III
(or
of the point satisfying that condition. For example, in Plane Geometry, the following results are
proved
is
two fixed points from these points equidistant points. The bisectors of the adjacent angles formed by two lines is the locus of all points equidistant from these lines. To solve any locus problem involves two things 1. To draw the locus by constructing a sufficient number of points satisfying the given condition and therefore lying on the
bisector of the line joining
The perpendicular
all
the locus of
locus.
To
is,
to determine
Analytic Geometry is peculiarly adapted to the solution of both parts of a locus problem.
25.
condition.
dinates.
Equation of the locus of a point satisfying a given Let us take up the locus problem, making use of coorIf any point P satisfying the given condition and thereon the locus be given the coordinates (x, y), then the
fore lying
x and
y.
which
is
of fundamental importance.
*
t
The word " curve " will hereafter signify any continuous line, straight or curved. As the only loci considered in Elementary Geometry are straight lines and circles,
may be
i3
relatively unimportant.
44
45
is
Find the equation in x and y if the point whose locus 1. be equidistant from 2, 0) and .B( 3, 8). (
required
Solution.
Let P (x,
y)
PA = PB.
But, by formula IV,
p. 24,
,
PJ.
Substituting in
(2)
V(x
(y
8)2.
16 y
69
= 0.
x and y are variables representing the coordinates of is, of any point on the perpendicular bisector of the line AB. This equation has two important and characteristic properties 1. The coordinates of any point on the locus may be substituted for x and y in the equation (3), and the result will be true. For let PI (xi, 7/1) be any point on the locus. Then P\A = PiB, by definition. Hence, by formula IV, p. 24,
In the equation
(3),
locus, that
(4)
or,
(5)
2)2
+ yi a = V(zi +
0.
3)2
O/i
8)2,
2x 1 16 2/ 1 + 69 =
Therefore Xi and yi satisfy
2. (3).
upon the
locus.
For if PI(XI, 2/1) is a point whose coordinates and hence also (4) holds.
Q.E.D.
In particular, the coordinates of the middle point C of and B, namely, z = 2i, y = 4 (Corollary, p. 32), satisfy (3), since 2 (2) 16 x 4 + 69 = 0.
This example illustrates the following correspondence between Pure and Analytic Geometry as regards the locus problem
:
Locus problem
Pure Geometry
The geometrical condition (satisfied
Analytic Geometry
An
locus).
by the coordinates
46
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
:
This discussion leads to the fundamental definition The equation of the locus of a point satisfying a given condition
an equation in the variables x and y representing coordinates such that (1) the coordinates of every point on the locus will satisfy the equation; and (2) conversely, every point whose
is
coordinates satisfy the equation will lie upon the locus. This definition shows that the equation of the locus must be tested in two ways after derivation, as illustrated in the example
of this section
From
and
Corollary.
point
lies
its
fundamental problem.
is
curve which
condition.
The following
in
many
Rule.
cases
Second
step.
Assume that P (x, y) is any point and is therefore on the curve. Write down the given condition.
satisfying
Third
step.
simplify the result. The final equation, containing x, y, and the given constants of the problem, will be the required equation.
Ex.
1.
line passing
through P! (4,
1)
First step.
Assume P(z,
any point
NS
The given
may be written
Slope of
PiP =
tan
a=
ll
Third
step.
From
(V), p. 28,
4 1
47
0.
Ans.
To prove that (3) is the required equation The coordinates (x 1? ?/i) of any point on 1.
:
(3),
for
(xi, 2/1)
and
(4,
1),
and
its
slope
(4,
1) for (x 2 , 2/2),
or
= 0,
Xi and 2/1 satisfy the equation (3). Conversely, any point whose coordinates satisfy (3) is a point on the For if (xi, 2/1) is any such point, that is, if Xi + 2/1 3 = 0, then straight line.
and therefore
2.
also
is
true,
and
(xi, 2/1) is
(4,
1)
Q.E.D.
Ex. 2. Find the equation of a straight line parallel to the axis of y at a distance of 6 units to the right.
Solution.
tt
and
First step.
line,
Assume
that P(x, y)
is
and draw
NP perpendicular
NP = 6.
Third
step.
Since
NP = OM = x,
x
(4)
becomes
(5)
G.
Ans.
48
Ex. 3.
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
Find the equation of the locus of a point whose distance from always equal to 4.
(1,
is
2) is
1,
2)
by C,
!/)
PC = 4.
Third
step.
By formula
2
1.2)
(IV), p. 24,
(y
PC = V(x +
V(x
I)
2)2.
Substituting in (6),
I)
(y
 2)2 = 4.
2,
2x
_4y 11 = 0.
This
center
is is
(1,
the required equation, namely, the equation of the circle whose The method of proof is the same 2) and radius equals 4.
PROBLEMS
1.
(a)
line parallel to
OY and
at a distance of 4 units to the right. (b) at a distance of 7 units to the left. (c) at a distance of 2 units to the right of (3, 2). 2). (d) at a distance of 5 units to the left of (2,
2.
What
is
OF and a
if
6 units
from
it ?
relative
toOI r ifa>&>0?
>
>
line parallel to
OX and
(b) at
(c)
OX.
(d)
4.
5.
(2,
(4,
3).
2).
What
it.
is
the equation of
XX' ?
of
YY' ?
x
=4
y
and 3 units
to the
right of
6.
below
7. 8.
=a
and 4 units
How
b lie if
a >'b
> 0?
if
>
> 0?
What
49
What
of,
a distance
is the equation of the locus of a point which moves always at 2 units from the axis of x ? from the axis of y ? from the line
5?
from the
is
line
= 4?
the equation of the locus of a point which moves so as to 10. What be equidistant from the lines x = 5 and x = 9 ? equidistant from y = 3 and
y=7?
11.
What
are
(
2, 2),
(
2, 5) ?
In problems 12 and 13, PI is a given point on the required line, slope of the line, and a its inclination.
12.
(a)
is
the
What
PI PI P! P!
is (
is
is
if
is (0,
and
2)
m=
and
3?
(b)
m
Vs
\?
= 0. = 0.
(c)
(
2, 3)
andm =
?
2y + 6 + 2\/2 = 0.
0.
(d)
(e)
(f )
is
(0, 5)
and
(g)
P! PI PI
is (0, 0) is (a, 6)
is ( is
a,
V3x  2y + 10 = 2x + 3y = 0. y = b. x = a.
13.
J( (a)
What
PI P! PI P! P! Pi PI P! PI PI
is
is (2, 3)
(b)
(c)
is
is is is
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
is is
is is
(h)
(i)
(j)
and a = 45 ? (1, 2) and a = 45?  a,  b) and a = 45 ? ( = 60? (5, 2) and a  7) and a. = 60? (0, ? ( 4, 5) and a =  3) and a = 90 ? (2,  3 V) and or = 120? (3, = 150? (0, 3) and a (a, 6) and a = 135 ?
/
= 0.
Vx
.Ans.
y Ans. x
4ns. Ans.
4ns.
V\
14.
= 5. = 2. V3x + y = 0. V3x + 3y  9 = 0. x + y = a 4 6.
line
on the
3z + 2y = 25?
15.
(a)
(d)
(e)
(f)
and radius = 4.  5) and r = 13. (12, = r. (0, 0) and radius = 5. (0, 0) and r (3 a, 4 a) and r = 5 a.
(6
x2
x2 x2 x2
x2
+ 2 6z4y3 = 0. + y 2 24 x + 10 y = 0. + y2 = r2 + y2 = 25. + y 2  2 a (3 x + 4 y) = 0.
?/
.
c,
c)
and
4ns. x 2
y2
= c, 2 +
(fr
(6
c)y
+ 2 62 +
c2
= (X
50
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
is (5,
16. Find the equation of a circle whose center circumference passes through the point (2, 3).
17.
(
4)
and whose
2, 2)
circle
(3,
5)
and
circle
circle
line joining
(6,
8) to the origin
whose center is the middle point of the 'and whose circumference passes through
the point
20.
(2, 3).
A point moves so that its distances from the two fixed points (2,
4) are equal.
3)
and
(1,
0.
21.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the line joining  3). Ans. 10 x + 8 y + 13 = 0. (2, 1), ( 3, Ans. a3y + 6 = 0. (3, 1), (2, 4). Ana. x+2y7 = 0. ( 1,  1), (3, 7).
Ans. Qx
2/2).
 Sy +
?/ 2
= 0.
2
(x 2 ,
Ans. 2
(xi
z 2 )x
2 (y^
y
)y
+ x 2 2  Xi 2 +
j/i
= 0.
22. Show that in problem 21 the coordinates of the middle point of the line joining the given points satisfy the equation of the perpendicular
bisector.
23.
triangle
Find the equations of the perpendicular bisectors of the sides of the Show that they meet in the point (11, 7). (4, 8), (10, 0), (6, 2).
24. Express
(
1, 1)
(f, 0) is
by an equation that the point (ft, k) is equidistant from Then show that the point also from (1, 2) and (1,  2). from equidistant ( 1, 1), (1, 2), (1,  2).
and
(1, 2)
;
27.
circle.
The
methods
1.
A
A
y has an equation of
an equation of
2.
the form y
51
B (0,
b)
The equation of the straight line passing through a on the axis of y and having its slope equal to in is
\^jT
First step.
step.
= mv +
&.~^
Proof.
y)
is
line.
Second
PB
m.
Third
step.
Slope of
[Substituting
(x,
PB = y^^,
x
and
(0, 6)
for (z 2 ,
2/2)]
then
yl = m,
x
II.
ft)
or
= mx +
Q.E.D.
Theorem
point (a,
(II)
center is
a given
a?
7/
2 an
2 $y
a2
+
?/)
 r = O.
z
Proof.
locus.
First step.
Assume
that P(x,
is
Second
condition
step.
is
ft)
PC = r.
By
(IV), p. 24,
Third
step.
PC = V(a? .'.
a)
+ (y 2
/?)
V(re
a)
+ (y
circle
/2)
= r.
Q.E.D.
is
(II).
whose center
the origin
The following
by an equation of the second degree in which the terms of the second degree of the sum of the squares of x and y.
in
52
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
28. Locus of an equation. The preceding sections have illustrated the fact that a locus problem in Analytic Geometry leads
an equation in the variables x and y. This equation found or being given, the complete solution of the been having locus problem requires two things, as already noted in the first
at once to
number of points the whose coordinates satisfy given equation, and through which the locus therefore passes.
2.
section (p. 44) of this chapter, namely, 1. To draw the locus by plotting a sufficient
To
is,
to determine
properties of the curve. These two problems are respectively called : 1. Plotting the locus of an equation (second
fundamental
problem).
2. Discussing an equation (third fundamental problem). For the present, then, we concentrate our attention upon some given equation in the variables x and y (one or both) and start out with the definition
:
locus of an equation in two variables representing coordinates the curve or group of curves passing through all points whose coordinates satisfy that equation,* and through such points only.
is
The
From
theorem
is
at
once apparent
Theorem
be
etc.),
* that
any points.
satisfied
For coordinates are real numbers, and the form of the equation may be such by no real values of x and y. For example, the equation
#2 + 7/2+1=0
is
(or zero),
when x and y are real numbers, a? 2 and y 2 are necessarily positive and consequently x* + y z + 1 is always a positive number greater than or equal
to
Such an equation therefore has no locus. The 1, and therefore not equal to zero. expression "the locus of the equation is imaginary" is also used. An equation may be satisfied by the coordinates of a finite number of points only. For example, a; 2 + ?/ 3 =0 is satisfied by x=0, y = 0, but by no other real values. In this case the group of points, one or more, whose coordinates satisfy the equation, is called^ the locus of the equation.
53
We now take up in order the solution of the second and third fundamental problems.
29.
Rule
First step. Solve the given equation for one of the variables in terms of the other.*
Second
able for
step. By this formula compute the values of the variwhich the equation has been solved by assuming real
values for the other variable. Third step. Plot the points corresponding
to
the values so
determined.^
If the points are numerous enough to suggest the general shape of the locus, draw a smooth curve through the points. Since there is no limit to the number of points which may be computed in this way, it is evident that the locus may be drawn
Fourth
step.
as accurately as may be desired large number of points. Several examples will now be
by simply plotting a
sufficiently
of the
work should be
carefully noted.
Ex.
1.
2x3y + 6 =
Solution.
First step.
Solving for y,
Second
30)
step.
Thus,
if
x x
= =
1,
y y
2,
= =
+ 2 = 2f f2 + 2 = 8*.
1
,
etc.
Third step. Plot the points found. Fourth step. Draw a smooth curve
54
Ex. 2.
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
Plot the locus of the equation
y
Solution.
= z2 2x3.
table of
First step.
The equation as given is solved for y. Computing y by assuming values of x, we find the
65
if
= x =
x
;
1,
y
y
3,
= =
y
lG
=
9
vl6 
18
V 11,
4.6,
an imaginary number
if
=
1,
Vl6 +
etc.
1=
Third step. Plot the corresponding points. Fourth step. Draw a smooth curve through these points.
PROBLEMS
1.
(a)
(b)
2y 2y
<c)
<
3x  y
2/
= 0. = 3. +5=

(p)
(q)
0.
(
d)
= 4 *2
r)
(s)
77
S)
(h)
(i)
+ ^  Qy ~ *y = *~8. 4x = ^ + 8 <w
< U)
"2
1G
v ( >
'
(3)4x^7/3.
(k)
4x =
3
2/
_^ X)?y==
l 1
1.
+ x2
'
(m) y
(n)
(o)
= x3  x. = x3x25. x 2 + y 2 = 4.
7y
+
2
,,
g=
1
2
2/
2.
(a)
Show
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
x2
(g)
4x 2 +
(h)
(i) (j)
2,2
+ 40.
2/2
+
2
2/
?/
sum
of squares
and reason
as in the foot
x note on
30.
p. 52.
Principle of comparison. In Ex. 1, p. 53, and Ex. 3, p. 54, of the locus, that is, discuss the equa
by making use of the formulas (I) and (II), p. 51. The method is important, and is known as the principle of comparison.
56
The nature of
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
the locus of a given equation may be determined a general known equation, if the latter becomes with comparison by identical with the given equation by assigning particular values to
its coefficients.
The method
following
of
is
explained in the
Rule. First step. Change the form* of the given equation (if necessary) so that one or more of its terms shall be identical with one or more terms of the general equation.
Second step. Equate coefficients of corresponding terms in the two equations, supplying any terms missing in the given equation with zero coefficients.
Third step. Solve the equations found in tfye second step for the values^ of the coefficients of the general equation.
Ex.
1.
Show
that
2x
3y+6=0
is
(Fig., p. 53).
Solution.
(1)
First step.
(I), p.
61,
(1)
2.
by solving
for y,
y=fx +
Second
step.
are
now
identical.
Equating
coefficients of x,
(3)
m=f
Equating constant terms,
6
(4)
= 2.
Third step. Equations (3) and (4) give the values of the coefficients m and 6, and these are possible values, since, p. 27, the slope of a line may have any real value whatever, and of course the ordinate b of the point There(0, 6) in which a line crosses the Faxis may also be any real number.
fore the equation
(0, 2)
2x3y + 6 =
to f
Q.E.D.
" of the * This transformation is called " putting the given equation in the form general equation. tThe values thus found may be impossible (for example, imaginary) values. This may indicate one of two things, that the given equation has no locus, or that it cannot be put in the form required.
57
Show
x2
p. 54).
y2
+ 6x16 =
a circle (Fig.,
Solution.
First steg.
(II), p. 51,
(6)
x2
2/
 2 ax  20y + a 2 + p of (5)
r2
= 0.
two terms,
and
(6) agree,
and
y2 Second
.
step.
Equating
coefficients of x,
(7)
 2 a = Q.
Equating
coefficients of y,
(8)
2 = 0.
Equating constant terms,
2
(9)
 r2 =  16.
Third
step.
From
(7)
and
(8),
3,
/3
= =
0.
r,
we
find
25, or r
Since a,
circle
/3,
may
is
(5) is
whose center
(3,
0)
5.
PROBLEMS
1. Plot the locus of each of the following equations. Prove that the locus a straight line in each case, and find the slope m and the point of intersection with the axis of y, (0, 6).
(a)
is
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
6 = 0. + 8 = 0. xf 2y = q 5x 6y 5 = 0. x  f y  I = 0. ?  y   1 = 0.
2x
f
Ans.
Ans.
4ns.
3y
Ans.
.Ana.
Ana.
Ans. Ans.
=
6.
(g)
(h)
7 x  8 y = 0.  f y   = 0. fx
m = , 6 = 0. m = f, 6 =  1&.
58
2.
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
Plot the locus of each of the equations following, and prove that the a circle, finding the center (a, /3) and the radius r in each case.
i6
locus
(a)
is
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
x2 + 2/2 _ x2 + 2/ 2 x2 + y 2 x2 + 2/ 2 + x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 + x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 
= o. = 0. 25 = 0. 4x = 0. 8 y = 0. 4x  8y = 0. 6x + 4y  12 = 0. 4x + 9y   = 0. 3x2 + 3?/ 2  6x  8y = 0.
49
is
Ans. Ans.
.4ns.
(a, 0) (a,
(a,
(a,
.4ns.
/3)
4ns. (a, 4ns. (or, Ans. (a, Ans. (a, 4ns. (a,
= (0, 0); r = 4. = (0, 0); r = 7. ft = (0, 0) r = 5. = ( 2, 0); r = 2. 0) = (0, 4); r = 4. 0) = ( 2, 4); r = V20.  2); r = 5. 0) = (3, = (2,  f); r = 5. = (1,); r = f
)
;
/3)
/3)
illustrate cases in
may
3.
completely solved by analytic methods, since the loci be easily drawn and their nature determined.
axes
Find the equation of the locus of a point whose distances from the are in a constant ratio equal to f Ans. The straight line 2 x 3 y = 0. 2t v 'Su.
4. Find the equation of the locus of a point the sum of whose distances from the axes of coordinates is always equal to 10. ?vo Ans. The straight line x + y 10 = 0.
5.
A point
(3,
from
locus
0)
6x +
4j/
= 0, 6x + 4y13=0.
from the axes of coor
A point
dinates.
moves so as
+ y = 0, x
= 0.
7.
moves so as to be always equidistant from the straight lines and y + 5 = 0. Find the equation of the locus and plot. = 0, x + y + I = Q. Ans. The perpendicular straight lines
A point
xy9
Find the equation of the locus of a point the sum of the squares of whose distances from (3, 0) and (3, 0) always equals 68. Plot the locus.
8.
Ans. The
9.
circle
x2
+ y 2 = 25.
tances from
Find the equation of the locus of a point which moves so that its disPlot to 2. (8, 0) and (2, 0) are always in a constant ratio equal the locus. Ans. The circle x2 + y2 = 16.
10.
is
A point moves so that the ratio of its distances from (2, 1) and
.
4, 2)
always equal to
plot.
3x 2
32/
24x4z/ =
0.
59
I
is
In the proofs of the following theorems the choice of the axes coordinates is left to the student, since no mention is made
In such cases
A point moves so
Show
that the
sum
of
its
distances from
line.
two perpendicular
lines,
lines is constant.
Hint.
is
a straight
the equation
x + y = constant.
12. A point moves so that the difference of the squares of its distances from two fixed points is constant. Show that the locus is a straight line. Hint. Draw XX' through the fixed points, and Y Y' through their middle point. Then the fixed points may he written (a, 0), ( a, 0), and if the "constant difference " be denoted by k, we find for the locus 4 ax = k or 4 ax = k.
13. A point moves so that the sum of the squares two fixed points is constant. Prove that the locus is a
Hint.
of its distances
circle.
from
12.
is
14. point moves so that the ratio of its distances constant. Determine the nature of the locus.
from two
fixed points
Ans.
line if it
A
is.
Theorem.
the
form of a product of
variable factors equal to zero, the locus is found by setting each factor equal to zero and plotting the locus of each equation separately*
15.
Draw
the locus of
Factoring,
4 x2
9 y*
= 0.
Solution.
(1)
(2x
lines
2x3y = 0, 2x + 3y = 0.
Proof.
1.
(xi,
yi)
which satisfy
(1)
witt
For
(4)
if
60
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
when one
of the factors
is
zero.
Hence
2xl
and therefore
or
(xi, ?/i) satisfies (2)
8y1 = 0,
;
2 xi
(xi, y\) satisfies (3).
(xi, ?/i)
(I).
f
3 yi
0,
and therefore
2.
lie
point
on either of the
line 2
lines defined
by
(2)
and
on the locus of
For
if (xi, ?/i) is
on the
3y
0,
then (Corollary,
(5)
p. 46)
2xi32/i
0.
first
3 y{) (2 Xi f 3 yi) also vanishes, Hence the product (2 Xi factor is zero, and therefore (xi, yi) satisfies (1).
since
by
(5)
the
(3),
Therefore every point on the locus of (1) is also on the locus of and conversely. This proves the theorem for this example.
16.
(2)
and
Q.E.D.
Show
x2
straight lines,
(a)
that the locus of each of the following equations and plot the lines.
(j)
is
a pair of
(b) 9 X*
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
?/
17.
Show
4.x2
no locus according
+ Bx + C = is a pair asA^B2
f
of parallel lines, a
AC
is positive,
18.
Show
Bxy + Cy 2 A=
is
2
a pair of intersecting
AC
is
positive, zero,
Discussion of an equation. 31. Third fundamental problem. The method explained of solving the second fundamental prob.
lem gives no knowledge of the required curve except that it passes through all the points whose coordinates are determined
as satisfying the given equation. Joining these points gives a Serious errors may be curve more or less like the exact locus.
Gl
in this way, however, since the nature of the curve between successive points plotted is not determined. This objection two any is somewhat obviated by determining before plotting certain prop
the locus by a discussion of the given equation now to be explained. The nature and properties of a locus depend, upon the form of its equation, and hence the steps of any discussion must depend
erties of
In every case, however, the folbe should answered. lowing questions 1. Is the curve a closed curve or does it extend out infinitely far?
2.
The method
is
illustrated in the
following examples.
Ex.
(1)
1.
42/
= 16.
First step.
Solving for
x,
V4 
2/2.
Second step. Assume values of y and compute x. This gives the Third step. Plot the points of the table. Fourth step. Draw a smooth curve through these points.
X
table.
62
2.
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
To determine
:
the
to the axes
we proceed
it
as
follows
The equation (1) contains no odd powers of x or y ten in any one of the forms
(3)
(4)
(5)
hence
may
be writ
replacing
(x, y}
by
(x,
x,
y)
replacing
replacing
(x, y)
(x, y)
by (by (
x, y)
y).
The transformation of (1) into (3) corresponds in the figure to replacing each point P(x, y) on the curve by the point Q(x, But the points P y). and Q are symmetrical with respect to XX', and (1) and (3) have the same locus (Theorem III, p. 52). Hence the locus of (1) is unchanged if each point is changed to a second point symmetrical to the first with respect to XX'.
Therefore the locus
is
to the axis
of
x.
Similarly
(5),
from
and from
The
Ex.
(6)
locus
2.
is
called an ellipse.
y2_4 x +
Discuss the equation.
Solution.
i5
= o.
First step.
if
have to be extracted
(7)
we
Solve the equation for x, since a square root would solved for y. This gives
0/
15).
63
Iince example,
j?'or
same value
if
y* only appears in the equation, positive and negative values of y of x. The calculation gives the table on p. 62.
then
y x
= 3, = I (9 +
15)
6, etc.
Third step. Plot the points of the table. Fourth step. Draw a smooth curve through these points.
Discussion.
1.
From
(7)
it
is
Hence
2.
Since
may
be written in
the
form
(x, y)
<_,) 4 <*) + 16 =
by
(x,
by replacing
to the
y).
Hence
axis of x.
is
The curve
Ex.
(8)
called a parabola.
3.
xy
Solution.
2y 4 =
0.
First step.
Solving for y,
Second
step.
Compute
y,
x.
2,
y = $ = oo. In such cases we assume values differing slightly from 2, both less and greater, as in
When
the table.
Third step. Plot the points. Fourth step. Draw the curve as in the figure in this case, the curve having two
branches.
1.
From
(9) it
The curve
nitely far to the right and left, approaching constantly the axis of x. If we solve (8) for
,
y
indefinitely.
far,
64
2.
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
The equation cannot be transformed by any one of the three substitutions
(x, y) (x, y)
into
into
(x,
 y),
y),
(x,
(x, y)
into
(
x,
 y),
way that the new equation will not have the therefore not symmetrical with respect to either axis, nor with respect to the origin.
without altering
locus.
it
in such a
is
same
The
locus
This curve
Ex. 4.
(10)
is
called
an hyperbola.
Draw
4y = x 3
X
Solution.
First step.
Solving for y,
65
Third step. Plot the points thus found. Fourth step. The points determine the curve of the
figure.
Discussion. 1. From the given equation (10), a; and y increase simultaneously, and therefore the curve extends out indefinitely from both axes. 2. In (10) there are no even powers nor constant
may
be
replacing
(x,
Hence
origin.
The
32.
locus
is
definition
If the points of a curve can be arranged in pairs which are symmetrical with respect to an axis or a point, then the curve
itself is said to
an equation for symmetry of the be replaced by (x, can y) y) throughout the equation without affecting the locus, then if (a, b) is on the locus, (a, b) is also on the locus, and the points of the latter
:
etc.
Hence
is
unaffected by replacing
y by
y throughout
its
of
x.
x throughout its If the locus is unaffected by changing x to to axis of y. the locus is with the equation, respect symmetrical
If the locus
to
x and unaffected by changing both x and y to y throughout its equation, the locus is symmetrical with respect
is
the origin.
These theorems may be made to assume a somewhat different form if the equation is algebraic in x and y (p. 10). The locus of an algebraic equation in the variables x and y is called an Then from Theorem IV follows algebraic curve.
66
Theorem V.
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
Symmetry
of
an algebraic curve.
If no odd powers
of y occur in an equation, the locus is symmetrical with respect to XX'; if no odd powers of x occur, the locus is symmetrical with
respect to YY'.
If every term is of even* degree, or every term of odd degree, the locus is symmetrical with respect to the origin.
33.
questions which enter into the discussion of an equation. 3. Is the origin on the curve ?
This question
is
settled
by
Theorem VI.
the origin
The
when
is
Proof. The coordinates (0, 0) satisfy the equation when there no constant term. Hence the origin lies on the curve (CorolQ.E.D.
lary, p. 46).
4.
What
to
Rule
First step.
determine all values of x and y which must be excluded. Solve the equation for x in terms of y, and from this
will be imaginary.
Second
step.
y for which the computed value of x These values ofy must be excluded. Solve the equation for y in terms of x, and from
of x for which the computed value These values of x must be excluded.
of y will be imaginary.
The
intercepts of a curve
the points of intersection of the curve and XX'. The intercepts of a curve on the axis of y are the ordinates of
Rule
to
Substitute
y
x
=
=
and
Substitute
and
of y.
as of even (zero) degree.
67
What
;he
an equation. Given an equation, should answered in order before plotbe following questions locus. the ing
34. Directions for discussing
1. 2.
Is the origin Is
the locus
to the
axes or the
ifjin?
3. 4.
5.
>.
V). are the intercepts? (Rule, p. 66). values of x and y must be excluded? (Rule, p. 66). Is the curve closed or does it pass off indefinitely far? ( 31,
(Theorems
IV and
What What
61).
is
called a general
given equation.
x2
Draw
the locus.
(04)
1.
2.
Since the equation contains no constant term, the origin is on the curve. The equation contains no odd powers of x; hence the locus is symmet
rical
3.
0,
we
and
find
4,
= 0, we
"
x.
Putting
(2)
68
Hence
value y 2
all
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
values of y between
is
for such a
4y
negative.
Solving for y,
(3)
=2
x
Vx 2 +
2
16.
is
Hence no value
6.
of x
is
excluded, since x
+ 16
always
positive.
From
(3),
indefinitely far
increases as
increases,
the curve
is
The curve
is
an hyperbola.
PROBLEMS
1.
the locus.
(a)
<
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
4(i)
x
(j)
(k)
(n)
(o)
Qy 2 _ x s =
92/2
o.
1/
(p)
(q)
(r)
(s)
(t)
(u)
(v)
(w)
J
(x) (y)
(z)
(l)6xy* = 0.  + 3 = 0. (m) 5x
?/ 2/
?/
2/
2. Determine the general nature of the locus in each of the following equations by assuming particular values for the arbitrary constants, but not special values, that is, values which give the equation an added peculiarity.* (a) j/2
(b)
W
(d)
(e)
= 2 mx.  2 my = m2 y2 _ ^+522xy = a2
x2 x2
.
(f )
.
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
X2
y2
(k)
(1)
&&m=
2/
26y.
zero
* For example, in (a) and (b) is a special value. ia a special value for any constant.
In
examples
69
Draw
= (xa)(*6)(xc),
(c)
(a)
(b)
(d)
6,
= c.
c.
class
in
problem 2 are
all of
the
lines
A conic
4.
fixed point
and a fixed
Show
degree in x and
Hint. Take Y Y' to coincide with the fixed line, and draw XX' through the fixed point. Denote the fixed point by (p, 0) and the constant ratio by e.
Ans.
5. (a)
(1
e2 )x2
y2
 2px + p* = 0.
4,
(b)
(c)
= 1. The conic is now called a parabola (see p. 63). The conic is now called an ellipse (see p. 62). e < 1. e > 1. The conic is now called an hyperbola (see p. 64).
0.
6.
a** 6 =
(b)
=
A
rf'i
x*yy + 2x =
0. .
(f)
(c) xz/2
 4x +
= 0.
(g)
= ^f?. x + 1
(k)
4x =
y2
35.
Points of
intersection.
If
are given intersect, the coordinates of each point of intersection must satisfy both equations when substituted in them for the
variables (Corollary, p. 46). In Algebra it is shown that all values satisfying two equations in two unknowns may be found
by regarding these equations as simultaneous in the unknowns and solving. Hence the
Rule
to
70
First step.
nates,
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
Consider the equations as simultaneous in the coordi
and
solve as in Algebra.
Second
step.
of intersection.
Notice that only real solutions correspond to common points of the two curves, since coordinates are always real numbers.
Ex.
(1)
(2)
1.
of intersection of
Solving
(1)
(3)
.
for x,
= 1y
25.
Substituting in
(7
(2),
?/2
y 25)2 +
/.
2 Eeducing, y
= 25. + 12 = 0.
4.
=3
and
4 and
3.
(3, 4).
3)
and
(1),
and the
Ex. 2.
(4) (5)
32/2
4y
= =
35,
0.
Solution.
(6)
First step.
Solving
(5)
for x2 ,
x2
Substituting in (4)
= = =
i
f2A
and reducing,
105
..
9 2/2
f
8y
0.
and
3 
/.
Substituting in
(6)
and
solving,
=
(
and
V210.
Second
are
step.
3),
(+2,
2, 3).
the locus of
(4),
(5)
the
71
2.
Ans. (6,1).
'
<0.
).(* I)
8
xyt: 20
^ nS<
5'
4) '
'
5)
10.
oX
T
ir
= ^*
=
4 ay
j
^1
G9\
Ans.
/i
9\
x2
13.
y=
8a3
L.
(2 a, a),
(2a,
a).
14.
"
9x,
^Irw.
6).
(a,
CM 0,0,
72
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
The two
X2
loci
17.
2 V 
=I
and
X2

V2
1
=4
Find the lengths of the sides and of the diagonals of the quadrilateral formed by these points. Ans. Points, ( VlO, f Ve). Sides, 2 VlO, 3 Ve. Diagonals, V94. Find the area of the triangles and polygons whose sides are the
following equations.
18.
19.
loci of the
3x + y +
x x
x
4
5,
0,
3x5y + 34 = 0, 3x2y + 1 = 0.
7,
Ans.
36.
+ 2y =
+y=
2x + y =
=x+
1.
4ns.
f.
20.
21.
0,
Ans. 12 a 2
4ns. 4ns.
14.
24.
22.
23.
xy = 0, x + y = 0, xy = a, x + y =
y
= 3x9,
= 3x +
6,
2y = x 
6,
2y = x +
4ns.
56.
24.
3x2y + 6 = 0,
25.
Find the distance between the points of intersection of the curves x2 + y 2 = 9. 4ns.
of y2
= 4x
2x + 3y +
= 0?
4ns. Yes.
26
.
2x
27.
lines
3x + y
y2
= 0,
ax + 2y3 = 0, 4ns. a = 5.
f
= 13
and y 2
3x
6.
3.
4ns.
28.
If the
3x + y
= 0,
equations of the sides of a triangle are x + 7yfll = x 3yfl = 0, find the length of each of the medians.
0,
4ns. 2 V5,
V2,
VnO.
is,
Show that the following loci intersect in two coincident points, that tangent to each other.
29.
are
30.
4y 2 + 54x16y + 29 = 0,
15 x
 8y +
11
0.
36.
Transcendental curves.
far consid
variables have appeared. socalled transcendental curves, in which the variables appealotherwise than in powers. The Eule, p. 53, will be followed.
We
y, since powers alone of the shall now see how to plot certain
73
Draw
the locus of
logio x.
Solution. Assuming values for x, y may be computed by a table of logarithms, or, remembering the definition of a logarithm, from (1) will follow
(2)
10".
(2).
also be
This
XX' is 2
YY'
1.
divisions,
is
4 divisions.
General discussion.
does not
The curve
is
74
Ex. 2.
(3)
if
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
Draw
the locus of
y
is
= sin x
I, p.
the abscissa x
Solution.
12).
of degrees,
Assuming values for x and finding the corresponding number we may compute y by the table of Natural Sines, p. 14.
if
For example,
y
It will
57. 29,
[by (3)]
be more convenient for plotting to choose for x such values that the corresponding number of degrees is a whole number. Hence x is expressed in terms of it in the table.
For example,
X
if
75
OQB may
In this
way
it is
be displaced parallel' to XX' until O falls upon C. seen that the entire locus consists of an indefinite number
General discussion.
satisfies the equation.
2.
1.
Since sin
x)=
changing signs in
(3),
y
or
?/
= sin x, = sm(x).
y) is replaced
is
unchanged
if (x,
to the origin
by ( (Theorem IV,
x,
y),
and the
p. 65).
In
x y
= 0, = sin
=
1
intercept
on the axis
of y.
Solving
(4)
(3) for x,
x
In
(4), if
= sin
y.
y=0, x = sin
nit,
n being any
integer.
Hence the curve cuts the axis of x an indefinite number of times both on the right and left of 0, these points being at a distance of it from one
another.
4. In (3), x may have any value, since any number is the circular measure an angle. In (4), y may have values from 1 to +1 inclusive, since the sine of an 1 to f 1 inclusive. angle has values only from
of
5. The curve extends out indefinitely along XX' in both directions, but is contained entirely between the lines y = + 1, y = 1. The locus is called the wave curve, from its shape, or the sinusoid, from
its
equation
(3).
PROBLEMS
Plot the loci of the following equations.
1.
y y
cosx.
7.
y y
= 21ogiox.
i
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
8.
9.
y
y y
y
= (1 + x)* = sin2x.
=
tan
10.
y y
= =
tan~ 1
x '2
.
x.
/
11.
12.
= 2cosx. = sinx +
cosx