy crop. Animal (LB county) (biogas) excrement (biogas)

Figure 11: Extended potential electricity (wood potentials on county level), source: IER 2010 b Energy and CO2 balance

21

Electricity in Ludwigsburg The electricity consumption in 2007 was 430 GWh/a. The main consumers are appliances and lighting with 29%, followed by industry with 26.3%, trade/ commerce with 22.5% and electricity for heating and warm water with 14.9%. The heating pumps alone contribute 3% of the total electricity consumption. The public sector electricity consumption is 2.9%, street lighting 1.4% (compare IER 2010 a).
Heat current / hot water 14.9% Circulation pumps 3.0%

Industry 26.3%

Household appliances, lighting 29.0%

Street lighting 1.4% Municipal administration 2.9% Business trade 22.5%

Figure 12: Electricity consumption Ludwigsburg (2007) in kWh/a, source: IER 2010 a

The IER study calculated an extended potential for the production of electricity. It accounts for additional wood potentials on county level, as the potential within city borders would not be enough. Photovoltaic has the highest potential (78 GWh/a), followed by wood (53 GWh/a) and hydropower (27.3 GWh/a).

Transport
In the year 2005, the transport sector accounted for around 20% of the energy-related emissions of greenhouse gases in Germany, whereof 93% went back to car traffic (UNFCCC 2007). Approximately 30% of traffic-related carbon emissions are caused by internal city traffic (Umweltbundesamt 2009). A study (Zimmer/Fritsche 2008) that draws from various sources, amongst others, from the 2006 TREMOD study of the German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt), concludes that the contribution of traffic to CO2 emissions has even increased by 3% between 1990 and 2004 in contrast to the trend for other sectors. In Ludwigsburg, 78% of transport related emissions are caused by individual motor car traffic, 13.3% by trucks, 5.4% by tractors and 2.8% by buses (IER 2010 c). After private households (45%), transport is the second largest consumer of final energy with 28% (IER 2010:10). Therefore, transport is crucial for the goal of an energy efficient city and constitutes an essential component of the Citywide Energy Strategy. On the basis of various statistics IER identified a share of only 7.4% renewables (bio-energy) in the transport sector, whereas diesel amounts to 42.7% and petrol to 49.9%. 46.8 GWh were consumed from renewables, 268.4 GWh from diesel and 313.9 GWh from petrol. At present, Ludwigsburg still highly depends on fossil fuels (IER 2010: 30). The modal split for Ludwigsburg, that means the separation of total person trips into the modes of travel used, is as follows: according to a model calculation from 2003 (2009), individual motor car traffic has a share of 50% (-1.2%), pedestrians 19.9% (-0.1%), public transport 11.2% (+2.2%) and cyclists 9.7% (+1.0%). The values

22 Energy and CO2 balance

only relate to internal local traffic; there was no commuting data available. Compared to calculations from 1997/2001, the 2003 model considered 95,000 additional trips, which equals an increase of 12.5%. 35,000 of the additional trips are done by car, an increase of more than 8%. At the same time, additional trips travelled with public transport increased by 23,000 (30.7%), by bike by 17,500 (25.7%) and by foot by 22,500 (14.8%). In particular, cycling still clearly offers potentials.
vehicles kilometers travelled energy consumption CO2 emissions

1,000
Motorbikes Cars Trucks Tractor Buses an others Sum 3.537 47.440 1.781

%
6.6 88.4 3.3

Mio. km
9.82 676.79 45.88

%
1.3 90.3 6.1

TJ
12.5 1,738.3 317.1 129.5 67.3 2,264.7 1,130.1 966.2 168.4

%
0.6 76.8 14.0 5.7 3.0 100.0 49.9 42.7 7.4

1,000 t
0.89 119.08 20.31 8.28 4.31 152.87

%
0.6 77.9 13.3 5.4 2.8 100.0

0.567 1.1 0.336 0.6 53.661 100.0

10.36 1.4 7.04 0.9 749.89 100.0 diesel biofuels

thereof: fuel

Figure 13: Kilometres travelled, energy consumption and CO2 emissions of motor vehicles registered in Ludwigsburg in the year 2007, source: IER 2010 c

Measures in the transport sector Communal mobility measures for the reduction of CO2, NOX, dust particles and noise emissions are centered on:
n cycling n n

mobility management of enterprises public transport n individual traffic n noise action plan n other matters n EU-projects n restrictive measures In regard to cycling, activities concentrate on: closing gaps in the bike path network, bike parking facilities, signage and marketing. This should lead to easing of congestion, diminish the amount of traffic driving around in search of a parking space and improve the quality of stay. Improvement can be measured by the length of the bike path network and by the proportion of person trips done by bike. In Ludwigsburg, bus services are provided by the Ludwigsburger Verkehrslinien (LVL) and a private operator, Zeiher. Due to technical upgrading, 60% of the vehicles comply with environmental standards (green emission badge). Some of the buses even stay below the emission limits as they are equipped with Euro 5 motors. Additionally, capacity bottlenecks are reduced by the help of bus trailers in a cost-efficient, non-polluting and passenger-friendly way (Website Ludwigsburger Verkehrslinien 2010).

Final energy consumption and CO2 balance


Final energy consumption and current use of renewable energy sources The actual energy consumption in Ludwigsburg was 2,244 GWh in 2007. This equals an average of 25,700 kWh/a per citizen, whereof 11,600 kWh/a are direct consumption with 2,300 kWh/a for electricity. Deducting deviations of heat consumption due to warmer or colder winters leads to an adjusted value for final energy consumption of 2,398 GWh/a (IER 2010).

Energy and CO2 balance

23

Electricity consumption in Ludwigsburg is 366 GWh/a, whereof the renewables potential is 31%. The total heat demand is 905.7 GWh/a, whereof the renewables potential is 22% (IER 2009, 2010). Private households account for the highest proportion of final energy consumption (45%), followed by traffic (28%), commerce / trade (13%) and industry (12%). Municipal properties amount to a proportion of 2% (IER 2010). When considering the additional use of energy for the production of electricity and district heating, the actual energy consumption value for Ludwigsburg slightly increases to 2,316 GWh/a. One fourth is provided by heating oil and fuels, 29% by gas and around 18% by electricity. About 3% of the used energy in Ludwigsburg is directly covered by renewables. Including 2.5% of purchased green electricity leads to a fraction of renewables of 5.7% in 2007 (IER 2010 e).

400 [GWh/a]
366.0

1000 [GWh/a]
68.1

Current demand Ludwigsburg

Heat demand Ludwigsburg

300

800

117.5

600

Potential Renewable Energy: approx. 22% of heat demand

200

400

720.1

100
Potential Renewable Energy: approx. 31% of current demand

200

0
Space heating Hot water Process heat

Figure 14: Potential share of renewables in the electricity and heating demand of Ludwigsburg, IER 2010: 18

CO2 balance In 2006, about 592 kt of CO2/a were emitted in Ludwigsburg. In 2007, it was 539 kt CO2/a; the value adjusted to changing weather conditions is 576 kt CO2/a (IER 2010). Between 2006 and 2007, emissions decreased due to energy saving measures and a shift in the energy supply structure towards low-carbon energy carriers. Also, CO2 intensity of electricity has dropped. On average, each citizen of Ludwigsburg emitted 6.2 t CO2 per year, compared to a mean of 6.6 t CO2/a on state level (Baden-Wrttemberg) and of 9.2 t CO2/a on national level. Ludwigsburg is below state average because of two reasons. On one hand, hardly any energy-intensive industries such as chemical or metal industry can be found here. On the other, more measures for energy efficiency have been implemented (IER 2010). The main emitters are private households (45%) and the transport sector (28%). In regard to energy carriers, heating oil and fossil fuels are dominating as they account for 29% respectively 28% of the CO2 emissions. Gas contributes 20% and electricity 18%. Before the new wood-fired power station has been put into operation, the CO2 emissions connected with the production of district heating were 4% (IER 2010 e:3f).

24 Energy and CO2 balance

Transport 28% Business, trade, ... 13%

Domestic gas 20.1%

Electricity 18.2%

Carbon 0.3%

District heating 4.4%

Industry 12% Households 45%

Municipal administration 2%

Motor fuels 28.4%

Fuel oil 28.7%

Figure 15: CO2 balance and areas of consumption, IER 2010: 13

Figure 16: CO2 balance 2007, distribution of energy carriers, IER 2010: 12

Scenarios of the Citywide Energy Strategy

Grak CO2-Bilanz und Verteilung Energietrger LB, IER 2010 22.07.2010 cls

BAU scenario The first scenario for the reduction of CO2 emissions was calculated on the basis of current national and state energy and climate policies. This reference or business as usual (BAU) scenario is based on results from an energy prognosis project that IER Stuttgart, RWI Essen and ZEW Mannheim carried out for the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) in 2009. The scenario includes measures on EU level such as emission trading and the Biofuels Directive, on national level such as German law and ordinances on renewable energy and energy saving (Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz EEG, Energieeinsparverordnung EnEV, Erneuerbare-Energien-Wrmegesetz EEWrmeG), and on state level such as action plans for energy-efficient renovation of buildings. It also accounts for the new ORC biomass cogeneration plant, for the extension of the district heating network to the Eastern part of the city and Hartenecker Hhe, and for geothermal heat supply for the district Sonnenberg. Finally, the demographic development of Ludwigsburg - the number of households is prognosed to grow until 2030 and then decrease to 45,600 until 2050 - was incorporated, too. In the BAU scenario, energy consumption in Ludwigsburg decreases by 16% until the year 2030 and by 32% until 2050. Until 2050, the highest savings are obtained in the transport sector (39%), followed by private households (34%), industry (25%) and city administration (20%). The lowest savings are expected in the trade and commerce sector (18%). Electricity consumption increases by 14% or 60 GWh in the BAU scenario. At the same time, municipal electricity production increases from 33 GWh in 2007 to 45 GWh in 2030 and 51 GWh in 2050, so that electricity import grows slower than electricity consumption. The total share of renewable energy including green electricity increases from 5.7% to 19.4% in 2030 and 31% in 2050. The corresponding CO2 emissions drop from currently 240g/k/Whel to 165g/k/Whel in 2030 and 62g/k/Whel in 2050. Correspondingly, the per capita emissions decrease from 6.2 t CO2/a to 4.4 t CO2/a in 2030 and 3.0 t CO2/a in 2050. This means a 30% reduction until 2030 far below the target of 50% set by the Climate Alliance.

Energy and CO2 balance

25

Measures for further CO2 reductions With Measures Scenario (WMS) As the BAU scenario did not lead to the desired amount of CO2 reduction, further measures had to be identified. They were developed by an expert commission including municipal representatives, engineers and scientists. The IER proposed a catalogue of measures that was discussed and prioritized during a round table with further experts and representatives of professional organizations. Subsequently, the measures were presented during a future conference where citizens assessed them as well. This process led to a ranking of priorities of the 32 measures. The catalogue of measures is divided in five areas of activity: (1) General measures, (2) Current, (3) Electricity, (4) Mobility and (5) Renewable energy supply. The catalogue of measures formed the basis for calculating a With Measures Scenario (WMS). All measures shall be decided upon by the municipal council. Implementation is supervised by the municipal management system (see chapter 5). The catalogue of measures was reviewed in three consecutive steps:
n Estimate

of CO2 reductions for each measure during project runtime, cumulated for 20 years, and for the year 2030. The respective municipal costs per year are identified which allows for calculation of CO2 avoidance costs. Based on todays supply and demand structures, a period of 20 years was selected. It was differentiated between non-recurring and recurring measures, respectively initial funding. The costs for implementation of measures, education programmes, publicity and project management were opposed. Cost reductions by decreased heat and electricity consumption were considered (inflation and rising energy prices not taken into account). n Integrated scenario analysis for each area of activity compared to BAU scenario: The BAU scenario is based on existing energy and climate policies. In the With Measures Scenario, the effects of each area of activity on the development of CO2 emissions are analyzed. The integrated analysis accounts for CO2 reducing effects already included in the BAU scenario as well as for overlapping and competing of measures. Therefore, the calculated effects are smaller than the summed up effects of the measures from step 1. n Final extended review: besides the potentials for CO2 reduction, the efficiency of the citys initial funding, and the contribution to regional value creation were incorporated. In the light of communal financial straits, efficiency of initial funding was assigned a higher priority than the other two criteria. In case no clear priority of measures evolved, acceptance among citizens was included as a decisive factor. For this purpose, results from the citizen participation process (future conference energy) were used. Analysis of the measures The measures and their alignment with goals of the Urban Development Strategy highlight the potentials to reduce carbon emissions by energy saving, energy efficiency and renewables. They citys role is to conduct, initiate, conceptualize and accompany the implementation of measures. Measures with low or negative CO2 avoidance costs are especially attractive as reduction of CO2 may go along with economic benefits. A so-called avoidance cost chart depicts the reduction potentials and the costs of the quantifiable measures. The costs have to be paid for by the municipality, either directly or indirectly (including public services such as Stadtwerke Ludwigsburg-Kornwestheim, etc.). However, a prognosis that quantifies costs and reduction potentials is based on many, partly uncertain assumptions. The avoidance costs per ton CO2 are measured on the vertical axis. Negative values mean financial gains (by energy savings). The horizontal axis shows the CO2 avoidance potential of each measure for the next 20 years.

26 Energy and CO2 balance

640 [kt CO2/a] 560 480 400 CO2-emissions 320 240 160 80 0

539

-17%

-31%

-44%

-56%

8 [t/a] 7 6

447 372 303 235

5 4 3 2 1 0

2007 heating oil petrol coal domestic gas

2020 current district heating

2030 per capita

2040

2050

CO2 per capita


1990: 582 kt CO2/a 7,1 t/Kopf*a

Figure 17: Development of CO2 emissions in the BAU scenario, source: IER 2010

At present, Ludwigsburg emits 539,000 tons CO2 per year. By the depicted measures, this value may be lowered by 14% until 2030. The highest CO2 avoidance potential lies within the transport sector (about 28,000 tons until 2030), followed by the building sector (about 18,000 tons) and the renewable energy sector (about 16,000 tons). In the medium term, climate protection measures can be combined with efforts to improve quality of life and strengthen Ludwigsburgs position as a business location. Measure W-04 is a local energy efficiency standard for buildings that is higher than national energy saving law (EnEV) foresees and can only achieved at high additional costs. The introduction of a Ludwigsburg seal of quality could be a first step to create local acceptance for energy efficient building. With Measures Scenario In the With Measures Scenario (WMS) it is assumed that a part of the proposed measures will be implemented. Therefore, all local stakeholders have to commit to the Citywide Energy Strategy. If all measures were implemented, CO2 emissions in Ludwigsburg could be reduced to about 307 kt in the year 2030 (67 kt less than in the BAU scenario), and to about 163 kt in 2050 (74 kt less than in the BAU scenario). Correspondingly, the yearly per capita CO2 emissions in Ludwigsburg will drop from 6.2 t (2007) to 3.6 t in the year 2030 and 2.1 t in 2050. In the long run, Ludwigsburg may achieve the goal of 2.0 t CO2 per capita aspired by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for the year 2050. Compared to the situation in the year 1990 (about 7.1 t CO2 per capita and year), the WMSs prognosis of 3.6 t in 2030 is already a reduction of 49%. This would mean a close-to-fulfilment of the global call for a 50 percent reduction of carbon emissions until 2030. The reduction of CO2 emissions in the WMS will also affect final energy consumption in Ludwigsburg. Compared to the year 2007, it will be decreased for more than 50 per cent in 2050. This range is true for business, trade and city administration. The emissions of private households will drop by 59%, while reductions by industry and the transport sector will only be 44% and 45%. Already in 2030, the WMS energy consumption of households and administration is 20% and 19% lower than in the BAU scenario. For business, trade and services it is 18 %, for industry 15%. However, in the transport sector, energy consumption is only 5% lower in the WMS than in the BAU scenario.

Energy and CO2 balance

27

The WMS foresees a growing proportion of renewable energy sources in Ludwigsburg. It increases from 3.2% (2007) to 13.3% in 2030 (BAU: 10.3%) and 20.4% in 2050 (BAU: 14.2%). When including the share of renewables within the volume of purchased electricity for Ludwigsburg, the proportion rises from 5.7% (2007) to 22.3% in 2030 (BAU: 19.4%) and 36.0% in 2050 (BAU: 31.0%). The latter, smaller, increases show that dependence on purchased electricity may also be diminished by the measures described in the WMS. Whereas fuel oil and coal are already of marginal importance in the BAU scenario for 2050, in the WMS, also gas consumption reduces for more than 50 percent compared to 2007. The reduced energy demand due to energy savings and a growing share of renewables will result in declining gas sales. Besides gas and renewables, the WMS identifies fossil fuels as relevant energy carriers in 2050, even though fuel consumption decreases by about 56% compared to 2007. The results of the WMS make clear that the city of Ludwigsburg has means to assert influence on the development of energy consumption and supply structures in order to reduce carbon emissions. The areas of activity within the Citywide Energy Strategy and the revised goals of the Urban Development Strategy allows for various degrees of implementation.

Assessment of the development trend


The Ludwigsburg case study has shown that the Climate Alliances target of a 50% der CO2 emission reduction until 2030 cannot be achieved through national regulation in the building and renewable energy sector only (BAU scenario). The municipalities have to take additional measures to reach the goal. As municipally
CO2 avoidance measures in the City of Ludwigsburg until 2030 1,400 [/t CO2] 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 avoidance costs 200 0 M-05 implementation of railway system W-05 Ludwigsburg building standard M-01 bicycle and pedestrian path network 2020 M-03 mobility advice W-04 energy advice M-04 electric vehicles EE-01 solar Marstall center M-02 Mobility management for companies EE-03 solar roof programme S-04 industrial network W-06 development heat network S-03 high efciency pumps for heating EE-05 biogas EE-07 wind energy EE-02 solar thermal district heating W-02 nancing instrument for climate protection EE-04 use of waste water W-03 climate protection in schools S-01 street lighting S-02 energy saving for low income households W-01 energy management of municipal buildings 0 0.2 0.4 avoidance potential
Figure 18: Potentials for CO2 reduction of measures and avoidance costs per ton CO2, source: IER 2010

-200 -400 -600 -800

-1,000 -1,200

0.6

0.8

[Mio. t CO2] 1.0

28 Energy and CO2 balance

owned buildings and services only contribute to about 2% of the citys total energy consumption, the process has to include all actors, most of all the citizens who cause 45% of the emissions in the building sector and 28% in transport. An exemplary process of restructuring the municipal administration and establishing a cross-sectoral department for sustainable development led to an Urban Development Strategy that includes sustainable energy use as a central theme. This department organized a process to establish clear benchmarks for the citywide use of energy. The renewable energy potential based on todays consumption is 38% for electricity (163 GWh) and 45% for heating (408 GWh). These shares already include regional biomass use. On municipal level, the potentials reduce to 22.5% of the total heating

2,500 [Mio. kWh/a] 2,000 Endenergy consumption

1,500

1,000

500

statistics 2007 households transport

BAV WMS 2020 trade, business, industrie

BAV WMS 2030 municipality

BAV WMS 2040

BAV WMS 2050

Figure 19: Final energy consumption by sectors in Ludwigsburg, With Measures Scenario (WMS) compared to BAU scenario, source: IER 2010

560 [kt CO2/a] 480 400 CO2 emissions 320 240 160 80 0

7 [t/a] 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 CO2 per capita

statistics 2007 heating oil petrol

BAV WMS 2020 coal demestic gas current district heating

BAV WMS 2030 per capita

BAV WMS 2040

BAV WMS 2050

Figure 20: Energy-induced CO2 emissions by energy carriers in Ludwigsburg, WMS compared to BAU, source: IER 2010 12

Energy and CO2 balance

29

consumption of 906 GWh, i.e. 203 GWh/a, and to 27% of renewable electricity contribution to the total consumption of 430 GWh. Only 7.4% of the high energy use for transport (628 GWh) are covered by biofuels. These figures clearly show that energy consumption has to decrease significantly to become climate-neutral, as the renewable potential on municipal level is not sufficient. In the BAU scenario, energy consumption drops by 16% until 2030 (compared to 2007) and by 32% until 2050. Only if additional measures are implemented (as proposed in the WMS), the consumption can be brought down by nearly 30% until 2030 and by 50% until 2050. In this case, the renewable energy share reaches 38% of the total energy consumption of 1,100 GWh. Assumed that all imported electricity was green electricity, the remaining need for fossil fuels could be covered by gas for heating (350 GWh), fuel for transport (250 GWh) and negligible amounts of heating oil. In the transport sector, consumption only reduces by 5% in the WMS compared to the BAU scenario. This points towards taking more ambitious measures in this area of activity. An intercommunal mobility strategy supported by national traffic policies is required here. Yet, European and national legal framework that encourages energy savings and reduction of carbon emissions in the transport sector is still missing. On local level, it is difficult to develop measures in this field due to lack of financial means or of political majorities. The remaining fossil fuel contributions can only be brought down to zero if:
n

the efforts in building rehabilitation are at least doubled (the Ludwigsburg energy efficiency standard was not included in the scenario calculation due to high costs) and n if the transport sector is completely modified. This seems to be rather a national or European task as transport solutions be it innovative mobility concepts or electricity or hydrogen based motors cannot be developed locally.

Research in the context of sustainability and energy efficiency


During the last six years, Ludwigsburg has successfully taken part in various research and funding projects on energy and climate, among others, in several EU projects. The ongoing projects are managed by the cross-sectoral department for sustainable development. They are aligned with the goals of the Urban Development Strategy, act as sources for inspiration and contribute to improve the citywide energy efficiency.

30 Energy and CO2 balance

CASE STUDY Energy Efcient City Ludwigsburg Annex 51 of the Internationalen Energy Agency Funding: Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, 10/2009 - 11/2010 Urban Development Strategy Chances for Ludwigsburg (SEK) Guidelines and goals for 11 topics Master plans for the 11 topics, inter alia master plan energy Energetikom e.V. Centre of Energy Competence and Eco-Design MORO Funding: Federal Ministry of Transport and Urban Development Theme: Spatial Development Strategies for Climate Change/ Pilot City 06/2009 - 06/2011 Citywide Energy Strategy for LB Funding: Ministry of Environment, Climate Protection Initiative Theme: Integrated approach, focus on the entire city 06/2009 - 06/2010 European Energy Award Funding: Ministry of Environment BW, Certication system for Europe Certication: spring 2010 entire city

National Urban Development Policy Funding: Federal Ministry of Transport and Urban Development Theme: Concept and start of Energetikom 12/2008 - 12/2009

Sustainable Now Funding: EU programme Intelligent Energies II Theme: Development of Local Energy Action Plans 10/2008 - 2011

EnergyCity INTERREG IV B Development of GIS-based governance instrument 03/2010 - 02/2013

Electro-Mobility Funding: Activity package II Theme: Integrated approach answers to main questions concerning market and technology preparation of electro-mobility in Germany 2009 - 2011

Energy Efciency in Companies Funding: Sustainable Strategy BW Pilot Area Weststadt LB Project in progress Project pending

Figure 21: Energy-related projects in Ludwigsburg, source: City of Ludwigsburg, RO5

Energy and CO2 balance

31

urban district

Livinggreen Funding: INTERREG IVB Sustainable refurbishment of historical buildings 09/2008 - 2013

MUSIC (Mitigation and Urbanisation) Funding: INTERREG IVB Grnbhl/ Sonnenberg

EnSure Funding: INTERREG IV B Theme: Development of integrated energy concepts for urban districts, focus mobilisation of owners, stress on Oststadt/Schllesfeld 05/2010 - 04/2013

Eneff:Stadt Funding: Ministry of Economics and Technology Theme: Development of an integrated energy concept (LowEx), urban district concept, marketing strategies, transfer of urban development concepts; 11/2010 - 10/2012

04

Stakeholder and Process analysis


Research questions and stakeholders
Research questions Which factors foster the implementation of energy efficiency projects in Ludwigsburg? What are the attitudes towards climate protection and its enforcement among the relevant local stakeholders? These were the initial questions for the stakeholder analysis that focused on representatives from administration, politics, the volunteer sector and the local media. Which barriers and concerns exist? Which structures are helpful, which ones are hindering? In order to answer these questions, a structure for guided interviews was developed that allows for identifying hindering and fostering factors. Open questions helped to spot unconsidered factors. after the first three interviews had been conducted, several items were added to the questionnaire. Stakeholders first of all, political representatives and key figures in administration were selected. During three off-the-record conversations with the Lord Mayor and staff members of the referat Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung, a list of interviewees was worked out. It predominantly contained administration executives, for example the head of the new department, the treasurer and the project director for the development of Hartenecker Hhe. The chairmen of the four largest parties in the municipal council (cDU, SPD, freie Whler and Grne/ Bndnis 90) were asked for interviews, as well as representatives of large local associations and interest groups that engage in climate protection/energy efficiency (for example, the owner association Haus und Grund, the solar initiative, energetikom, etc.). In two cases, interviewed council members also carried out a relevant function in another category, which was factored in the analysis. Interviews were also conducted with the director of the municipal energy supply company SWLB and the deputy editor-in-chief of the local newspaper Ludwigsburger Kreiszeitung. altogether, 21 persons were asked for an interview; 18 agreed. This successive procedure does not built on representativeness of the sample, but rather on a selection of interviewees that are ambassadors of a specific institutional context (flick 2006, p. 112). It aims for gathering as much information as possible in regard to one issue.

Methodology
The analysis of the interviews is based on a cause-effect diagramme. This diagramme (also called Ishikawa or fishbone diagramme) is a graphic model of explanatory causes that lead to an effect, respectively influence it to a significant degree. In this way, all factors that contribute to a defined goal (or problem) can be identified and interdependencies can be displayed.

32 STaKeHOLDer aND PrOceSS aNaLYSIS

The Japanese scientist Kaoru Ishikawa developed the diagramme in the 1940s. Initially, it was used to detect and analyze quality defects in operational processes, but later this method spread worldwide. Today, the Ishikawa diagramme is still used in the business-management context to identify production hindrances. But it is also a tool for analyzing processes in which complex structures (a tangle of causes and effects) have to be visualized and weighted like in this case study. While Ishikawa confined the main influencing factors to materials, machinery, methods and people, today, also other factors are introduced to the diagramme. For the research at hand, the interviewees statements and opinions were fed in while the goal was defined as Energy Efficient City Ludwigsburg. The 18 persons who were interviewed act as local decision-makers, disseminators or stakeholders in the field of energy. It was differentiated between internals (7) and externals (10) key figures inside and outside of the administration.

Methods Use wrong Gears Drive too fast Always late Impatience Poor maintenance $ No awareness Poor driving habits People Poor hearing Radio too loud Cant hear engine Poor training When in Rome

Machinery Fuel mix too rich Mech. doesnt know correct Adjustment Procedures Carburetor Adjustment Wrong octane gas No owners manual Dont know recommended Octane No Record of the pressure Underinated tires Poor design Difcult Air Stems Poor Gas Mileage No oil change $ Improper lubrication Dont know right oil Wrong oil Materials No owners manual

Figure 22: Ishikawa diagramme on fuel consumption, source: Ishikawa (1986)

The guided interview The structure for the guided interview was developed from minutes of the off-the-record conversations mentioned above. The notion project was understood as any activity that effects the citys CO2 emissions: from housing, energy supply and traffic to campaigns/ public relation, consultancy and citizen participation. The interviewers did not stick to a given order of questions, but left room for open recounting. According to Meuser (2002, p. 74-77) those narrative passages are of great importance for the analysis. The interview structure helped to impede excessive thematic digression. Except for one, all interviews were conducted face-to-face. The answers were recorded in writing and compared afterwards, in case several interviewers had been present. The open questions and the visualization facilitated the check of completeness: Have all influencing factors been considered? Are the questions formulated to the point? Accordingly, additional factors were identified and considered. Finally, these factors were weighted according to relevance and influence on the goal Energy Efficient City Ludwigsburg.

Stakeholder and process analysis

33

The following questions were part of the interviews n Personal information (name, age) n Function (tasks, decision competence) n Professional background (education, reference to energy themes) n Attendance at the constitution of the department of sustainable urban development n Attendance at the urban development concept (Stadtentwicklungskonzept/SEK) n Start of work in Ludwigsburg on energy efficiency in projects n Attendance at (integrated) projects concerning energy efficiency (kind, project status) n Role of energy efficiency in projects (guidelines/aims) n Motivation through other persons (e.g. persons from the professional or private field) n Personal motivation (e.g. work in agenda-groups) n Success factors n Barriers n Positive/negative experience with different actors n Positive/negative experience with financing n Cooperation in national or international research or funding projects n Assessment of the national or international exchange n Assessment of the success of the City of Ludwigsburg concerning the realization of energy efficient projects in the last 15 years (Scale 1 = excellent to 5 = bad, w = do not know) n Assessment of the urban development concept (Scale 1-5) n Assessment of the integrated energy concept (Scale 1-5) n Comparison of the status of realised energy efficiency projects in Ludwigsburger with realized projects in other cities of the Stuttgart region Questions to members of the city administration: n How do you relate the basic principle of a learning administration to yourself? n How do you prepare reports to the municipal council political convincing? n Which departments are involved with presentations/reports energy efficient projects? n How is your experience with discussions/ votes of the municipal council? Questions to external experts: n How have you been informed about the Ludwigsburg urban development concept? n Have you ever been involved into the development of a municipal building project before the decision of municipal council?

Results
The scope of projects in which the stakeholders engage is very wide. It ranges from publicity and consultancy to the implementation of large infrastructure and housing projects. Only four of the 18 interviewees got in touch with climate protection/renewable energies during education. Many of them were confronted with the subject during their professional life and made it a personal mission. This is a result from the answers that concerned motivation. 15 of 18 interviewees (seven of eight internals, eight of 10 externals) declared personal motivation a reason for dealing with climate protection and energy themes. Often, personal beliefs are connected with rational arguments. Only in two cases, political commitment stems from an early age. Usually, personal motivation is supported by families, colleagues and at work. Above all, the Lord Mayor Werner Spec is seen as the key figure in regard to motivation and support (7 internals, 2 externals). Institutional support is provided by the city administration, the municipal energy supplier, LEA and Energetikom. Furthermore, EU partners (international exchange), citizens and joint building ventures are mentioned in regard to motivation. Conclusion: The Lord Mayor plays an important role for the growing implementation

34 Stakeholder and process analysis

of energy efficiency (EE) projects in Ludwigsburg. This is more clearly perceived within the city administration than by externals. An external points towards the mid-level of administration by stressing: Here, you find experts with a lot of know-how. It is a fact that most of the key positions in administration are held by persons who embrace EE projects and dispose of a supportive environment. The following success factors for implementation were mentioned: Good cooperation/networking among stakeholders (4), support from the Lord Mayor (3), growing political acceptance in the municipal council (3), integrated approach/Urban Development Strategy (3). In regard to projects of externals: good publicity (3). On administrational level: flat hierarchies and high personal responsibility (2), heads of departments united by Lord Mayor/interdepartmental unit (2), good technical knowledge (2), citizen participation (2). Single mentions included: the new administrative structure, good work of the administration, a gradualistic policy and more human resources in administration. For single projects, success was attributed to a good cost-benefit ratio and good planning. Also, the new administrational structure with the cross-departmental unit Referat Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung was mentioned once as a factor for future success: structures generate sustainability. They ensure that a vision becomes reality in the long run. Another interviewee declared that a common will can be sensed in the city. Barriers to the implementation of EE projects a) Financial restraints and tight budgets are mentioned most frequently (8). They relate to communal projects such as the energy efficient renovation of public buildings. Yet, this issue has to be brought forward, otherwise we will face a huge problem some day, as an interviewee said. Due to lack of financial means, it is also not likely that the Citywide Energy Strategy will become an instant success: This is a piecemeal approach, as we are unable to finance certain measures. Financial viability, and especially payback periods, is a great concern for investors and building owners. It is criticized that entrepreneurs favour very short payback periods (3 years) and that developers mainly focus on profitability. Furthermore, for homeowners who are willing to renovate, there is only little financial support available. The allowances of the Kreditanstalt fr Wiederaufbau KfW (Reconstruction Loan Corporation) are only loans, and the financial capacity of owners and tenants, who usually carry parts of the renovation costs, is limited. b) Barriers in local politics: Scepticism in the municipal council, a political minority for climate protection goals and an inflexible dominating political camp these are some of the comments on the municipal council. Out of 18 interviewees, eight see the present council as an overall barrier to climate protection policies. Of course it is clear that a committee that represents 86,000 residents and only has limited financial means cannot assign a top priority to energy efficiency. Nevertheless, many stakeholders would favour a growing number of project approvals and more transparent decisions. c) Barriers related to persons: Without individual commitment within the city administration, EE projects cannot be implemented, said an interviewee. The new interdepartmental unit creates room for manoeuvre for this commitment. From time to time, the debates in the municipal council centre on persons rather than on tasks and are driven by strong vested interests (in the municipal council and during citizen participation), there is a lack of influential leaders that may act as role models. d) There are different perspectives on structural barriers. One person thought that these barriers have been overcome by the new Referat fr Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung: There were no obstacles this was a straight success story. Lack of human resources was mentioned twice as a barrier, however in regard to the externals situation. Administrative barriers were criticized in general. Specifically, it was pointed towards the county councils contrary position and a lack of departmental responsibility on federal and state
Stakeholder and process analysis

35

level. One interviewee complained about insufficient coordination between the state ministries (ministry of the environment, ministry of economics) and the EU regulation for tendering procedures. Thus, it appears that the major structural barriers are outside the municipalitys sphere of influence. The experiences with other stakeholders during the implementation of projects (citizens/citizen participation, investors, administration: other departments, municipal council) are mostly positive: The Ludwigsburg approach to citizen participation in forums and future conferences is judged as very beneficial, even by the municipal council. The council members with one exception see citizen participation in a quite placid way, even if it leads to increased submissions of requests. One interviewee said that citizen participation is important in the sense of mutual perception. Another one pointed out that 150 future conference participants are not representative for 80,000 citizens. The investors were attested open-mindedness in regard to EE measures (9). In this context, the good work of the municipal energy supplier was specifically mentioned three times. An interviewee identified two main reasons for investors to participate: a) cost savings b) image gains. Some responded to have no experiences with investors and therefore did not make a judgement. One interviewee identified barriers during the construction of the arena. Seven externals praise the administrations good cooperation on climate protection projects. Two internals honour the good cooperation between the interdepartmental unit and other departments. There were no negative responses, only one hint about internal difficulties in staffing and finance that have to be clarified before a project can be implemented. The municipal council members hold differing views. Nine answers evaluated the councils performance. Four votes were given to good performance (one comment emphasized the expert knowledge available), four votes remained undecided and one vote was negative. It seems that the subject of climate protection has only gained in acceptance during the last years. With Werner Spec as the head of the council, more and more EE projects have been advocated. As expected, financing experiences are not very positive. Certainly, this depends on the nature of the respective project. The city, and the municipal energy supplier, can only make larger investments when they are financed outside the municipal budget, for example via special assets or credits. Nevertheless, these special forms of financing (and the involved banks) are thoroughly judged as good. There is also one exception: The photovoltaic systems installed by the solar initiative enjoy high public confidence while having no financial problems at all. All internals (7) and two externals of the interviewees have experiences with research and co-funded projects with national and international partners. Seven persons (5 internals, 2 externals) see them in a downright positive light. They refer to the following advantages: gain of initial funding for municipal EE projects, exchange on national and EU level is worthwhile as it contributes to internal structural changes (for example, by getting to know international best practices during the process of developing the Urban Development Strategy, supportive arguments could be derived from them and used during council debates), problem-oriented networking, source of inspiration. More critical responses associate national/international exchange with excessive bureaucracy, tied up financial and human resources and extra work after we have already found our own way. A majority rates Ludwigsburgs performance in implementing energy efficient projects during the last 15 years with good (9), one person also with very good. Two

36 Stakeholder and process analysis

interviewees opted for average, only one for insufficient. 5 interviewees rejected to give a judgement. Ludwigsburgs Urban Development Strategy (Stadtentwicklungskonzept SEK) is embraced by most of the respondents. Positive statements were: Citizen participation is an important tool to draw from the citizens expertise. For the first time, a holistic review of municipal goals and projects was given which is a good basis for the councils decision-making procedures. Among medium-sized cities, Ludwigsburg takes up a pioneering role. Criticism was: Only a small part of the population participated, tangible projects were missing. The lack of financial resources for implementation leads to frustration. The Urban Development Strategy had been developed under participation of internals; only one external interviewee took part in a future conference. In addition, spokesmen of the political parties dealt with the subject during council meetings. The current development of a Citywide Energy Strategy (Gesamtenergiekonzepts GEK) for Ludwigsburg is strongly endorsed to the point that it should be assigned top priority. However, it is also called for tangible and realistic goals for a fixed period of time and an evaluation of implementation. The strategy is criticized for: lack of traffic measures, lip service/symbol politics, lack of means, doubtfulness of implementation. Almost half of the interviewees did not respond to the next question, as they were unable make a comparison of Ludwigsburg to other cities in the region in regard to renewable energies. Most judgements were positive, even though other German cities such as Tbingen or Freiburg clearly rank before Ludwigsburg. Yet: Only few cities plough through this issue that thoroughly, We are not part of the top tier, but we are doing well. During the last five years, issues have been put forward, one interviewee commented on the influence of Lord Mayor Spec and the new head of SWLB. Not only the implementation of projects is seen as a positive, but also the working atmosphere in Ludwigsburg: Things are moving, Awareness has been created. Also the pioneering role of Ludwigsburg in regard to its integrated approach (SEK) was mentioned.

2 1 excellent good average 1 0 defective bad do not know

Figure 23: Assessment of the implementation of energy efficient projects during the last 15 years, source: HFT

More critical answers were: There is still potential for improvement, We have to catch up in all areas, Freiburg has taken things further, Tbingen is more pro-active and has better a formation of opinion. In university towns such as Tbingen and Freiburg, municipal climate protection policies are stronger supported by the local residents, Personally, I think issues could be promoted more actively. One interviewee could sympathize with more restrictions from the communitys side.
Stakeholder and process analysis

37

Questions to internals Most of the interviewees had problems to understand the notion of a learning administration that was laid down in the Urban Development Strategy SEK a more detailed explanation may be required here. The SEK seems to be helpful for putting together decision papers for the municipal council it is a mandatory procedure for the administration to link each project to the SEK. Since then, discussions have become smoother and more objective.

10

3 2 0 excellent good average defective 0 bad

do not know

Figure 24: Assessment of the Urban Development Strategy Ludwigsburg, source: HFT

Other criteria for drafting convincing decision papers are: no assumption of previous knowledge, explanation of technical terms/avoidance of foreign words, and the display of payback periods, economic efficiency calculation and the effects of increasing energy prices.
13

3 2 1 0 excellent good average defective 0 bad do not know

Figure 25: Assessment of the Citywide Energy Strategy Ludwigsburg, source: HFT

Questions to externals Only two of ten interviewees actively took part in the development of the SEK by visiting the future conferences. Council members were informed and approved the SEK. No one among the interviewed externals had been involved in a municipal building project before a council resolution was issued. Weighting of results in the cause-and-effect-diagramme for Ludwigsburg After the interviews had been conducted, the identified factors were weighted according to relevance and influence on the goal Energy Efficient City Ludwigsburg.

38 Stakeholder and process analysis

Of course this procedure does not lead to exactly quantifiable results, but a general trend becomes visible. Thicker arrows depict multiple answers, respectively a cumulation of traits. The Ishikawa diagramme was modified as hindering factors were introduced (blue arrows). It was differentiated between four main influencing factors: people, structures, investment climate/investors/resources and environment. In the category people, motivation is an important success factor. It includes individual motivation, expertise, networking and support by the Lord Mayor. The missing priority of renewables is seen as hindering. In the category structures, the Urban Development Strategy, the foundation of the interdepartmental unit Referat Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung and the Citywide Energy Strategy are declared helpful, whereas non-municipal decision-makers, deadlocked positions in the municipal council and unassertive council decisions on renewables are seen to have an impeding influence. A positive investment climate is seen as a driving force in the category investment climate/investors/resources. Community foundations, an innovative municipal energy supplier and a positive attitude towards achieving renewable energy goals contribute to this positive climate. On contrary, long payback periods and financing via the municipal budget appear as hindering. In the category environment, public support is rated as beneficial; it includes citizen participation, citizens expertise and publicity. Others disagree and mention a weak publicity and the participations lack of representativeness. In sum, the cause-and-effect diagramme predominantly shows supporting factors to achieve the goal of an Energy Efficient City Ludwigsburg. Nevertheless, the interviewees were aware that, for a climate-neutral city, more comprehensive measures have to be taken.

(R

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personal motivation expert knowledge

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partizipation of citizens public relation of the city


po rt

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alternative nancing good self-evaluation innovative municipal utilities


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Figure 26: Cause-and-effect diagramme, source: HFT

pr iva te pr iva te

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Energy Efcient City Ludwigsburg

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conducive derogatory

Stakeholder and process analysis

39

05

Planning Sustainable Urban Development


Strategic objectives Integrated Urban Development Concept as superordinate strategy
On the basis of an integrated Urban Development Strategy (Stadtentwicklungskonzept SeK), Ludwigsburg worked out a municipal energy and climate protection concept (citywide energy Strategy Gesamtenergiekonzept GeK), which is currently implemented via numerous projects. for the realization of the SeK, the entire municipal administration was reorganized. an interdepartmental unit for sustainable urban development (referat Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung) was founded and put under the control of the Lord Mayor, and energetikom, a competence centre for energy, climate protection and eco-design was created. Moreover, several national and european research projects on energy and climate protection are conducted. In the following, the numerous activities in the course of the Urban Development Strategy are briefly introduced. The intense urban development process was triggered in 2004 by a formal council resolution for the mayors initiative. already in the beginning, it was clear that an interdepartmental coordination of the important social, economic, ecological and spatial development processes was necessary. Therefore, a staff unit (Geschftsstelle Stadtentwicklungskonzept) close to the Lord Mayors office was established.

City development concept Perspectives for Ludwigsburg


2004
Fundamentals

Municipal administration Initiation and driving force

Municipal council Steering and control

2005

Citizens Impulses from all areas of social life Representative set of opinions Initial discussion

Participation

Summer of dialogue Future conference I Future conference II Master plan Concepts and strategies for urban devlopment in all areas District Development Plans Future conference III

2006

Implementation

2008

2010

Figure 27: Overview on the Urban Development Strategy (Stadtentwicklungskonzept) for Ludwigsburg, source: city of Ludwigsburg

40 PLaNNING SUSTaINaBLe UrBaN DeVeLOPMeNT

In a joint effort between administration, the municipal council and citizens, a vision of the future should be developed. Rather than devising a wishlist, the city aimed for identifying priorities and proactively at least partly easing the municipal budget, which contributes to fairness among generations. The process of participation started in 2005 when staff members collected opinions by the help of 80 guided interviews with stakeholders from all fields. In this way, the public opinion could be retraced while key actors were prepared for the upcoming process and motivated for collaboration. For the whole process of participation, it was of great importance that the municipal council was involved already at an early stage. Citizens were always informed that their results were made available to the municipal council that yet remained the decision-making authority. During the kick-off in May 2005, more than 200 citizens discussed the topics of economy, culture and housing. The event informed about the goals, stakeholders and course of action of the Urban Development Strategy (SEK) and campaigned for proactive participation. A so-called summer of dialogue 2005 was triggered. During numerous events on culture, mobility and education, neighbourhood walks or children and youth conferences, citizens were activated and informed. From these events, useful proposals were derived and integrated into the Urban Development Strategy. The first future conference in 2005 was a participation milestone. 128 persons from all kinds of urban spheres developed visions, goals and ideas for eleven themes (compare figure 28). With 96 persons, citizens formed a majority among the participants that also included the municipal council and the city administration. For more than two days, they worked together in changing groups and led a constructive, open and sometimes controversial discussion. In spring 2006, the collected ideas were classified into key projects and measures during the second part of the future conference. Networks for implementation were formed. The broad participation procedure shall ensure well-balanced results that find support among citizens. With a vast majority, the municipal council adopted the guiding principles and strategic objectives for eleven thematic fields in June 2006. In the concept, themes are not outlined in isolation, but mutually interlinked in an integrated perspective. The Urban Development Strategy is the dynamic groundwork for a long-term development of Ludwigsburg that is fair for all generations. The guiding principles and objectives form the conceptual framework for sustainable urban development. In the course of a process, the strategy is permanently adjusted, developed further and updated.

n n n n n n

Attractive Living Energy Vital town districts Economy & Work Education & Care Dynamic Town Centre

n n

Mobility Cultural Life n A World of Sports n Living together of generations and nations n City Green

Figure 28: Themes of the Urban Development Strategy (SEK), source: City of Ludwigsburg

Planning sustainable urban development

41

The cross-departmental unit Referat Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung (founded in December 2008) constitutes the intersection to energy and climate related subjects. It ties together the grown activities in sustainable urban development and organizes processes to link them with all areas of administrative action. The utmost importance of the sustainability strategy is expressed by the units direct assignment to the Lord Mayor..

Integrated sustainability management steering sustainable urban development


In order to secure continuous advancement of the urban development process, a distinct management system was developed for the administration. It safeguards the implementation and allows for modification of strategic objectives. It is a recurrent cycle that should be undergone every two to four years. The cycle comprises of five steps: 1 Assessment of the local situation: In the sense of an inventory, the present urban situation is reviewed by the help of neighbourhood walks, talks with citizens and experts or thematic workshops. Valuable proposals are fed into the process. 2 Further development of strategic goals: The existing goals are examined and, if necessary, redefined. The last modification took place during the third future conference in 2009 entitled Interim results and further processing of the SEK. Three years after the kick-off it became clear that selected fields of action had to be closer examined, for example growing older, energy or municipal budget and fairness for all generations. 3 Adoption of the guiding principles and objectives for the 11 themes: The guiding principles and objectives are stipulated in a council resolution. In this way, municipal action is backed up and politically legitimated. 4 Implementation via SEK master plans: For each area of action, a master plan is drawn up that specifies the guiding principles and strategic objectives by assigning measures, time schedules and responsibilities. By linking the master plan to municipal budget and financial planning, a new and transparent steering tool is generated. It permits monitoring of all projects in regard to progress, financial impacts, relevance for the strategic urban development goals and potential conflicts. 5 Reporting and evaluation (indicators): For each thematic field in the Urban Development Strategy, several indicators have been defined. Altogether, the council adopted a set of 66 indicators in 2009. After the first collection of data, the results are presented to the municipal council and benchmarks are defined. In this way, the process can be checked against preset goals (evaluation). With these indicators, time series are generated that allow for early recognition of trends and comparison with other cities. The effectiveness of measures can be assessed so that action can be better targeted. The results should be continuously documented in an indicatorbased report (sustainability report).

42 Planning sustainable urban development

ev alu

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Figure 29: Management system for the Urban Development Strategy Ludwigsburg, source: City of Ludwigsburg

District Development Plans


On district level, the citywide objectives are further detailed in District Development Plans (Stadtteilentwicklungsplne STEP) that emphasize the specific potentials and needs of a district. For each district, the eleven themes of the Urban Development Strategy are highlighted among others, energy and mobility. Local solutions are worked out. A STEP lays the foundation for the development of a district, it proposes practical measures and provides for a transparent dialogue between the municipal council, the citizens and the administration. District Development Plans ensure a long-lasting local implementation of the SEK and its themes. It is planned to introduce them to all eleven districts in Ludwigsburg step by step. In the year 2007, the work on four District Development Plans was launched. The first plan for the district Grnbhl-Sonnenberg was finalized in 2009. It contains a written explanation and a map of the development perspective and the planned measures. In a final step, the planned measures are linked to the guiding principles and strategic objectives of the Urban Development Strategy (SEK).

of la p se e u ter y th m as nb I m p l e m e n t a ti o ate g y u r b a n d e v elo p m e n t str


ns

Ap ls pro goa val of for p ri n c i p l e s a n d as urb e ar an de velo p m e nt in 1 1

Energy
Energy is one of the eleven themes of Ludwigsburgs Urban Development Strategy. It foresees a more balanced energy supply through energy savings, energy efficiency and increased use of renewables, as it was phrased in the guiding principles adopted by the municipal council on June 28th 2006 (Stadt Ludwigsburg 2006: 13). During the process for the Citywide Energy Strategy, the guiding principle for energy was slightly rephrased; an updated version was adopted by the municipal council in fall 2010.

of

Fu rt the h er d e v el s tr o p m e nt ate gic o b j e c tiv e s

Integrated sustainable management

Planning sustainable urban development

43

Figure 30: City boundary Ludwigsburg with districts, source: City of Ludwigsburg

Figure 31: District Development Plan Grnbhl / Sonnenberg, source: City of Ludwigsburg

Figure 32: District Development Plan Grnbhl / Sonnenberg (measures), source: City of Ludwigsburg

44 Planning sustainable urban development

There is a sustainable use of energy. This is achieved by saving energy and using it efficiently, increasing the use of renewable energies and constant knowledgebuilding in this sector. This has a positive effect on general climate development and local air quality. The security of supply is raised, the local and regional economy is advanced and new, sustainable jobs are created. Strategic Objectives 1 Beacon projects have been implemented in the areas of renewables, particularly efficient plants as well as the exemplary saving of energy both in new construction and the existing building stock. 2 Energy optimisation is an important principle of land use and local development planning and a standard in municipal construction projects. 3 The Citywide Energy Strategy has been implemented. It is regularly assessed in regard to effectiveness and further developed. 4 Independent and local energy supply by public works promotes municipal freedom in design. 5 Exhaustive publicity and advisory services for citizens and businesses are integral parts of handling sustainability. 6 The comprehensive regional offer of renewable power carriers, energy services and innovative energy technologies is an important location factor for Ludwigsburg. 7 Considerable energy saving in traffic is achieved by integrated urban and traffic planning, changes in behaviour and alternative drive systems. This leads to the reduction of local noise emissions and pollution. The guiding principles for each theme are implemented via so-called master plans (for example, master plan energy). They draw together all associated goals and measures on administrational level. At present, the master plans are modified to improve their function as a steering tool and link them closely to municipal budget planning.

Planning sustainable urban development

45

06

Implementation, funding and Marketing of energy efficiency: Planning Instruments and funding Programmes
Implementation by planning tools
Ludwigsburgs communal planning is subordinate to the regional plan of Verband region Stuttgart (an association of 179 municipalities of the Greater Stuttgart region). On municipal level, the foremost legal planning instruments are local development plans. Here, energy objectives can be implemented. New projects should preferably be developed on land owned by the municipality. In these cases, binding arrangements can be included in the contracts of purchase that allow for detailed regulation of ecological and energetic standards. The project areas rotbumlesfeld and Hartenecker Hhe are used as examples to illustrate the municipal forms of regulation on energy. Both sites are former barracks that are converted into housing estates. The local development plan for rotbumlesfeld stems from the year 1995 (Stadt Ludwigsburg, Stadtplanungsamt, 1995: Bebauungsplan 048/01 rotbumlesfeld, ehemalige Krabbenlochkaserne). In regard to energy, it only contains two specifications: a prohibition of using gas and oil as fuels and compulsory extensive roof planting when the roof slope is 25 degrees or less. In contrast to newer development plans, this plan did not include a written part in which restrictions were justified. Therefore, it must seen as having little effect in practice (lack of enforcement). But as the lots were owned by the city, goals could be laid down in the contracts of purchase. The local development plan for the general residential area Hartenecker Hhe was generated in 2008 (Stadt Ludwigsburg 2008a: Bebauungsplan 093/02 Hartenecker Hhe). It entirely comprises of city-owned lots and contains only few regulations. In the section on groundwater protection, the use of renewable energy via ground probe systems is generally permitted, whereas in other sections constraints are mentioned. In parallel to the urban design concept for Hartenecker Hhe, an energy concept was developed. In a first step, an expert (Dr. Peter Goretzki, software GOSOL) tested and optimized the urban design scheme with respect to solar energy. Orientation and height of buildings were adjusted so that shading by buildings and trees was reduced. In a second step, the additional costs for achieving the building energy standards KfW 60 und KfW 40 (eneV 2007) were calculated for several building types (semi-detached houses, multi-family house and row house) by the enterprise eHS-Plan and by Lea. as a result of this survey, the municipal council decided to stipulate a minimum building energy standard (KfW 60) in the contracts of purchase. Lea offered free-of-

46 IMPLeMeNTaTION, fUNDING aND MarKeTING

charge energy consulting to the future house-builders. Observing the KfW 60 standard facilitates heating mainly from renewables. The central supply area of Hartenecker Hhe is connected to a district heating network fed by the woodchip heating plant. For the building lots in this area, connection is compulsory. In a second peripheral area builders may choose their own forms of heat generation. Wood pellet boiler systems, heat pumps (geothermal energy), solar heat or a combination of various supply forms can secure the KfW standard and a share of renewable energy. Builders that implement the desired KfW 40 standard or higher are granted a municipal allowance. When the two development plans are compared, the citys progress in making energyrelated prescriptions becomes visible. In the local development plan for Hartenecker Hhe, the defined standard even exceeded the statutory norm. Nevertheless, not all options for energy efficiency were exhausted. For example, due to cost reasons, the municipal council only stipulated a lower (KfW 60) energy standard. It was feared that otherwise, homebuilders would turn to other, less expensive parts of the region.

Integration of funding and research projects


Financing by publicly funded projects and research programmes Sustainability and energy efficiency measures that exceed the citys described commitment, for large parts, are co-financed by European, national and state research and funding programmes. For example, the municipal and regional flagship project Energetikom (centre for energy competence and eco-design) was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development (Bundesministerium fr Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung BMVBS) in the course of the programme Nationale Stadtentwicklungspolitik (National Urban Development Policy). With the energy efficient renovation of Energetikom, Ludwigsburg participates in the EU project livinggreen.eu (2008-2013). Exemplary renovation that focuses on carbon neutrality, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources is tried out on five buildings in the Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, France and Great Britain. These buildings are sustainability centres that serve as platforms for different interest groups. They host regional workshops, presentations and meetings but also provide information and consultation to interested persons and businesses. In fall 2009, a conference on future themes in urban development and urban regeneration energy efficiency in built-up areas and aged living was organized in Ludwigsburg. Here, interrelations and strategies on European, national and local level and current approaches of national, state and local government were presented. Ludwigsburgs Urban Development Strategy (Stadtentwicklungskonzept SEK) was part of the project Managing Urban Europe MUE 25 Kommunales Nachhaltigkeitsmanagement (2005-2008), a European exchange programme. During the EU project Snowball (2006-2009), experts and communities worked out innovative strategies for urban and traffic planning. Local planning workshops, exchange of experiences and train-the-trainer events focused on potentials for energy saving, for example, by reducing traffic. The districts Grnbhl/Sonnenberg/Karlshhe and Eglosheim received funding from the federal and state regeneration programme Stadtteile mit besonderem Entwicklungsbedarf Soziale Stadt (Districts With Special Development Needs the Socially Integrative City). Here, projects that contributed to sustainability and energy efficiency were developed. In Eglosheim, a district development plan (Stadtteilentwicklungsplan STEP) assures a continuative development of measures.

Implementation, funding and marketing

47

Municipal funding programmes Implementation of measures is also backed up by municipal programmes for climate protection. Builders in Hartenecker Hhe are granted a subsidy of 5,000 to 15,000 Euro (depending on number of housing units) if they attain the KfW 40 energy standard (instead of the obligatory KfW 60). Until 2010, 320,000 Euros have been granted. Funding is also used for retrofitting street lamps with energy saving bulbs. Yearly electricity costs may be reduced by 300,000 Euros for the entire city. Furthermore, the city grants a 20 % subsidy to private redevelopment measures that are located in redevelopment areas and reduce energy consumption (heating, ventilation, insulation). Measures have to increase the utilization value of the building (Richtlinien zur Frderung privater Sanierungsmanahmen, Stadt Ludwigsburg, Brgerbro Bauen, 2007). Financial instruments: project development by financing outside the municipal budget Like most German cities, Ludwigsburg expects decreasing revenues (business and income tax, municipal fees, rental income etc.) due to demographic change. This foreseeable trend will be aggravated by the effects of the economic crisis. The more remarkable it is that Ludwigsburg can master large-scale projects such as Hartenecker Hhe (50 million Euros) that require high infrastructure investments during the first years. They are refunded by the profits from the building lots sales. Accounting takes place by the help of a separate budget an earmarked credit outside the municipal budget with a fixed runtime. Otherwise, important urban development measures would not be possible. This procedure opens up for room for manoeuvre while the community carries the risk that it has to cover a deficit in the end. The project Rotbumlesfeld has shown that, in the best case, projects may even close with a surplus. Another advantage is that the city as the developer maintains full influence on the project. Thus, it may enforce climate protection goals as long as profitability is secured. From a planning perspective, separate budgets are a good tool for implementing energy efficiency. They may even offer more options than the conventional planning instruments (land use and development plan).

Marketing and communication


So far, there is no overall marketing strategy for an energy city Ludwigsburg. Various stakeholders offer advisory services, information and advanced training, such as Energetikom, Referat Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung/City of Ludwigsburg, municipal services, LEA and the local Agenda 21 group. Municipal activities in the field of energy efficiency are communicated via different media, measures and involved persons. Energetikom, the regional centre for energy competence and eco-design, is expected to take on the role of a networking platform. Ludwigsburg is marketed as a future-oriented business location attracting research and technology branches (energy, eco-design and green industry). With its local activities and national and European research projects, the interdepartmental unit Referat Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung contributes to dissemination of energy topics. The municipal advisory services Brgerbro Bauen provides information about building and energy questions.

48 Implementation, funding and marketing

The conversion sites Rotbumlesfeld and Hartenecker Hhe in Ludwigsburg were marketed by media coverage, user-friendly and very informative websites and strategic image campaigns. The local builders strongly identified with the area and consultated with the municipal staff on a regular basis. Furthermore, the city of Ludwigsburg periodically showcases its development areas on trade fairs (for example environment or real estate fairs). Presentations during national and international symposia and publications in scientific journals (Spec 2010, Spec/Geiger/Kurt 2010) make Ludwigsburg a destination among planning, traffic and administration professionals. For the City of Ludwigsburg, sustainable urban development is connected with comprehensive citizen participation and the promotion of civic commitment, therefore community volunteer services (Fachbereich brgerschaftliches Engagement FB BE) have been introduced. A community foundation (Brgerstiftung Ludwigsburg) awards prizes for outstanding civic commitment. During the development of the Urban Development Strategy, more than 1,000 citizens have been involved so far. They act as local disseminators and brain trust. During district meetings, conferences and parties, the administration informs the citizens and takes up their feed back. Furthermore, development events, processes and results are regularly documented in the local newspaper and on municipal websites. Some topics of local Agenda 21 groups have been taken up by the City of Ludwigsburg, such as the municipal building and energy advisory services (Bauberatung Energie BBE). It offers consulting for private builders, municipalities and enterprises. Since 2003, LEA, the local energy agency, organizes energy information days (Ludwigsburger Energieinfotage) that inform about renewable energies, energy efficiency for old and new buildings, energy saving, sustainable urban development and traffic. LEAs activities are closely coordinated with the city administration. Some projects are carried out in cooperation with other organizations (for example, a walk-to-school initiative: Kleine Klimaschtzer unterwegs Ich GEHE gern zur Schule/ Verkehrsclub Deutschland e.V./ VCD). The local solar initiative and the bike initiative take part in events and activities on a regular basis and thus contribute to energy-related communication. Outside the municipal administration, different stakeholders engage in various activities: The working group economy and energy organizes an environment fair for the district Neckarweihingen (Neckarweihinger Umweltmesse NEUM). Several members of different organizations (such as mobility and environmental associations) formed the bike initiative that promotes cycling and bike path networks in Ludwigsburg. The real estate owners association Haus & Grund provides information about funding programmes for renewable energies.

Implementation, funding and marketing

49

07
n n n n n n n n n n n n

examples for Implementation


In the following, selected projects are documented that exemplify Ludwigsburgs energy efficient urban development strategy. The main focus is on conversions of former military sites where various energy efficiency approaches become visible. The new uses introduced to the areas range from housing and businesses to educational and cultural facilities. The examples are tabulated in regard to the following aspects: chronology Innovation, pilot project and signpost Site characteristics energy efficiency and climate protection, goals/measures and controlling Marketing/information, citizen participation and stakeholders funding and finances

The following projects are illustrated: rotbumlesfeld (former barrack Krabbenlochkaserne) early development measure with integrated and ecological approach Hartenecker Hhe (former barrack flakkaserne): new housing area with specific energy and urban design guidelines and renewable energies (district heating) Grnbhl/Sonnenberg with redevelopment and demolition measures, energy efficient renovation and geothermal energy film and media centre Ludwigsburg fmz (former barrack reinhardtkaserne): conversion to film and media start-up centre arts centre Kunstzentrum Karlskaserne (former barrack Karlskaserne), example for a conversion with public and private cultural offers Businesspark Zukunftspark energie: creating a cluster of energy-related businesses (energetikom, electromobility)

50 eXaMPLeS fOr IMPLeMeNTaTION

Conversion Rotbumlesfeld Redevelopment area former barrack Krabbenlochkaserne (Pilot project for sustainable urban development)

1938-40 Construction of barracks 1993 Withdrawal armed forces 1995 Start of conversion, local development plan

1997 First residents move in 2003 95% implemented 2003/04 Builder awards

Innovation, pilot project and signpost


Low-energy row houses Leanhuser
n

Integrated, interdepartmental project team, alignment with sectoral planning n Urban design and architectural competition, high design quality n Compact and sophisticated building structure (for example, first low-energy row houses Leanhuser), mainly young families, partly car-free landscape areas n Well-supplied with goods and services, comprehensive infrastructure

Pictures: Schuchert, HFT

Project area 11.3 ha1 n Net building area 7.7 ha n Area for site development 2.0 ha n Green spaces / squares 1.6 ha n ca. 1,400 inhabitants n 610 mainly smaller housing units n Site coverage (GRZ) on average 0.27, floor area ratio (GFZ) 0.96

n n

Kindergarten 2,600 sqm School 7,850 sqm n Gym n Shops 3,800 sqm + 600 sqm n Offices 2,500 sqm + 2,000 sqm n Parking spaces 300 + 115 n Sheltered workshop: 72 workplaces n Petrol station

Low-energy row houses Leanhuser Pictures: Schuchert, HFT

Energy efficiency and climate protection, goals/measures and controlling


n Compact

building structure, low energy standard (new buildings)/EnEV of gas heating station (central district heating) n Private use of solar energy, energy consultation for private builders, strict energy specifications for investors n Roof-greening, public green spaces, model rainwater treatment (e.g., economically efficient separate system) n Gas cogeneration plant (district heating), private use of solar energy, connection to district heating possible
n Reutilisation

Marketing/information, citizen participation and stakeholders


n Campaign

Green spaces Pictures: Schuchert, HFT

and logo green and close to the centre (market placement, information) n Integrated cooperation between pioneers of the interest group Rotbumlesfeld (INTRO) and municipal project team n No redevelopment agency

Funding and finances


n

n Financing

Processing via municipal project account, no effect on costs via sales revenues and funding programmes (initial funding by state redevelopment and housing programme amongst others)

Sources: City of Ludwigsburg, www.ludwigsburg.de, www.kasernen-ludwigsburg.de


1

Abbreviations see appendix Examples for implementation

51

Conversion Hartenecker Hhe New housing area former barrack Flakkaserne

1938 Construction of barracks 1991 Withdrawal armed forces 1993 Urban design competition

2007 Purchased by city of LB 2008 Dez. Local development plan 2010 Feb. 45% of lots sold

Central question How do we want to live in future?


n Energy

Developers concept for multi-family house Computer Graphics : City of Ludwigsburg

efficient building standards: KfW 60 (according to ENEW 2007) to plus energy n Great interest in the area, energy-conscious buyers n Local development plan based on cooperation with local planning firms: solar optimization, supply concepts, energy concept n Specific initial conditions (delays due to monument and bird protection) allowed for comprehensive preliminary planning before purchase of site

Gross building area 18 ha n Net building area 10.8 ha n Housing 10.4 ha n Ca. 1.600 inhabitants n 750 housing units planned

n n

Site coverage (GRZ) 0.4, partly up to 0.8 General residential area without petrol stations/ market gardens, special area n Wide range of housing types n Requirements monument protection, preservation of three buildings

Housing cooperatives project Computer Graphics : City of Ludwigsburg

Energy efficiency and climate protection, goals/measures and controlling


n

Integrated energy concept: optimized solar energy use/energy consumption/supply standards at least KfW 60, predominantly compulsory connection to regenerative district heating; gas heat plant covers peak loads n Species protection concept 2007 (preservation of biodiversity), contaminated land remediation n Local development plan, municipal environmental report, municipal energy standard n Reuse of existing buildings: gym > family centre, connection to district heating
n Energy

Marketing/information, citizen participation and stakeholders


Single-family home Picture: City of Ludwigsburg
n n

Website, events LEA, planning workshops Municipal administration attended trade fairs and residents meetings n Housing cooperative proved very proactive and dynamic (strongly identifies with project and area, energy-concious)

Funding and finances


n

Processing via municipal project account, aim: no effect on costs programme Livinggreen (family centre); no extra cost for the city of LB n Existing landmarked gym is converted to energy efficient family centre (KiFaZ) n Municipal programmes Baukindergeld + Klimazuschuss (KfW 40 standard) for builders (economic factor) n Extension of municipal district heating network (50s/60s housing area Schlsslesfeld)
n EU

Sources: City of Ludwigsburg, www.ludwigsburg.de, www.hartenecker-hoehe.de

52 Examples for implementation

Grnbhl/Sonnenberg/Karlshhe Soziale Stadt (Districts With Special Development Needs the Socially Integrative City)

1935 Construction of barracks 1947 Constr. provisional accom. 1956 Incorp. into the City of LB 1950/60 Constr. of housing for officers

1996

2008

Sold to Zweckverband Pattonville/Sonnenberg and Wohnungsbau LB GmbH Multiple commissioning and master plan

Change in image and replanning


n n

Grnbhl Picture: Schuchert, HFT

Included in district development planning Multiple commissioning for master plan in cooperation with LEA (energy concept) n Redevelopment area, funding programme Soziale Stadt, project team, integrated strategic concept

2,359 inhabitants n Mainly general residential area, also mixed-use area without lodging/petrol stations/market gardens/entertainment n Open, closed and alternative building method, single-family homes, semidetached houses

n n

Site coverage (GRZ) 0.3 to 0.4 Various housing types, apartments, row houses n Multi-generation building at passive house standard as hub between subdistricts
Sonnenberg, geothermal drilling Picture: Website Erdwrmeliga

Energy efficiency and climate protection, goals/measures and controlling


n

Sustainable urban development, future-oriented, renovation is aligned with social goals: tackling hotspots first, building measures follow n Evaluation, expert monitoring, information centre n Support installation of photvoltaic systems n Central cold water network with ground probes (geothermal energy) and gas district heating plant, decentral warm water/heat pumps; peak load covered by gas boiler n Recommendation LEA: KfW 40 standard for building envelope

Marketing/information, citizen participation and stakeholders


n Comprehensive n

citizen participation in workshops, newsletter, citizens festivals Workshops and project groups, district dialogues n Zweckverband Pattonville/Sonnenberg (intermunicipal cooperation)

Sonnenberg, multi-family houses Picture: Website Erdwrmeliga

Funding and finances


n Funding

programme Energiesparendes Bauen am Sonennberg (energy-saving building in Sonnenberg) for KfW 40 (via Wohnungsbau LB GmbH) n Free-of-charge consultancy by LEA (energy-optimized construction) n Funding of energy measures and social, cultural projects by urban redevelopment means (Soziale Stadt) n National programme Mehrgenerationenhuser (multi-generation buildings) n Micro allowances of the programme Strken vor Ort (local strength)

Integrated approach
n

Linking urban planning with social research


Examples for implementation

53

Film and media centre Ludwigsburg fmz Konversion former Train-/Reinhardtkaserne

1882-90 Construction of barracks Trainkaserne 1945 Occupied by Allied Powers

1950 - 94 Various, non-military uses 1995 Resolution on establishing fmz

Spaces and creative pool for start-ups


n Coworking

fmz Picture: Schuchert, HFT

space for young start-ups in film/communication/advertising/new media and established media workers n Neighbouring film academy, theatre academy, arts centre etc. n Career entry for graduates

n n

2.14 ha total area 12,500 sqm offices

Studios, storage, presentation and exhibition spaces n Monument protection

Energy efficiency and climate protection, goals/measures and controlling


n Refurbishment, n Reuse

new windows, connection to district heating system of existing buildings in inner city military base

fmz Source: City of Ludwigsburg

Marketing/information, citizen participation and stakeholders


n n

Bringing together established enterprises and start-ups Innovative organisational structure with service network, exchange platform, central reception with hotline, mail service, conference spaces on demand

Funding and finances


n

Subsidies for start-ups on start-up concepts n Information rounds on various topics (tax law, employment law, insurances)
n Consultancy

fmz Source: City of Ludwigsburg

Sources: City of Ludwigsburg, www.ludwigsburg.de, www.kasernen-ludwigsburg.de; www.fmz.de,

fmz Source: City of Ludwigsburg

54 Examples for implementation

Renovation of Karlskaserne Converting former barracks into an arts centre

1889-1900 Construction of barracks 1998 US military, purchased by City of Ludwigsburg

Experimental character and the art of improvisation


n A

creative pool for professionals and amateurs seeking exchange, orientation, confrontation and encounter. Workshops, rehearsal rooms, stages, artists dressing rooms, offices and technical equipment

Former stables Picture: Schuchert, HFT

n Facilities

for visual arts, theatre, dance, music, film, art and culture n Target group: children, teenagers, adults; amateurs, semi-professionals and professionals n Location for hobby, profession and vocation

Open-air cinema with more than 2,000 seats n Organizations: dance and theatre workshop, youth music school, adult education centre, harmonica club n Municipal arts school Labyrinth (Bietigheim-Bissingen, Kornwestheim and LB) with more than 1,200 students

Energy efficiency and climate protection, goals/measures and controlling


n Connection n Renovation

to district heating system according to the guidelines for historical monuments allows for flexible use and mirrors local history n Administration in renovated (roof, windows) gun house, other buildings will follow (renovation measures plan)

Former stables Picture: Schuchert, HFT

Marketing/information, citizen participation and stakeholders


n

Citizens for citizens principle (for 20 years, productions with more than 300 citizens, whereof 90% amateurs)

Funding and finances


n

Income from rent (associations, etc.)

Courtyard Picture: Schuchert, HFT

Sources: City of Ludwigsburg, www.ludwigsburg.de, www.kasernen-ludwigsburg.de, www.lkz.de

Examples for implementation

55

Business park Energy/e-mobility Redevelopment of industrial estate

Since 90s April 2010

Business park Brand Energetikom Hall 2Z

Sept. 2010 New location for Energetikom Administration Getrag enterprise

Pilot project, mixed use, creative industries


n Restructuring

Werkzentrum Weststadt Picture: Schuchert, HFT

of the business park Gewerbegebiet Weststadt: orientation of existing businesses towards energy and environmental technology n Centre for energy competence Energetikom as a trigger for structural change towards green industry n Example Werkzentrum Weststadt: former manufacturing plant (Eisfink enterprise kitchenware) turned into an event location and creative industries destination

Werkzentrum Weststadt n Floor space ca. 10 ha n Office spaces ca. 20 enterprises with ca. 600 employees n Cafeteria, foyer, Kulturwerk, courtyards, Zollinger hall, TV studio

Energy efficiency and climate protection, goals/measures and controlling


n

Pilot project Weststadt in the course of the sustainability strategy of BadenWrttemberg: Survey on local energy synergies, consulting for involved businesses (cooperation between city of LB, University of Stuttgart

Futurity Energetikom in Getrag-Building Source: City of Ludwigsburg

Marketing/information, citizen participation and stakeholders


n

Vital citizen participation, crosslinking via district development plan Weststadt

Funding and finances


n Funding

from state sustainability initiative Energieeffizienz in Betrieben (energy efficiency for businesses) n Size of investment ca. 100 million Euros > promotion of regional economic growth

Source: City of Ludwigsburg, www.ludwigsburg.de, www.werkzentrum-weststadt.de

56 Examples for implementation

conclusions and Lessons Learned


Conclusions
The finite nature of fossil fuel supply, as well as climate and demographic change call for new, integrated strategies for energy efficient cities that, more than hitherto, include citizens, businesses and politics.

08

With the sustainable Urban Development Strategy, the citywide energy Strategy and the consequent restructuring of administration, the city of Ludwigsburg chose an exceptionally comprehensive and integrated approach, especially when compared to other German medium-sized cities. The concept builds on experiences from municipal energy efficiency projects and national and international exchange programmes and takes them further in a consistent way. Participation in european research projects such as Managing Urban europe 25 (MUe) asserted wide influence on further conceptional development. figure 33 depicts the development paths of sustainable urban development in Ludwigsburg 1990-2010. energy efficient urban development already gained momentum during the 1990s, for example in local agenda 21 groups, urban regeneration (Soziale Stadt) and housing development. This process has continuously been cultivated. It has particularly been stimulated by the introduction of the Urban Development Strategy in 2004 and the resulting citywide energy Strategy. In Ludwigsburg, the concept of an energy efficient city is not narrowed down to energy policy questions but part of an overall sustainability strategy. aspects of settlement structure, infrastructure and traffic strongly influence the energy consumption of a community be it in a direct or indirect way. a new integrated structure of administration and a comprehensive implementation strategy were developed in parallel. The effectiveness of measures is evaluated by a set of 66 indicators in a regular management cycle (compare chapter 5). finally, energy efficiency and climate protection as parts of an integrated urban development approach contribute to safeguarding competitiveness and promoting economic development. In the long run, citizens and enterprises benefit from security of energy supply and low energy prices. The city of Ludwigsburg has realized that only energy efficient cities remain attractive for their citizens and can maintain their cultural and social offers and public services. In summer 2010, the community testing and research institute of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Gemeindeprfungsanstalt gpa) acknowledged the sustainable policy approach (reorganization of administration), as it contributes to a balanced municipal budget that is fairness for all generations.

cONcLUSIONS aND LeSSONS LearNeD

57

Streams of development of sustainable urban development in Ludwigsburg from1990 to 2010 (examples) Energy Environmental groups...

Energy saving

Urban development

Master development plan

Conversions

Film Academy 1991

Rotbumlesfeld 1995

Movie and Media Centre 1996

Hotel KarlsNestor barrack 1996 1998

Municipal administration

Project team Rotbumlesfeld 1994-2000

more project teams outside of line organisation

Public participation

Involvement of concerned persons

Future conferences Eglosheim 2000+2002

Municipal utilities

Reorganisation of municipal utilities

Change towards renewable energy

Funding programmes

Urban development promotion programme

EU projects:

National projects:

1990 Initial situation

1995

Abbreviations: SEK - Urban Development Strategy STEP - District Development Plan

Figure 33: Development paths of sustainable urban development in Ludwigsburg 1990-2010, picture: HfT

58 cONcLUSIONS aND LeSSONS LearNeD

Local Agenda 21 2001 Building consulting energy, et. al. Soziale Stadt Urban Development Strategy SEK 2004 integrated (decision 2006) operation concepts 2000

Ludwigsburg Energy Agency LEA 2006

Energetikom (registered association) 2009

Thematic Master plans 2006 District Development Plans STEPs 2007

Decision for set of Indicators 2009

Luitpold- Fromannbarrack barrack 1999 - 2001 2004

Sonnenberg 2006

Wilhelmgalery 2006

Hartenecker Hhe 2008-15

Staff unit SEK 2004

Staff unit Supervision Support SUN 2007

Department for Sustainable Urban Development 2008

Development administration structures, e.g. Advisory Department for Active Citizenship Service Building 2000 2004 Local Agenda projects 2002... 1.District management Eglosheim 2003 Future conferences SEK 2005+2006 Participation STEPs e.g. 3 District Conferences Eglosheim 2007... Future conference SEK 2009 / others from 2010 on

District heating 2001 Woodchip plant Eglosheim 2001 local ressources for social purposes LOS 2003-08 Soziale Stadt Eglosheim 2000

Initiation of green electricity 2006 Block heating station (CHP)/local heating concepts 2006 Managing Urban Europe MUE 25 2005-08 Soziale Stadt Grnbhl/ Sonnenberg/ Karlshhe 2006 2005

Wood-red power plant 2009 Consolidation with municipal utilities of Kornwestheim 2008 European EnSure 2010 - 13 Energy Award 2010 Our City Citywide attractive city and Energy district centers Strategy 2009 2010 2010 livinggreen 2008-13

2000

The diagramme in figure 34 gives an overview of Ludwigsburgs urban development since 1990. It is characterized by conversions of former barracks sites, the sustainable Urban Development Strategy (guiding vision: the compact city and priority of brownfield redevelopment), administrational reform, implementation of energy efficiency measures and extension of energy supply from renewables (gas network, wood chip heating plant and district heating).
cONcLUSIONS aND LeSSONS LearNeD

59

Lessons learned
Transferable results of the case study are summarized in lessons learned. How can, under the given conditions in planning, law, policy and economy in Germany, an energy efficient city be planned and achieved? Which of Ludwigsburgs approaches may be applied to other cities, what has to be taken into account, what has to be avoided? Lesson 1: A sustainable citywide Urban Development Strategy provides the perfect framework for energy efficiency concepts. Sustainable urban development is a core concern for the European Union (Leipzig Charter on Sustainable European Cities 2007) and has been implemented into the German Programme Nationale Stadtentwicklungspolitik (National Urban Development Policy). A holistic implementation has to take place mainly on communal and regional level, where instruments of regional planning and urban land use and development planning are available. In contrast to, for example, the British planning system, there is a clear legal framework and a high density of regulation, so that planning tools can become effective in regard to energy efficient urban design. On municipal level, the urban and functional development for the next 15-20 years is specified in land use plans. In the face of energy, climate and demographic challenges, integrated urban development strategies (as a voluntary planning instrument for the preparatory stage of land use plans) gain in importance, that have to be complemented by sectoral plans for energy, housing, traffic and the like. The City of Ludwigsburg has shown that working out a participatory, interdisciplinary urban development strategy and connecting it with an administrative reform proves to be a solid foundation for energy efficient and climate-conscious planning. Here, clear and verifiable goals and core measures for future development can be fixed. In this way, the topic of energy becomes part of the political discussion, and energy projects are linked to other urban development themes. Lesson 2: Municipal energy efficiency projects can be coordinated by a Citywide Energy Strategy. The energy efficiency of a city cannot only be measured in singular building measures. It depends on urban design concepts, traffic schemes, land use patterns and urban density, users demands and surrounding conditions. Therefore, each city should develop its own Citywide Energy Strategy that is based on the local Urban Development Strategy. These energy strategies coordinate measures of heat supply, electricity supply and mobility that, altogether, lead to energy and CO2 savings. Ludwigsburgs Citywide Energy Strategy has been developed on the basis of a holistic, sustainable Urban Development Strategy. It aimed for identifying the potentials for renewables and developing a strategy for action. The municipal works, experts, citizens and stakeholders were actively involved in this process. Regular monitoring of effectiveness is necessary to make adjustments. Lesson 3: Energy strategies require a more ambitious implementation strategy. The Ludwigsburg case study has shown that the Climate Alliances target of a 50% CO2 emission reduction until 2030 cannot be achieved by national regulation in the building and renewable energy sector only (BAU scenario). Even if the most important measures of the With Measures Scenario (WMS) are implemented, can climate neutrality not be obtained by 2050. The municipalities have to take additional, more ambitious measures to become climate-neutral in the long run. Municipally owned buildings and services only contribute to about 2% of a citys total energy consumption. Therefore, the process has to include all actors, most of all the citizens who cause 45% of the emissions in the

60 Conclusions and lessons learned

21st Century Energy efcient Ludwigsburg Peoples City Residential areas Barracks conversions for public purposes Barracks conversions for residential purposes New housing estates Railroad Train station Motorway 81 Federal road 27 Urban Development Strategy Compact City Reorganisation of urban administration Energetikom Energiekompetenz & kodesign e.V. Energy agency Ludwigsburg Wood-red power station District heat and power station Geothermal energy station District heating network Urban development zone Weststadt Development of buildig-up areas Not to scale N
Figure 34: Diagramme urban development Ludwigsburg, picture: HfT

Neckar

building sector and 28% in transport. catalogues of measures have to be developed in cooperation with citizens, adopted by the municipal council and implemented by the help of clear time schedules. Lesson 4: Energy efficiency requires regional integration. energy efficiency is a subject that should not be examined for one planning level or one city in isolation. even if there is a comeback of local solutions, the necessary mix of renewable energy sources and supply concepts can only be attained on regional level. Provisions of spatial and state planning set the framework for urban planning. On regional level, they are further specified and adjusted to regional conditions and goals. In this way, the regional plan can, for example, designate priority areas for energy supply. The idea of a regional energy Strategy takes this approach further. at Ludwigsburgs suggestion, the regional planning association Verband region Stuttgart (VrS) plans to develop such a concept. In the frame of the national programme KlimaMOrO, Ludwigsburg is a model community and partner of VrS. KlimaMOrO addresses the effects of climate change and consequences for urban land use planning, for example, the provision of suitable agricultural land. Lesson 5: Public utilities and services are important municipal steering tools. for a proactive urban development policy, municipal works as local energy providers, but also other fields of supply such as water, urban drainage, waste combustion, parking, and the like, are important steering tools. They help to pursue a sustainable urban development policy and to augment energy efficiency. as services of general interest are delivered, they should remain within the citys sphere of influence. During the last decades, many German communities privatized their municipal utilities or sold them via cross-border-leasing.
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Since a couple of years, there is a reverse trend towards municipally owned facilities because of their importance for strategic planning and security of supply. Municipal works are an important prerequisite for the implementation of citywide energy concepts. A city that owns an independent and decentral energy supply structure has strong decision-making powers, especially in regard to energy saving, efficient use of energy, renewable energy sources and new supply concepts, such as district heating. Municipal energy suppliers should foresee a financial budget for innovation and elaborate pilot projects. The municipal works of Ludwigsburg-Kornwestheim show that municipally owned energy supply is an important component to promote innovative energy strategies and projects. Lesson 6: The use of renewable energy potentials should be extended. In Germany, the potentials of existing renewable energy sources have only been tapped to a small degree. There is an urgent need to expand the regional offer of regenerative energy carriers, energy-related services and innovative energy technology. So-called virtual power plants, networks of decentral power plants that draw from renewables, could make a considerable contribution. They can compensate light load periods and oscillations as they occur in wind and solar power, for example by biomass. A study on heating and electricity supply in Ludwigsburg, that was part of the Citywide Energy Strategy, identifies large potentials for renewables. Nevertheless, within city borders, only about 25% of the present demand can be satisfied via renewables. Among other things, the city of Ludwigsburg concentrates on extending the district heating network and integrating technologies for the production of biomass and geothermal energy. Lesson 7: Energy efficiency can only be attained if the traffic sector is targeted. In Germany, on average, 30% of traffic-related carbon emissions are caused by internal city traffic. Whereas energy consumption and emissions decrease in other sectors, they keep increasing in the traffic sector. On local level, the necessary restrictions in traffic are hard to enforce politically, due to conflicts of interest and (expected) resistance among citizens, retailers and enterprises. Therefore, more effective regulation on European and national level is required for the traffic sector, comparable to those in the energy sector. Considerable energy savings in traffic can be achieved by integrated urban and traffic planning, changes in behaviour and alternative drive systems; local noise emissions and pollution can be reduced. Urban development planning should integrate traffic concepts. In densely populated regions, neighbouring communities and regional traffic connections should be incorporated. Besides incentivizing walking, cycling and using public transport, the City of Ludwigsburg promotes the growth sector electromobility by setting up an economic cluster in this field. Ludwigsburgs Citywide Energy Strategy also factors mobility. Lesson 8: For consistent implementation of sustainable planning, strong vertical and horizontal links between political levels have to be established. Germany lacks a national sustainability strategy that is clearly concerted with the federal ministries on horizontal level. Also, a vertical exchange with the subordinated levels (states, regions, municipalities) is missing. Likewise, on state level, sustainability is not seen and implemented as a cross-sectional responsibility within the ministries. On municipal level, departments are often not cross-linked horizontally. These missing links become visible in contradicting goals of different ministries but also in similar funding programmes for energy efficiency. Similarly, in the area of sustainability, links to the European level have to be improved. The example of Ludwigsburg demonstrates the efficieny of horizontal and vertical linking.

62 Conclusions and lessons learned

Lesson 9: Sustainability and energy efficiency have to be positioned within the administrational structure. Most of German municipal administrations are organized in sectors and not structured integratively or spatially. Depending on the local emphasis, energy policy may be a duty of urban planning, environmental services or the economic development department. In sectoral administrations, an overall review of political goals and measures as well as an overview on related finances that would allow decisionmakers to prioritize action, is often absent. Due to short election periods and project-oriented administrative action, public expectations are high that politicians quickly find solutions and demonstrate visible projects. In this way, long-term planning goals such as energy efficiency or cost efficiency tend to be neglected. In Ludwigsburg, the Urban Development Strategy was coordinated by the Lord Mayors interdepartmental unit for sustainable urban development (Referat Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung). As a cross-sectoral unit, it breaks the existing linear structure of administration. The units subdivisions Europe and Energy safeguard the implementation of urban development and energy efficiency goals in all fields of politics. This approach overcomes sectoral thinking and makes use of existing synergies. Financial decisions are no longer made department-wise but in relation to measures. Lesson 10: Sustainable urban development and energy efficiency goals have to be backed up by an implementation strategy. In Germany, planning is rather target-oriented than process-oriented. Ludwigsburgs governance approach is supported by a continuous management cycle. It includes guiding principles for eleven thematic fields and strategic objectives that are adjusted to local conditions via district development concepts. Implementation is steered via thematic master plans; benchmark indicators safeguard reporting and evaluation. Correspondingly, the goals of the Citywide Energy Strategy shall be systematically enforced. This implementation strategy for sustainable urban development requires persons that are willing to work interdisciplinarily and have a holistic understanding of sustainability and its social, economic and ecological aspects. They have to be open and appreciative for neighbouring fields of work. By introducing the management cycle, the City of Ludwigsburg has already developed an implementation strategy that accounts for this. Lesson 11: Citizen participation is a success factor for sustainable and energy efficient urban development. Attaining an energy efficient or even energy neutral city not only requires great commitment, but also far-reaching changes in behaviour. Citizen participation is a time-consuming process. Therefore, shorter, focussed forms of participation such as roundtable discussions, expert workshops or future conferences became established, whereas several-day workshops are only rarely conducted. Yet, the group of participants should not be too small and include changing representatives. Citizen participation allows citizens to identify with their city. As a target-oriented tool, it permits to access the citizens potentials and desires and integrate them into planning. Yet, on communal level, it is sometimes seen as controversial: Councillors fear to lose power of decision, and citizens are afraid of not being taken serious. Therefore, confidence building has to take place on all levels and compentences have to be made clear. The municipal council should acknowledge the benefits of

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citizen participation. To the citizens, it has to be communicated that their concerns are being taken serious, but that the municipal boards are in charge of making decisions based on the common good. During the Urban Development Strategy, the City of Ludwigsburg has organized an intense process of citizen participation with positive experiences. Furthermore, it has established a department for community volunteer services (Fachbereich brgerschaftliches Engagement) in 2004 and continued the processes of participation. Lesson 12: Publicity and consulting services for energy efficiency contribute to success. Intense public relation and energy efficiency consulting services for citizens and businesses should be self-evident components of a Citywide Energy Strategy. Wide acceptance and dissemination make measures more effective. Cities and communities can profit from higher energy efficiency, as profits from energy savings may be spent for other needs. In Ludwigsburg, local flagship projects such as the energy agency LEA, Energetikom, the wood chip heating plant, the bike station, business mobility management, carsharing projects with electromobiles and the family centre Hartenecker Hhe are important elements for public relations. Lesson 13: National and international funding programmes are of high added value. Municipal goals can be reached faster by the help of national and international funding programmes and research projects. They provide target-oriented support both in regard to financing and content. International projects broaden the perspective and foster proactive professional exchange. The financial support allows for setting up pilot projects. Project partners may advise on cost-saving alternatives. Furthermore, intercultural knowledge is acquired. Often, project networks are maintained and reactivated on other occasion. In the city of Ludwigsburg, many existing or planned energy efficiency strategies and projects have been initiated or supported by national and EU funding programmes and research projects. Consecutive projects that complement the communitys routine duties create added value. Lesson 14: The renovation and construction of municipal buildings are occasions for establishing energy standards. On public buildings, the opportunities of energy efficiency can be impressively demonstrated. Energy efficient renovation of municipal buildings can create awareness and set local standards. Private owners, and partly also the churches, seem to be difficult to reach and motivate for renovation. It is especially difficult to gain a majority for the renovation of apartments in multi-family houses, even though there is an urgent need for action. Models for implementation are missing in this field, notably in regard to financing. In Ludwigsburg, LEA provides energy consulting for building owners. Lesson 15: There is a lack of binding supraregional certifications for craft and trade. During the last years, the demands placed on construction and building equipment and appliances have continuously grown. As they have direct contact to the end-users, small local handicrafts enterprises play a key role in private renovation and construction. Unfortunately, it was discovered that they often misadvise clients and sell out-dated technology. Thereby they damage their own business and the environment. Often, the small businesses lack resources for advanced training. Therefore, Energetikom in Ludwigsburg has taken up this aspect. It is also important to include the firms that deliver the (technical) products to the craftsmen.

64 Conclusions and lessons learned

Lesson 16: Energy efficiency will become a locational and economic factor. During structural change, energy efficiency and economic development must be taken into consideration together. As soon as energy competence becomes a competitive asset, it will create jobs in trade and contribute to the economys export strength on this new global growth market. Therefore, educational facilities and universities have to be included into local economic strategies. Economic development is one of the three subdivisions within Ludwigsburgs interdepartmental unit Referat Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung. The citys initiative in developing the energy competence centre Energetikom and the district Weststadt demonstrates that it is worthwhile to cross-link stakeholders from the energy sector, trade, industry, associations, advanced training and research. Lesson 17: Compact, mixed-use developments have a more energy efficient infastructure and supply structure than dispersed settlement structures. Existing and new housing estates should be planned as dense, compact and mixed-use developments (district heating, public transport). Considering quality of life and quality of stay issues (parks, squares, ventilation) leads to shorter travel distances, reduced CO2 emissions, and more efficient supply and infrastructure capacities. The city of short distances produces less traffic and CO2 and consumes less energy. It is formed by attractive and vital districts with a good infrastructure, mainly local and regional supply services, cultural offers, high-quality and cross-linked educational and care facilities for all ages, easy accessible green and leisure spaces and a varied sports offer. In order to avoid induced traffic, a consequent mix of uses is recommended for built-up areas as well as for new neighbourhoods and buildings. Furthermore, these neighbourhoods secure local supply, improve work-life balance, allow elderly people to maintain an independent lifestyle and contribute to communication and safety. The conversions of inner city brownfields in Ludwigsburg are good examples for compact and mixed-use urban neighbourhoods with these qualities. Lesson 18: Energetic optimisation of existing neighbourhoods is an important task for the future. Energy-saving renovation should be an important principle of urban planning and urban regeneration. About 90 % of German buildings are not or only insufficiently insulated thermally. Post-war neighbourhoods are in the most urgent need for action in regard to energy efficiency. Here, comprehensive schemes for energetic and urban development are needed. Nevertheless, prioritizing is inevitable. Maybe an average improvement of local energy standards is more effective than the opulent restoration of solitary buildings. When energy is entirely gained from renewables and virtual power plants, the necessity to achieve the highest energy standard for all buildings becomes obsolete. This is particularly important for landmarked buildings. Promoting the energy efficient renovation of buildings has to go along with a rent index that differentiates between renovated and not renovated buildings. The question whether tenants have to carry parts of the renovation costs still remains controversial. Sustainable building standards cannot simply be applied to entire urban neighbourhoods. At present, certification systems for urban neighbourhoods are being developed in Germany. It is important to factor local needs and conditions. Also, interdependencies between ecological, social and economic aspects and effects have to be balanced.

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Appendix
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Meuser, Michael, Nagel, Ulrike (2002): Experteninterviews vielfach erprobt, wenig bedacht. Ein Beitrag zur qualitativen Methodendiskussion. In: Bogner, Littig, Menz (Hrsg.): Das Experteninterview. Opladen. Spec, Werner (2010): Konzept: Chancen fr Ludwigsburg. Eine Kommune auf dem Weg zur nachhaltigen Stadtentwicklung. In: Planerin 02/2010. Spec, Werner, Geiger, Albert, Kurt, Martin (2010): Es geht ums Ganze: Chancen fr Ludwigsburg das Stadtentwicklungskonzept. In: Integrierte Stadtentwicklung politische Forderung und Praxis. IzR 4.2010, Hrsg.: BBSR im BBR, S. 263-275. Stadt Ludwigsburg (1995): Bebauungsplan 048/01 Rotbumlesfeld, Ehemalige Krabbenlochkaserne. Stadt Ludwigsburg (2004): Nachhaltigkeitsbericht Ludwigsburg 2004. Indikatoren fr eine lokale Agenda. Umweltschutzstelle und Agendabro. Ludwigsburg. Stadt Ludwigsburg (2006): Die elf Themenfelder des Stadtentwicklungskonzepts Ludwigsburg. Gemeinderatsbeschluss vom 28.06.2006. Stadt Ludwigsburg (2007): Energiebericht 2006. Ludwigsburg. Stadt Ludwigsburg (2008 a): Bebauungsplan 093/02 Hartenecker Hhe. Stadt Ludwigsburg (2008 b): Bebauungsplan 093/02 Hartenecker Hhe Begrndung). Stadt Ludwigsburg, Brgerbro Bauen (2007): Richtlinien zur Frderung privater Sanierungsmanahmen. SWLB (2009): Firmenportrait. April 2009. Umweltbundesamt (2009): Energieeffizienz im Stadtverkehr. Was wird von den Stdten gefordert? Future Challenges for urban transport policy. Vortrag Hedwig Verron, Ludwigsburg Forum Stadtgestaltung und Mobilitt. UNFCCC (2007): Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data from UNFCCC-Detailed data by Party. Vereinte Nationen (1992): Agenda 21. Konferenz der Vereinten Nationen fr Umwelt und Entwicklung, Rio de Janeiro, Juni 1992. VRS (2009): Raumanpassungsstrategien zum Klimawandel Modellregion Stuttgart. Stuttgart. Flyer. Wohnungsbau Ludwigsburg GmbH (2010): Geschftsbericht 2009. Wohnungsbau Ludwigsburg GmbH (2008): Hallo Nachbar. Zeitung der Wohnungsbau Ludwigsburg. Ausgabe 3/2008. Zimmer, Wiebke u. Fritsche, Uwe (2008): Klimaschutz und Straenverkehr. Effizienzsteigerung und Biokraftstoffe und deren Beitrag zur Minderung der Treibhausgasemissionen. Kurzstudie fr die Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung von Wiebke Zimmer/Uwe Fritsche. Bonn.

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Websites1
Website Covenant of Mayors (2010): www.eumayors.eu/home_de.htm Website Erdwrmeliga: www.erdwaermeliga.de/projekte/sonnenberg-sued-ost.html Website Filmakademie (2010). Geschichte der Filmakademie: www.filmakademie.de/ueber-uns/geschichte-der-akademie Website Film- und Medienzentrum fmz (2010): www.fmz.de Website Hartenecker Hhe (2010): www.hartenecker-hoehe.de Website Kasernen Ludwigsburg (2010): www.kasernen-ludwigsburg.de Website Landeszentrale fr politische Bildung 2010: www.kommunalwahl-bw.de/interkommunale_zusammenarbeit.html Website Landkreis Ludwigsburg (2010): www.landkreis-ludwigsburg.de/deutsch/ unser-landkreis/zahlen-und-fakten/bevoelkerungszahlen/ Website Ludwigsburger Kreiszeitung (2010): www.lkz.de Website Ludwigsburger Verkehrslinien (2010): www.lvl-jaeger.de/Archiv.4.0.html Website Stadt Ludwigsburg (2010): www.ludwigsburg.de Website Stadtwerke Ludwigsburg-Kornwestheim (2010): www.swlb.de/cms/Unternehmen/Die_SWLB/Historie/Tradition_verbindet.html Website Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Wrttemberg (2008). Demografiespiegel des Statistischen Landesamtes Baden-Wrttemberg 2008: www.statistik-portal.de/BevoelkGebiet/Demografie-Spiegel/ Website Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Wrttemberg (2008 a). Struktur- und Regional datenbank des Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Wrttemberg 2008: www.statistik.baden-wuerttemberg.de/SRDB/home.asp?H=BevoelkGebiet Website Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Wrttemberg (2008 b). Struktur- und Regional datenbank des Statistischen Landesamts Baden-Wrttemberg 2008: www.statistik.baden-wuerttemberg.de/SRDB/home .asp?H=ArbeitsmErwerb Website Verband Region Stuttgart (2010): www.region-stuttgart.org/vrs/main.jsp?navid=22 Website Werkzentrum Weststadt (2010): www.werkzentrum-weststadt.de Website Wohnungsbau Ludwigsburg (2010). ber uns: Unternehmen: www.wohnungsbau-ludwigsburg.de/UeberUns?PHPSESSID=67682b56f935ed94a709 2bfc273a 3195

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Abbreviations
AG Arbeitsgemeinschaft (working group) BAU business as usual (BAU)-Szenario BBR Bundesamt fr Bauwesen und Raumordnung (Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning) BBSR Bundesinstitut fr Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung (The Federal Institute for Research on Building, Urban Affairs and Spatial Development) BM Brgermeister (mayor) BMWi Bundesministerium fr Wirtschaft und Technologie (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) BMU Bundesministerium fr Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety) BMVBS Bundesministerium fr Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung (Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development) Blba Blhendes Barock Gartenschau Ludwigsburg GmbH (horticultural show) B-Plan Bebauungsplan (land development plan) CO2 Kohlendioxid (carbon dioxide) EE Erneuerbare Energien (renewable energy) ECBCS Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems ENBW Energie Baden-Wrttemberg AG (energy supplier) E.ON AG privates Energiedienstleistungsunternehmen (private energy provider) EU Europische Union (European Union) Fmz Film- und Medienzentrum Ludwigsburg GmbH (Centre of cinema and media) GemO Gemeindeordnung (local government law) GFZ Geschossflchenzahl (floor-space ratio) GHG Treibhausgase (greenhouse gas) GH Gebudehhe (height of construction) GRZ Grundflchenzahl (site occupancy ratio) GWh Gigawattstunden (Gigawatt Hour) ha Hektar (hectare) IEA Internationale Energieagentur (International Energy Agency) IER Institut fr Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER) (Institute for energy industry and rational use of energy) IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change kWh/a Kilowattstunden pro Jahr (kilowatt-hour per annum) kWhel Kilowattstunden elektrisch (kilowatt-hour electrical) LB Ludwigsburg MI Mischgebiete (mixed zone) Mio. Millionen (million) MMS Mit-Manahmen-Szenario (measure scenario) MORO Modellvorhaben der Raumordnung Stickoxyde (oxides of nitrogen) NOX OB Oberbrgermeister (Lord Mayor) PNV ffentlicher Personennahverkehr (public transport) PAG Ludwigsburger Parkierungsanlagen GmbH (parking organization) qm Quadratmeter (square metre) RE Erneuerbare Energien (renewable energies) SEL Eigenbetrieb Stadtentwsserung Ludwigsburg (urban drainage) SHL Stdtische Holding Ludwigsburg GmbH SO Sondergebiet (special area) St Stellpltze (parking space) SWLB Stadtwerke Ludwigsburg-Kornwestheim (local energy supplier) t Tonnen (metric ton) THG Treibhausgas (greenhouse gas) Trend Trend-Szenario oder business as usual (BAU)-Szenario UN Die Vereinten Nationen (United Nations) VKU Verband kommunaler Unternehmen (Union Communal Business Companies) VRS Verband Region Stuttgart (Union Region Stuttgart) WA Allgemeine Wohngebiete (general residential area) WE Wohneinheiten (housing unit) WLB Wohnungsbau Ludwigsburg GmbH (domestic buildings)
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Contact
Stadt Ludwigsburg Referat Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung Sandra Klmel Wilhelmstrae 1 71638 Ludwigsburg Phone (+49) 07141 910-3083