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TITLE OBJECTIVE THEORY

: Brinell Hardness Test : To determine the hardness of materials using Brinell hardness test :

The Brinell hardness test was one of the most widely used hardness tests with a fixed load that its indentation is proportional to the materials hardness. Hardness is a measure of a materials resistance to localized plastic deformation. By varying the test force and ball size, nearly all metals can be tested. Brinell hardness values are considered test force independent as long as the ball size/test force relationship is the same. The Brinell number, normally ranges from HB 50 to HB 750 for metals. The depth or size of the resulting indention is measured, which in turn is related to a hardness number; the softer the material, the larger and deeper is the indention, and the lower the hardness index number. Hardness test is performed more frequently than other mechanical test because it is simple, inexpensive and most important, its nondestructive test. The BHN is calculated according to the following formula:

Where, HB F D d

= Brinell hardness number = Imposed load (kg) = Diameter of the spherical indenter (mm) = Diameter of resulting indenter impression (mm)

From Brinell hardness test, another mechanical properties of material will be obtained, which is tensile strength, Tensile strength = (3.45 x HB) MPa Or Tensile strength = (500 x HB) psi APPARATUS : i. ii. iii. A Brinell desktop device. Mild Steel and Aluminium plate. Measurement apparatus (ruler, caliper, divider, etc)

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE : 1. Winded up pressure in the pressure cylinder until the screw rise about 5cm. 2. Replaced the pressure plate with Brinell test unit (10mm steel ball). 3. Screwed the lower plate in position. 4. Positioned the steel test piece on the lower pressure plate, so that the center of the steel ball is at least 20mm from the edge. 5. Winded up the pressure to 10kN slowly. 6. Hold the load pressure for about 15 seconds. 7. Measured the diameter of the indentation using the magnifying lens. 8. The experiment using the other test pieces were repeated. 9. The tensile strength of the specimens are calculated. RESULTS Material Diameter of Brinell hardness Tensile strength of the Indentation,d(mm) number, HB(N/mm2) material (MPa) Stainless steel 5.40 19.34 Copper 4.26 6.76

DISCUSSION i.

: A 10mm diameter Brinell hardness indenter produced an indentation 2.50mm diameter in a steel alloy when a load of 1000kg was used. Computer the HB of this material. HB = 2(1000 x 10N) (3.142)(10mm)[10mm (10mm2 2.5mm2)1/2] = 20000N / 9.977 = 2004.58 N/mm2

ii.

What will be the diameter of an indentation to yield a hardness of 300 HB when 500kg load is used? 300 HB = 300 300 300 300 = = = = 2(500x10N) (10)[10mm (102 d2)1/2] 10000 10 [10 (10 d)] 10000 100 10 (10 d) 10000 100 100 + 10d 10000 10d

10 d = 10000 300 d = 33.33 10(3.142) d = 10.47mm

CONCLUSION :

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