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Petrel TIPS&TRICKS from SCM

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TruncatedGaussianAlgorithm
Rocksthattransitionfromonefaciesorfaciesassociationtothenextinaspecificorderarecommon.Examples include: Glacialdeposition

From:SignificanceoftransitionbetweenTalchirFormationandKarharbariFormationinLowerGondwana basinevolutionAstudyinWestBokaroCoalbasin,Jharkhand,India,byHNBhattacharya,Abhijit Chakraborty,andBiplabBhattacharya,inJ.EarthSyst.Sci.114,No.3,June2005,pp.275286. ProgradationalParasequencySets

From:USCSequenceStratigraphyWeb(http://strata.geol.sc.edu/logstacking.html)
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Reefs

BuildingmodelsthatreplicatethisorderlyfaciestransitionhasbeendifficultinPetrel.Analgorithmcalled TruncatedGaussiansimulationallowstheseorderedtransitionstobemodeledeasily.Thediscussionbelow demonstratestheuseofthisalgorithmontheAfricantrainingdatasetandondatarepresentingapinnaclereef. TheauthorshaveusedTruncatedGaussiansimulationonacoupleprojectsandfounditsimplertousethanthe TruncatedGaussianwithtrendsalgorigthm(availableinpreviousreleasesandstillavailable)andthatit producedbetterresultsthantheotherforthatdata.Becauseofthelimitednumberofprojectstheyhave workedusingthistool,theauthorsarenotexperts,butfeltatipsandtricksarticlewasimportanttomakeall awareofthenewtool.

TruncatedGaussiansimulationTheAlgorithm
TruncatedGaussiansimulationisastochasticalgorithm.Thismeansthatitusesaseedand,iftheseedis allowedtovary,willproduceadifferentresultuponreexecution. Primaryinputinclude: Faciesdataasapropertymodelupscaledfromafacieslog Thefaciestobemodeled Theorderthefaciesaretooccur(adjacencyinthemodel) Onevariogram(usedforallfacies) Theglobalfractionofeachfacies(tendstobedominatedbyTrendsiftheyareused)

Optionalinputdatainclude: VerticalfaciesproportionsfromtheDataAnalysisprocess. Trend(3D,2D,or1D)foreachfacies Smoothingandwhetherdataarehonoredduringsmoothing

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Figure:ParametersavailableontheTruncatedGaussiansimulationdialog.

Thealgorithmbasicallymodelstheprobabilityofthefaciesinnormalscorespaceandthenconvertsthat modeledprobabilitybacktoafaciescode.Althoughtheauthorsdontunderstandexactlyhowthealgoirthm works,wehavebeenabletopickupenoughfromthedocumentationtoeffectivelyusethetool.Our interpretationofthemodelingprocessgoessomethinglikethis(seefiguresbelow).GivenWells1and2and threestacksofcellsinbetweenthem,theprogram: 1. Checkstheprobabilityofeachfaciesandbuildsacumulativeprobabilityfunctionthattotals100%(0 10=green,10.01to40=red,and40.01to100=yellow).Actuallynormalscorevaluesof0to1are usedbutpercentsareusedinthisexample. 2. Assignstoeachfaciesthepercentatthecenterofitsportionoftheprobabilityfunctionandtheseare thevaluesthatareusedtomodelthatfacies(5forgreen,25forred,and70foryellow). 3. Buildsacontinuousmodelfromtheinputdata(probablyusingSGS). 4. Convertsthemodeledprobabilityvaluesbacktofaciesspacebycomparingthevalueinthecellto theprobabilityrangeandassigningtothatcellthefacieswhoseprobabilityrangeitlieswithin.

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Figure:Wellswithmidpointprobabilityvalues(displayedas%)thatarepassedtothemodelingprocess.Stacks ofcells(,,andofwaybetweenwells)withcontinuousprobabilityvaluesmodeled(displayedas%).The probabilityvaluesareconvertedtofacies(color)basedonwhichfaciesprobabilityrangeitsvaluefallsin.

Thisexampleisbasedononlyoneprobabilitynumberforeachfacies,thatis,notrendsorverticalproportions wereused.Theprocessgetsmorecomplexastrendsetc.areaddedbutthegeneralapproachissimilar.

AfricanModel
TheAfricandataset,commonlyusedfortraining,showshowthealgorithmworks.Themodelisfirstbuiltusing SequentialIndicatorsimulationandthenusingtheTruncatedGaussiansimulation. Figure:ThesamedatamodeledwithSequentialIndicatorsimulation(left)andTruncatedGaussiansimulation (right).Thevariogramsweremadeasalikeaspossible(sphericalleftandgaussianright).

Notethehaloofyellowfaciesaroundtheredfacies.TheorderthefacieswereinputtotheTruncatedGaussian simulationalgorithmwasGrey,Yellow,andRedandthisistheorderthefacieshadtostayinwhenmodeled becauseofhowthealgorithmworks.Becauseitisastochasticalgorithm,youwillstillgetanumberoffacies bodiesthatareunsupportedbydatabutthedatawillbehonoredinallcases.

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Figure:parametersusedtobuildtheAfricanmodelwithTruncatedGaussiansimulation.

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Thelargerthenuggetthemorefuzzyistheboundarybetweenthefacies. Figure:Modelbuiltwithnugget=.001(left)andnugget=.1(right).

PinnacleReef
InthepastithasoftenbeensaidthatPetrelisnotfriendlytomodelerstryingtobuildcarbonatemodels.Forthis reason,wehavebuiltaPinnaclereefmodelsimilarinstyletopinnaclesseenintheMichiganBasin.Sincewe didnthavedataforPinnaclereefswestudiedtheliteratureandmanufacturedourown.

StructuralFrameworkandtheMentalGeologicModel
Thehorizonsmodeledfromtopdownaresummarizedinthetablebelow.Belowarecrosssectionand3Dviews showingthehorizongeometry,pinnacleform,andlayeringusedinthemodel.Normallythereis40%to60% compactioninthecarbonates(littleornoneintheevaporates)whichcreatesadrapingeffectoverthe pinnacles.Wedidnottakethetimetobuildthiscompactionformintothemodelasitwasnotthegoalofthis study,althoughthedrapewouldhavecreatedamoreelegantandaccuratefaciesmodelatboundariesbetween reefandevaporite.LayeringwasmadeproportionalintheA2CarbonateandLowerNiagaraandmadeto followthetopintheotherzones. Theshapeofthehorizons,thelayering,andtheapproachusedtomodelfacieswerealldictatedbyourmental imageofhowthereefshouldlookandthedistributionoftherocksinthatmentalimage.Thementalmodel usedtoguidethisworkwasderivedfromworkdonebyK.J.Mesolella,K.D.Robinson,L.M.McCormick,andA.R. Ormiston,1974,CyclicdepositionofSiluriancarbonatesandevaporatesinMichiganbasin:AAPGBulletin,v.58, P.3462.Modelnumber3fromthispublicationwasused(twoperiodsofgrowthseparatedbyevaporate deposition.

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Figure:Section(left)throughthehorizonsmodeledforthePinnaclereefstudy.ReefisfoundintheNiagaraand A1Carbonatezones.A3DviewofthetopNiagarawiththecrosssectioncuttingitisshownintherightview.

Figure:Sectionshowingthelayeringusedtoguidethecorrelationsineachzone.

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Table:Listofhorizonsmodeledanddescriptionofrocklyingbeloweachhorizon.

Horizon
A2Carbonate A2Evaporite A1Carbonate A1Evaporite

Zonerockdescription
Coarsegrained,densecarbonate,unfossiliferous. Halitewithoccasionalthindolomitebedscappedby fewfeetofdenseanhydrite Densefinegrained,unfossiliferous,argillaceous, thinbeddedcarbonates. Clear,coarselycrystallinehalitethinlyinterbedded withanhydriteanddolomite,commonlycapped withafootortwoofanhydrite. Denseargillaceous,micriticcarbonate,rangingfrom massivetandolomitetograymicriticcrinoidal limestonetolightgraynodularlimestone. SameastheNiagarabutwithouthavinganyreef development(zoneaddedtoseparatethelower nonreefNiagarafromtheupperreefbearing Niagara. Baseofmodelsonorocksmodeledbeneath.

Niagara

TopLowerNiagara

BaseLowerNiagara (topClinton)

FaciesModeling
Thefaciesmodeledarelistedinthefigurebelow.Notallfacieswerefoundineachzone.Infactitwasnecessary tomodeleachzoneseparatelysothatfaciesfromonezonewouldnotblurintoazonetheydidnotbelongin. OneofthemostimportantaspectsofusingtheTruncatedGaussiansimulationalgorithmistousehorizonsor someothermeanstorestrictthemodelingareastohavejustthosefaciesthatmatchthestyle(adjacencyorder) ofthealgorithm.TheWellsectionbelowshowsthefaciesdistributionineachwellandzone.Basedonthe distributionandrelationshipofthefacies,thefollowingalgorithmswereusedtomodeleachzone: A2Carbonate A2Evaporite A1Carbonate A1Evaporite Niagara LowerNiagara TruncatedGaussiansimulation(limestoneanddolomite) SequentialIndicatorsimulation(saltandanhydrite) TruncatedGaussiansimulation(reefandcarbonate) SequentialIndicatorsimulation(saltandanhydrite) TruncatedGaussiansimulation(reefandcarbonate) Assignvalue(Interreefmud)

TheA2CarbonatecouldhavebeenmodeledwitheitherSequentialIndicatororTruncatedGaussianequally wellastherewereonlytwofaciesinthezone.

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Figure:LinecutbytheWellsectionthroughthewells(topleft),listoftheFaciesthatarebeingmodeled(top right),andtheWellsectionwithfacieslogdisplayed(bottom).

DataAnalysisverticalproportionswereusedonallzonestoassistindistributingtherock.2DTrendgridswere usedtoforcefaciestobepositionedlaterallywithrespecttothereefintheproperpercents.Thesetrendswere madetorangeinvaluefrom0to1.0.Althoughthetrendsshouldsumto1.0,noeffortwasmadetoforcethis (someplacestheysummedto.5,someplacesto1.0otherplacesto1.5).Whenaparticularfacieswasnt positionedcorrectly,itstrendwasadjustedtoincreaseordecreaseitsproportioninthatarea.Theauthorshave foundthattrendsaretheprimarytoolforpositioningtherockandcreatingthedesiredgeologiceffectwhen workingwiththisalgorithm.Inmostcases,2DGridsworkfinebutinsomecases,speciallybuilt3DGridsare neededtocreatethedesiredeffect. Becausethewellswerepreferentiallydrilledintothereefthepercentofeachfaciesinazonedidnotmatchthe modeledpercent.Thiswasexpected1)becausethemodelcoveredbothreefandnonreefareas,2)vertical proportionswereusedwhichsometimesforcethedistributionstovaryabitfromthewells,and3)trendswere
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usedwhichdramaticallyimpactthepercentofeachfacies.Needlesstosay,themodelwasworkeduntilits geologicfeatures(faciesdistributions)lookedacceptable,andmatchedthementalimageofthegeology. Figure:DataAnalysisdialogforthetworeefzones(remember,layeringissettofollowtop).

Figure:TrendsusedtomodeltheA1Carbonate(toprow):ReefRock,ReefTalus,Dolomite,Limestoneand Niagara(bottomrow):ReefRock,ReefTalus,andInterreefMud.

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Figure:FaciesmodelingparametersusedtomodeltheA1Carbonate.

Figure:Jindexsectionwitha1:1verticalexaggerationshowingthefinalfaciesmodel.

Figure:Iindexsection(topleft,5:1),Jindexsection(topright,5:1),Kindex(bottomleft,throughA1 Carbonate),and3Dviewofreefrockandtalus(bottomright5:1),allshowingthefinishedmodel.

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Experiments
Someexperimentsweremadetoseewhattheeffectwouldbeiftrendswerenotused,iftheSequential Indicatorsimulationalgorithmwasusedwiththesametrends,andifthereefsandtheintermediateevaporate wereallmodeledasonezone.Thefiguresbelowshowthesescenarioscomparedtothebestcasemodel.It wasfoundthatforthisdata,SISandTGScouldbothbeusedtoproduceacceptableresultsbutthatthetrends weremorerigorouslyfollowedwithTGS. Figure:ModelsbuiltwithTruncatedGaussiansimulation:withouttrends(left)andwithtrends(right).

Figure:Modelsbuiltwithtrends:SequentialIndicatorsimulation(left)andTruncatedGaussiansimulation (right).TrendstendtobehonoredmorerigorouslywithTruncatedGaussiansimulationbutbothproduce acceptableformswiththisdata.

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Figure:ModelsbuiltwithSequentialIndicatorsimulation:onezonefromtopA1CarbonatedowntoBase Niagara(left)andseparatezones(right).

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