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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 15, NO.

2, APRIL 2000

777

Sag and Tension Calculations for Overhead Transmission Lines at High Temperatures Modified Ruling Span Method
Mehran Keshavarzian and Charles H. Priebe

AbstractThe ruling span concept is widely used to calculate sags and tensions for new overhead transmission lines and for upgrading existing lines. It provides satisfactory results for a level line with relatively uniform spans at any temperature, or for any span length of a level line at low temperature. The ruling span concept may result in an unacceptable error if it is used to calculate sags and tensions in a line segment with significantly unequal spans at high temperature. This paper presents a method to calculate sags and tensions of multi-span line segments at different temperatures based on the rotational stiffness of suspension insulator strings. A simple equation, based on the parabolic approximation, is derived to calculate changes in the span lengths and conductor sags and tensions. The method follows the ruling span concept but relaxes the Fundamental assumption of the ruling span method. The accuracy of the method is compared with the more complex, nonlinear, finite element method. Index Termsoverhead line, ruling span, high temperature, sag, tension, insulator swing, conductor.

Subscripts: = The i-th span of the line section. 0 = At temperature T0 . t = At temperature T . n = Number of spans. R = Ruling span.

1 (1 0 1 01)
i i

= Longitudinal horizontal movement of a suspension clamp with a finite stiffness. = Change in the i-th span length.

I. INTRODUCTION HE ruling span formula is based on the fundamental assumption that the attachments of the conductor to suspension structures between dead-end structures are flexible enough to allow for longitudinal movement to equalize the tensions in adjacent spans to the ruling span tension [1]. In other words, the conductor at each suspension structure is supported by an element which is infinitely flexible in the longitudinal direction. If the temperature of a line segment with unequal spans is raised uniformly, conductor in each span elongates in response to the temperature change. This elongation increases the sag, thereby decreasing the tension. If the suspension insulators remained stationary (without any rotation), there would be a tension difference in adjacent spans of different lengths. However, the suspension clamps displace longitudinally to provide force resolution at each suspension clamp. The longitudinal horizontal movements of suspension clamps move the insulators from a vertical position and the horizontal component of the tension in the nonvertical insulator string resists the tension differential in the adjacent spans. This tension differential is also called the unbalanced force. The unbalanced force at the equilibrium position of the insulator string is a function of the suspension insulator rotational stiffness as well as the stiffnesses of the adjacent spans of conductor. The main objective of this paper is to present a simple method to calculate the required suspension clamp longitudinal movements and conductor sags and tensions which resolve the unbalanced force at each conductor support due to a temperature change. The distinctive feature of this method is the introduction of the horizontal force balance at each conductor support. The method, itself, is based on a simple iterative procedure without any finite element nonlinear analysis.

NOMENCLATURE = Sag. = Span length. = Length of conductor. = Length of conductor in a single dead-end span. = Slack. = Slack of a single dead-end span. = Conductor stringing temperature. = Horizontal conductor tension. = Horizontal conductor tension in a single dead-end span. = Length of suspension insulator. = Unit weight of conductor. = Conductor weight plus 1/2 weight of insulator string. = Cross sectional area of the conductor. = Span stiffness. = Suspension insulator stiffness. = Modulus of Elasticity of the conductor. = Coefficient of thermal elongation of the conductor. = Longitudinal horizontal movement of an infinitely flexible suspension clamp.

S L L T0 H H h w W A K k E 

Manuscript received January 26, 1999; revised September 30, 1999. The authors are with the Commonwealth Edison Company, P.O. Box 767, Chicago, IL 60690 USA. Publisher Item Identifier S 0885-8977(00)03506-8.

08858977/00$10.00 2000 IEEE

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II. FORMULAS A. Ruling Span Method For level spans, sag and slack in each suspension span at temperature T call be calculated from the following parabolic equations, [2], [3]: Sag Change [ i; t=Si ]T 0!T
R; t R R; t

= 8 3 (D2 0 D2 )=(3 3 S 2 ) = 8 3 (D2 0 D2 ) 3 S 2 =(3 3 S 4 ) = Change [ =S ] 0! 3 (S =S )2


i; t R i i i R T T i R i i ;t R; t R T T i

(9)

= D = (w 3 S 2 )=(8 3 H ) = D 3 (S =S )2
i; t
i R; t R; t i R i; t i; t i; t i; t i

(1)

Slack

= = L 0 S = (8 3 D2 )=(3 3 S ) = (S 3 3 w2)=(24 3 H 2 )
i R; t

( 0  01) = Change [ =S ] 0! 3 S 3 [1 0 (S =S )2 ] = 8 3 (D2 0 D2 ) 3 S 3 [1 0 (S =S )2]=(3 3 S 2 )


i R R; t R i i R R

(10) (2)

Rate of Slack
i

= =S = (8 3 D2 )=(3 3 S 2 ) = (S 2 3 w2 )=(24 3 H 2 )
i; t i i; t i R; t R n

S = S + ( 0  01 )
i; t i i i

;t

(11)

(3)

Ruling Span

3 3 = S = p(S1 + S2 + . . . + S3 ) =(S1 + S2 + . . . + S )
n

An equation for the change in the span length can also be derived from the expressions for the slacks of the two extreme conductor support conditions - - infinitely rigid and infinitely flexible. The result is Eq. 12:

(4)

For most practical situations, the above parabolic equations are accurate since sags are usually less than 5% of the span lengths, [4]. The rate of slack at temperature T can be calculated from the following equations: (Rate of Slack)i; t Where

( 0  01 ) = ( 0 ) + (H 0 H ) 3 S =(E 3 A) = (S 3 3 w2 )f1=(24 3 H 2) 0 1=(24 3 H 2 )g (12) + (H 0 H ) 3 S (E 3 A):


i i ;t i; t i; t R; t i; t i i i; t R; t R; t i; t i

= =S = (L 0 S )=S
i; t i i; t i; t R; t R

L = L [1 + (T 0 T0 ) + (H = L 3 L =L
i; t i i R; t R

0 H )=E 3 A]
(5)

S = S + ( 0  01)
i; t i i i i; t i; t i; t

;t

When the conductor temperature increases from T0 to T , sags and changes in the rates of slack of all spans within the riding span can be calculated from 1 and 9, respectively. For the line segment consisting of n spans, the movement of the conductor attachment at the first and last dead-end structure is equal to zero. In other words, both 0 and n are equal to zero. The movement of the suspension clamps at supports 1 to n 0 1 (1 to n01 ) can be evaluated from Eq. 10 or Eq. 12. It is important to note that the sum of changes in the span lengths of all spans within the ruling span should be equal to zero since the total span length (S1 + S2 + . . . : : + Sn ) will not change with changes in temperature.

Substituting for Li; t and Si; t in the rate of slack equation:

=Si = (L 0 S )=Si = [Li 3 L =L 0 S 0 ( 0  01 ) ]=Si = (L 3 L =(S 3 L ) 0 1 0 ( 0  01) =S


R; t R i i i ;t i R; t i R i i ;t

(6)

6( 0  01 ) = Change [ =S ] 0! 3 6 fS [1 0 (S =S )2 ]g = Change [ =S ] 0! 3 f(S1 + S2 + . . . : + S ) 3 + S 3 + . . .. . .. . . : + S 3 )=S 2 g = 0:0 0 (S1 2


i i ;t R; t R T T i i R R; t R T T n n R

or

R; t

=S = (L
R

R; t

0 S )=S = (L =S 0 1)
R R R; t R i; t i; t i

The rate of slack can also be calculated from Eq. 3:

6( 0  01) = (1 0 0 ) + (2 0 1 ) + . . . : + ( 0  01) = 0:0 6( 0  01) = ( 0 0 ) = 0:0


i i ;t n n i i ;t n

(13)

=S = (L 0 S )=Si = (8 3 D2 )=(3 3 S 2 ) = 8 3 D2 3 S 2 =(3 3 S 4 )


i; t i i; t R; t i R

(7)

Finally the change in the rate of slack and span length due to a change in temperature from T0 to T can be calculated from equations 8 to 11: Change [ i; t =Si]T 0!T

0 ( 0  01 )=S
i i

Change [ R; t=SR ]T 0!T (8)

The following observations can be made from a review of the ruling span equations 8 through 13: 1) The change in the span length of any span is independent of the location of the span in the line segment. However, the longitudinal horizontal movement of each suspension clamp depends on the location of the suspension insulator string within the line segment, Eq. 10. 2) The change in the span length of any span due to a temperature increase will be negative if the span length is

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larger than the ruling span and it will be positive if the span length is smaller than the ruling span. The sum of changes in span lengths of all spans larger than the ruling span (negative values) should be equal in magnitude to the sum of changes in span lengths of all spans smaller than the ruling span (positive values), Eq. 10 and Eq. 13. 3) The maximum increase in the span length due to a temperature increase will occur at span Sc = SR = . This maximum increase is equal to:

p3
R

Max. i 0 i01

) = 16 3 (D2 0 D2 )=(9p3 3 S )
;t R; t R

(14)

This span length, Sc , is defined as the critical span. When a temperature increase occurs, any span shorter than the ruling span will be subjected to a smaller increase in span length than the critical span. In addition, for any span 3, shorter than the critical span, there is a unique span, Si that, if substituted for Si , will not change the ruling span length and will be subjected to the same increase in span length for a given increase in temperature. The length of 3 , can be calculated from Eq. 15: this span, Si

3 Si

= [0S + p(4 3 S2 0 3 3 S2 )]=2


i R i

(15)

Fig. 1.

Force balance at the suspension clamp.

or

(S3 + S )2 0 S3 3 S = S2
i i i i

Hi; t

= H + K 3 (1 0 1 01)
i; t i; t i i

;t

(19) (20) (21)

where:

3 SR > Si

 S = S =p3  S
c R

Si; t Di; t

= S + (1 0 1 01)
i i i i; t

;t

4) The longitudinal suspension clamp movement is the largest when all spans larger than the ruling span are located at one end of the line segment. The suspension insulator string between the span larger and the span shorter than the ruling span will be subjected to the largest longitudinal movement. In general, for lines with spans larger than the critical span, if the spans are located in consecutive order by span length from one end to the other end of the line segment the sags calculated by the ruling span method will have the maximum errors as compare with any other arrangement of the spans. B. Modified Ruling Span Method For standard suspension insulator lengths, the longitudinal movements of the suspension clamps rotate the insulators from a vertical position and cause some tension differential in the adjacent spans. The longitudinal horizontal movements of suspension clamps due to temperature changes can be calculated from the equilibrium condition, Fig. 1:
i; t i ;t i; t i; t i ;t i ;t i ;t

= (w 3 S2 )=(8 3 H ):
i; t

1 = [(H +1 0 H ) + K 3 1 01 + K +1 3 1 +1 ] ( (16) =(K + K +1 + k )


i; t i ;t i

It should be realized that the effects of temperature and support stiffness on the conductor tension are considered separately. First, the effects of temperature on the conductor tension are calculated from the tension-temperature relationship based on infinitely rigid insulator supports. Then the differential conductor tension at each support is redistributed based on the insulator stiffness and conductor span stiffness at each side of the support. Therefore, the conductor span stiffness, Ki; t , which relates change in the horizontal conductor tension to change in the horizontal span length should be evaluated at the condition at which the force balance is required, i.e. at temperature T . In addition, the conductor span stiffness is independent of the location of the span within the ruling span section and the stiffness of the suspension insulators. Therefore, changing the stiffness of suspension insulators should not have an effect on the span stiffnesses and the span stiffnesses can be directly evaluated from the equilibrium condition of the two extreme conductor support conditions, 17. Substituting the expression for span change, Eq. i 0 i01 ;t , from Eq. 12 into Eq. 17 yields the following expressions:

Ki; t

= (H 0 H )=( 0  01)
R; t i; t i i

;t

(17)

1=K = f(S 3 3 w2)[1=(24 3 H 2) 0 1=(24 3 H 2 )] + (H 0 H ) 3 S =(E 3 A)g=(H 0 H )


i; t i i; t R; t R; t i; t i R; t i; t

ki

= W =h
i

(18)

1=K = S3 3 w2 3 (H + H )=(24 3 H + S =(E 3 A)


i; t i R; t i; t i

i; t

2 3 H2

R; t

(22)

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 15, NO. 2, APRIL 2000

1=K = (
i; t

i; t

=H

R; t

) + (
R; t

i; t

=H

i; t

) + S =(E 3 A)
i R

(23)

1=K = (2 3
R; t

=H

R; t

) + S =(E 3 A)
R; t

(24)

Where:

i; t

= (S 3 3 w2)=(24 3 H 2 )
i

For infinitely flexible suspension supports between dead-end structures, the unbalance forces are equal to zero, the conductor horizontal tensions (HR; t ) are calculated from the tension-temperature relationship, and the changes in the span lengths i 0 i01 ;t can be evaluated from Eq. 10 or Eq. 12. For infinitely rigid conductor supports, the changes in the span lengths are equal to zero; the conductor horizontal tensions (H i; t ) and sags can be evaluated as if the line were a series of n single dead-end spans. The conductor span stiffnesses at temperature T are evaluated from Eq. 17 or Eq. 23. The actual longitudinal movements of the suspension clamps at supports 1 to n 0 ( 1 to n01) can be evaluated from Eq. 16. The value of i; t depends on the value of i+1; t which is not known at the time of calculation of i; t . Therefore, an iterative procedure was adopted to calculate the longitudinal movements of the suspension clamps. i; t . For the first iteration, the initial values of i; t are assumed to be equal to i; t . The imbalance forces resulting from initial approximations of i; t are iteratively eliminated. The iterative process converges very rapidly from the initial values of i; t . It should be mentioned that the sum of changes in the horizontal span lengths, i 0 i01 ;t of all spans within the line segment must also be equal to zero. The proposed method is based on elastic conductor behavior with a constant modulus of elasticity, E , and a constant linear thermal elongation, , at all temperature/loading conditions. It can be generalized to determine conductor sags and tensions for other conductor loading conditions such as extreme wind, heavy ice, or combined ice and wind loading. It is a simple and straightforward numerical method which can easily be programmed, especially by a spreadsheet approach. Equations 10 and 16 are the focal point of this paper. The (n 0 ) equilibrium equations in terms of longitudinal movement of the conductor suspension supports, Eq. 16, are solved by using an iterative procedure rather than the standard numerical matrix method. Their usefulness and accuracy in calculating conductor sags and tensions will be demonstrated and discussed in the following two examples.

1 1 1 1

6(1 1 )

III. NUMERICAL EXAMPLES Example-1: Consider the example line used in the IEEE Task Force paper [1] which consists of 10 unequal spans of 1590 Kcmil, ACSR Lapwing conductor with a 1000-foot ruling span. The first and the last structures are dead-end structures and the nine structures in between are suspension structures with 60-inch long I-string assemblies. At normal everyday condition (50 F, no ice, no wind) the horizontal tension in the conductor in all tell spans is about 8410 lbs and the

suspension I-strings are in a vertical position. The ruling span sag at this temperature is equal to 26.63 feet. The conductor coefficient of thermal elongation and modulus of elasticity are : 2 06 = F and : 2 6 psi, respectively. When the conductor temperature increases to 212 F, the sag and tension of the ruling span can be calculated by the tension-temperature relationship. The changes in the relative slacks and span lengths can be calculated from ruling span equations 8 & 11. Table I summaries these calculations. The suspension clamps at the two sides of the 1500-foot span must move toward the 1500-foot span by 2.17 feet and 1.05 feet to equalize conductor tensions to the ruling span tension and to decrease the 1500-foot span length by approximately 3.22 feet. There are only two spans with lengths larger than the ruling span. The sum of changes in the span lengths of these two spans due to temperature change is equal to 03.86 feet which is also equal in magnitude to the sum of changes in span lengths of all other eight spans, 3.86 feet. This also indicates that if one rearranges these 10 unequal span lengths and locates the 2 spans with span lengths larger than the ruling span at one end of the line, the suspension clamp between the span larger and the span shorter than the ruling span would be subjected to the largest longitudinal movement and this movement would be approximately equal to 3.86 feet. At 212 F conductor temperature, the sags, tensions, and longitudinal horizontal movements of the conductor suspension clamps can also be calculated from the modified ruling span force balance Eqs. 16 through 23. Table I summarizes these calculations. The adequacy of the proposed method can be tested in the following two ways: Method 1: If the longitudinal horizontal movements of the conductor suspension clamps ( i; t ) provides the equilibrium force balance at each suspension clamp at temperature 212 , the line can be treated, for the purpose of calculations, as 10 single dead-end spans with span lengths equal to the span lengths at 212 F temperature, calculated by equation 20. Using the new span lengths and knowing the initial conductor tension of 8410 pounds at 50 F and increase in the length of the conductor due to temperature changes, the sag and tension for each span at 212 F temperature can be calculated from the tension-temperature relationship of the conductor. These calculated sags and tensions should be equal to the sags and tensions as calculated by Eq. 19 and Eq. 21. Method 2: The other method which call be used to verify the accuracy of Equations 16 through 23, is the finite element method. In this case, the IEEE sample line is modeled using the finite element computer program SAGSEC [5]. The results of these two methods as well as the value of sags reported in the IEEE paper [1] are also summarized in Table. Comparison of sags and tensions calculated by the proposed method, by Method-1 and by the finite element method (Method-2) are in very good agreement. The discrepancy in computed sags between the proposed method and the finite element method are less than 2% These discrepancies are believed to be

11 8 10 1

9 5 10

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SUMMARY

OF

TABLE I EXAMPLE-1 CALCULATIONS

due to the parabolic and numerical approximations included in the modified ruling span method equations. Example-2: Consider an eight span line consisting of a long 1500-foot span and seven equal 821-foot spans of 795 Kcmil, ACSR Drake conductor with a 1000-foot ruling span. This line is also studied by Seppa [6]. At 60 F unloaded condition, the horizontal tension in the conductor in all eight spans is about 5000 lbs and the suspension I-strings are in a vertical position. The ruling span sag at this temperature is equal to 27.33 feet. The conductor coefficient of thermal elongation and modulus of elasticity are 10:4554 2 1006 1= F and 10:5 2 106 psi, respectively. When the line temperature increases to 212 F, the calculated sags from the three methodsthe proposed method, Method-1, and Method-2, as well as the values of the sags reported in the Seppa paper [6], are summarized in Table II. Again, the discrepancies between the calculated sags from these methods are less than 2%. In this example, the line section consists of equal spans with the exception of the first span, which is almost twice as long as the other spans. The long span pulls all suspension insulators, creating a large longitudinal horizontal movement of the suspension clamp adjacent to the 1500-foot span. The actual horizontal movement of the suspension clamp adjacent to the

1500-foot span is approximately equal to 1.1 feet as compared to 2.7 feet as calculated from the ruling span method. This large 2.7-foot horizontal movement would create a very large unbalanced force, violating the assumption of equalization of tensions in all spans. Therefore, the ruling span method is not accurate and should not be used in a line of this type at high conductor temperature. The effects of change in the temperature from 60 F to 250 F on the span stiffnesses of the 1500-foot span, the 1000 foot ruling span, and the 821-foot span are shown in Fig. 2. At 60 F temperature, in order to decrease the span length of the 1500 and 821 foot spans by one foot, the conductor horizontal tensions should decrease by 346 lbs and 1825 lbs, respectively. However, at 212 F temperature, the required reduction in the conductor tensions are only 191 and 806 lbs. This illustrates that changes in temperature have more dramatic effects in the span stiffnesses of shorter spans than in those of longer spans.

IV. CONCLUSIONS A general procedure for the evaluation of conductor sags and tensions of a level transmission line which includes the force balance at each suspension clamp is presented. The procedure

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TABLE II SUMMARY OF EXAMPLE-2 CALCULATIONS

APPENDIX The detailed procedures for obtaining Eqs. 8 through 12 are discussed in this section. The change in the rate of slack of the ruling span and i-th span due to a change in temperature from T0 to T can be calculated from Eq. 6 by evaluating at temperature T and T0 : Change [ R; t =SR ]T 0!T

=SR ]@T 0 = ( LR; t 0 SR )=SR 0 (LR 0 SR )=SR = (LR; t 0 LR )=SR :


R; t

= [ R; t =SR ]@T

0 [

(A1) Change [ i; t =Si ]T 0!T


i R; t i

Fig. 2

Conductor span stiffness vs. temperature.

= [(L 3 L )=(S 3 L ) 0 1 0 ( 0 [L =S 0 1] 0 L )=S 0 ( 0  01) =S = (L 3 S =L 3 S ) 3 (L =  3 Change [ =S ] 0! 0 ( 0  01 ) =S (A2)


R i i ;t i i i i R R i R; t R R i i ;t i i R; t R T T i i ;t i

= [ i; t =Si ]@T

0 [ =S ]@ 0  01 ) =S ]
i; t i

is developed around the traditional ruling span concept but is applicable for any series of span lengths. The horizontal force balance at each conductor support is achieved by allowing movement of the conductor support. The force imbalance is iteratively eliminated to ensure static equilibrium. The procedure is simple and it can be easily incorporated into a spreadsheet computer program. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate agreement between the results of the proposed method and the more complicated finite element method. A number of qualitative conclusions, based on the derived equations, are also given in the paper.

where:

i

= (Li = (3

3 S )=(L 3 S ) 3 S 4 + 8 3 D 2 3 S 2 )=(3 3 S 4 + 8 3 D2 3 S 2 )
R R i R R i R R R

The magnitude of i which is evaluated at temperature T0 is very close to one, because the riding span sag at stringing temperature is usually less than 5% of the ruling span length. In Example-1 the values of  for the 1500-foot and 450-foot spans are 1.002 and 0.998, respectively. In addition the value of i is multiplied by the change in the rate of slack of the ruling span, which is significantly smaller than one (usually on the order of

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783

Therefore, it is reasonable to substitute i = 1. Eq. 8 is obtained by replacing i with unity in the above Eq. A2. The change in the rate of slack of ruling span and i-th span can also be evaluated in terms of sags from Eq. 7: Change [ R; t =SR ]T 0!T
= [8
R; t R R; t R

10 3 ).

In the above equation, the length of the conductor in a single dead-end span can be replaced with the span length for simplicity, In addition, Eq. A8 can also be written in terms of slack:
(i

3 D 2 =(3 3 S 2 )] 0 [8 3 D2 =(3 3 S 2 )] 2 0 D2 )=(3 3 S 2 ) = 8 3 (D


R R R

= [ R; t=SR ]@T

0 [

R; t =SR ]@T 0

0  01) = (S 3 3 w2 )f1=(24 3 H + (H 0 H ) 3 S =(E 3 A)


i ;t i R; t i; t i

i; t

0 1=(24 3 H 2 )g
R; t

(A9)

(A3)
(i

0  01 )
i

;t

= ( i; t

i; t )

+ (HR; t

0H

i; t )

3 S =(E 3 A)
i

Change [ i; t =Si ]T 0!T


R; t i R; t R

0 [ =S ]@ 0 4 2 2 2 = [8 3 D 3 S =(3 3 S )] 0 [8 3 D 3 S 2 =(3 3 S 4 )] 2 0 D2 ) 3 S 2 =(3 3 S 4 ) = 8 3 (D =S ] 0! 3 (S =S )2 (A4) = Change [


= [ i; t =Si ]@T
R i; t i i T R R i R i R; t R T T R

(A10)

ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank their colleague at ComEd, Mr. Parvez Rashid, Member IEEE, for reviewing this paper. REFERENCES
[1] Y. Motlis et al., Limitations of the Ruling Span Method for Overhead Line Conductors at High Operating Temperatures, in Report of the IEEE Task Force Bare Conductor Sag at High Temperature, IEEE/PES Winter Meeting, 1998. [2] E. S. Thayer, Computing Tensions in Transmission Lines, Electrical World Magazine, pp. 7273, 1924. [3] C. O. Boyse and N. G. Simpson, The Problem of Conductor Sagging on Overhead Transmission Lines, Journal AIEE, pt. II, vol. 91, pp. 219231, 1944. [4] One Southwire Drive30 119 Overhead Conductor Manual. Carrollton, Georgia: Southwire Company, 1994. [5] SAGSEC, , Computer Program for Sags and Tensions in Multi-Span Systems, Power Line Systems,, Madison, WI, 1997. [6] T. O. Seppa. Sags and Tension Equalization at High Temperatures. presented at 1996 Summer Power Meeting, Symposium on Thermal Rating

Substituting the value of change in the rate of slack of the i-th span from Eq. A4 into Eq. 8 and then solving for (i 0 i01);t yields the following expressions: Change [ R; t =SR ]T 0!T
(i =

0  01) = 3 [1 0 (S =S )2]
i ;t i R

Change [ R; t

3 (S =S )2 =S ] 0! 0 ( 0  01 ) =S Change [ =S ] 0! 3 S
i R I R T T i ;t R; t R T T i

(A5)

Slack of i-th span at temperature T for infinitely rigid and flexible insulator support can be calculated from the following two equations:

i; t = Li; t 0 Si

= (Si

3 w2)=(24 3 H

i; t

2)

(A6) (A7)

i; t = Li; t 0 Si; t
where:

= (Si

3 w2 )=(24 3 H 2

R; t )

Li; t = Li; t [1 + (HR; t 0 H i; t)=(E 3 A)] Si; t = Si + (i 0 i01 );t


Substituting the values of Li; t and Si; t into Eq. A7 and then solving for (i 0 i01 );t :

Mehran Keshavarzian, Member ASCE, received the B.Sc. degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Tehran, Iran. He obtained his M.Sc. and Ph.D. in structures from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1981 and 1984, respectively. He is a registered Professional Engineer (PE) in the state of California since 1986 and a registered Structural Engineer (SE) in the state of Illinois and California since 1990. He is currently senior transmission structural engineer at the Commonwealth Edison Company (ComEd) in Chicago. Mehran.Keshavarzian@ucm.com.

Li; t [1 + (HR; t 0 H i; t )=(E 3 A)] 0 Si 0 (i 0 i01 );t 3 2 2 = (Si 3 w )=(24 3 HR; t ) (L i; t 0 Si ) + Li; t 3 (HR; t 0 H i; t)=(E 3 A) 0 (i 0 i01 );t 3 2 2 = (Si 3 w )=(24 3 HR; t ) 2 3 2 2 (i 0 i01 );t = (Si 3 w )f1=(24 3 H i; t ) 0 1=(24 3 HR; t)g (A8) + (HR; t 0 H i; t ) 3 Li; t =(E 3 A)

Charles H. Priebe, Member ASCE, received his B.Sc. degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1973. He has been a registered Professional Engineer (PE) in the state of Illinois since 1979. He is currently the Technical Lead Engineer in the Transmission Line Engineering Department at the Commonwealth Edison Company (ComEd) in Chicago. His professional interests are in the application of computers and new technologies to the physical design and analysis of overhead transmission lines. Charles.H.Priebe@ucm.com.