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Jos Rizal

Jos Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alono Realonda (18611896), was a Filipinonationalist, writer and reformist. He is widely considered the greatest national hero of the Philippines. He was the author of Noli Me Tangere, El Filibusterismo and a number of poems and essays. He was executed on December 30, 1896 by the then colonial government as a revolutionary. Jos Rizal also had Spanish and Japanese ancestors. His grandfather and father of Teodora was a half Spaniard engineer named Lorenzo Alberto Alonzo. His maternal great-greatgrandfather was Eugenio Ursua, a descendant of Japanese settlers. In 1849, then Governor-General of the Philippines Narciso Clavera, issued a Decree by which native Filipino and immigrant families were to adopt Spanish surnames from a list of Spanish family names. Although the Chino Mestizos were allowed to hold on to their Chinese surnames, Lam-co changed his surname to the Spanish "Mercado" (market), possibly to indicate their Chinese merchant roots. Jos's father Francisco adopted the surname "Rizal" (originally Ricial, the green of young growth or green fields), which was suggested to him by a provincial governor, or as Jos had described him, "a friend of the family". However, the name change caused confusion in the business affairs of Francisco, most of which were begun under the old name. After a few years, he settled on the name "Rizal Mercado" as a compromise, but usually just used the original surname "Mercado". Jose Rizal was born to a wealthy family in Calamba,Laguna and was the seventh of eleven children. He was born on June 19, 1861

to Francisco Engracio Rizal Mercado y Alejandro (18181897) and Teodora Morales Alonso y Quintos (1827-1911); whose family later changed their surname to "Realonda" His parents were prosperous farmers who were granted lease of a hacienda and an accompanying rice farm by the Dominicans. Rizal was the seventh child of their eleven children namely: Saturina (Neneng) (1850 1913), Paciano (18511930), Narcisa (Sisa) (18521939), Olympia (18551887), Lucia (18571919), Mara (Biang) (18591945), Jos Protasio (18611896), Concepcin (Concha) (18621865), Josefa (Panggoy) (18651945), Trinidad (Trining) (18681951) and Soledad (Choleng) (18701929). Upon enrolling at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, Jos dropped the last three names that make up his full name, on the advice of his brother, Paciano Rizal, and the Rizal Mercado family, thus rendering his name as "Jos Protasio Rizal". Of this, Rizal writes: "My family never paid much attention [to our second surname Rizal], but now I had to use it, thus giving me the appearance of an illegitimate child!" Rizal first studied under Justiniano Aquino Cruz in Bian, Laguna before he was sent to Manila. As to his father's request, he took the entrance examination in Colegio de San Juan de Letran and studied there for almost three months. The Dominican friars asked him to transfer to another school due to his radical and bold questions. He then enrolled at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila and graduated as one of the nine students in his class declared sobresaliente or outstanding. He continued his education at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila to obtain a land surveyor and assessor's degree, and at the same time at the University of Santo Tomas where he did take up a preparatory course in law. Upon learning that his mother was going blind, he decided to switch to medicine at the medical school of Santo Tomas specializing later inophthalmology. Without his parents' knowledge and consent, but secretly supported by his brother Paciano, he traveled alone to Madrid, Spain in May

1882 and studied medicine at the Universidad Central de Madrid where he earned the degree, Licentiate in Medicine. Also, he also attended medical lectures at the University of Paris and the University of Heidelberg. In Berlin he was inducted as a member of the Berlin Ethnological Society and the Berlin Anthropological Society under the patronage of the famous pathologist Rudolf Virchow. Following custom, he delivered an address in German in April 1887 before the Anthropological Society on the orthography and structure of the Tagalog language. He left Heidelberg a poem, "A las flores del Heidelberg", which was both an evocation and a prayer for the welfare of his native land and the unification of common values between East and West. At Heidelberg, the 25-year-old Rizal, completed in 1887 his eye specialization under the renowned professor, Otto Becker. There he used the newly invented ophthalmoscope (invented by Hermann von Helmholtz) to later operate on his own mother's eye. From Heidelberg, Rizal wrote his parents: "I spend half of the day in the study of German and the other half, in the diseases of the eye. Twice a week, I go to the bierbrauerie, or beerhall, to speak German with my student friends." He lived in a Karlstrae boarding house then moved to Ludwigsplatz. There, he met Reverend Karl Ullmer and stayed with them in Wilhelmsfeld, where he wrote the last few chapters of Noli Me Tngere.

Juan Luna
Juan Luna y Novicio (October 23, 1857 December 7, 1899) was a Filipinopainter, sculptor and a political activist of the Philippine Revolution during the late 19th century. He became one of the first recognized Philippine artists.

His winning the gold medal in the 1884 Madrid Exposition of Fine Arts, along with the silver win of fellow Filipino painter Flix Resurreccin Hidalgo, prompted a celebration which was a major highlight in the memoirs of members of the Propaganda Movement, with the fellow Ilustrados toasting to the two painters' good health and to the brotherhood between Spain and the Philippines. Regarded for work done in the manner of the Spanish, Italian and French academies of his time, Luna painted literary and historical scenes, some with an underscore of political commentary. His allegorical works were inspired with classical balance, and often showed figures in theatrical poses. Born in the town of Badoc, Ilocos Norte in the northern Philippines, Juan Luna was the third among the seven children of Don Joaquin Luna de San Pedro y Posadas and Doa Laureana Novicio y Ancheta. In 1861, the Luna family moved to Manila and he went to Ateneo Municipal de Manila where he obtained hisBachelor of Arts degree. He excelled in painting and drawing, and was influenced by his brother,Manuel Luna, who, according to Filipino patriot Jos Rizal, was a better painter than Juan himself. Luna enrolled at Escuela Nautica de Manila (now Philippine Merchant Marine Academy) and became a sailor. He took drawing lessons under the illustrious painting teacher Lorenzo Guerrero of Ermita, Manila. He also enrolled in the Academy of Fine Arts (Academia de Dibujo y Pintura) in Manila where he was influenced and taught how to draw by the Spanish artist Agustin Saez. Unfortunately, Luna's vigorous brush strokes displeased his teacher and Luna was discharged from the Academy. However, Guerrero was impressed by his skill and urged Luna to travel to Spain to further pursue his studies. In 1883 Luna started the painting demanded of him by the Ayuntamiento. In May 1884, he shipped the large canvas of the Spoliarium to Madrid for the year's Exposicin Nacional de Bellas Artes. He was the first recipient of the three gold medals awarded in the exhibition and Luna gained recognition among

the connoisseurs and art critics present. On June 25, 1884, Filipino and Spanish nobles organized an event celebrating Luna's win in the exhibition. That evening, Rizal prepared a speech for his friend, addressing the two significant things of his art work, which included the glorification of genius and the grandeur of his artistic skills. Luna developed a friendly relationship with the King of Spain and was later commissioned by the Spanish Senate to paint a large canvas which was called the La Batalla de Lepanto (The Battle of Lepanto).[3] He moved to Paris in 1885 where he opened his own studio and befriended Hidalgo. A year after, he finished the piece El Pacto de Sangre (The Blood Compact) in accordance with the agreement he had with the Ayuntamiento of Manila. Depicted in this piece was the blood compact ceremony between the Datu Sikatuna, one of the lords in Bohol island, and the Spanish conquistador Miguel Lpez de Legazpi.[4] It is now displayed in theMalacaan Palace. He also sent two other paintings in addition to the one required; the second canvas sent to Manila was a portrait of Lpez de Legazpi reconstructed by Luna from his recollection of a similar portrait he saw in the hall of the Cabildo, and the third was of Governor-general Ramn Blanco y Erenas. In 1887, Luna once again traveled back to Spain to enter in that year's Exposition two of his pieces, the La Batalla de Lepantoand Rendicin de Granada(Surrender of Granada), which both won in the exhibition. He celebrated his triumph with his friends in Madrid with Graciano Lpez-Jaena delivered Luna a congratulatory speech. Luna's paintings are generally described as being vigorous and dramatic.

With its elements of Romanticism, his style shows the influence of Delacroix, Rembrandt, and Daumier.

Mariano Ponce
Mariano Ponce (March 23, 1863 May 23, 1918), was a Filipino physician, writer, and active member of the Propaganda Movement. In Spain, he was among the founders of La Solidaridad and Asociacion Hispano-Filipino. Among his significant works was Efemerides Filipinas, a column on historical events in the Philippines which appeared in La Oceania Espaola (18921893) and El Ideal (1911 1912). He wrote Ang Wika at Lahi (1917), a discussion on the importance of a national language. He served as Bulacan's representative to the National Assembly. Ponce was born in Baliwag, Bulacan where he completed his primary education. He later enrolled at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran and took up medicine at the University of Santo Tomas. In 1881, he traveled to Spain to continue his medical studies at the Unversidad Central de Madrid. There he joined Marcelo del Pilar, Graciano Lpez Jaena,Jos Rizal and other Propagandists in an anti-Spaniard movement. This espoused Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes and reforms in the Spanish colonial authorities of the Philippines. He was the co-founder of La Solidaridad with fellow co-founder Graciano Lpez Jaena. Ponce was also the head of the Literary Section of the Asociacion Hispano-Filipina, created to aid the Propaganda Movement where he served as secretary. In La Solidaridad, his works included daily editorials on history, politics, sociology and travel. He also created himself many alias as well. His most common names are Naning, his nickname;

Kalipulako, named after Lapu-Lapu; and Tigbalang, a supernatural being in Filipino folklore. Ponce was imprisoned when the revolution broke out on August 1896 and was imprisoned for forty eight hours before being released. Fearing another arrest, he fled to France and later went to Hong Kong where he joined a group of Filipinos and FilipinoChinese, who served as the international front of the Philippine revolution. In 1898, Emilio Aguinaldo chose him to represent the First Philippine Republic. Ponce was tasked to draft a framework of the revolutionary government. In 1898, Emilio Aguinaldo selected him as a representative of the First Republic to Japan. He traveled to Japan to seek aid and purchase weapons. During his stay he met with the founder and First President of the Chinese Republic; Sun Yat-Sen. Through discussions and negotiations, Dr. Sun and Ponce became close friends. Dr. Sun introduces Ponce to a FilipinoJapanese man named Jos Ramos Ishikawa, who assists Ponce in purchasing weapons and munitions for the revolution. But the shipment did not reach the Philippines due to a typhoon off the coast of Formosa. Mariano returned to Manila with his wife, a Japanese girl named Okiyo Udanwara. In 1909, he was made director of "El Renacimiento" (The Renaissance). He also joined the "Nacionalista Partido" (National Party) and established "El Ideal" (The Perfect), the party's official organization. Ponce later ran for a seat in the Philippine Assembly and was elected assemblyman for the second district of Bulacan. Ponce wrote his memoirs, "Cartas Sobre La Revolucin" (Letters on the Revolution), he died in the Government Civil Hospital in Hong Kong, on May 23, 1918. His remains are now interred in the Cementerio del Norte, Manila.

Antonio Luna
Antonio Luna de San Pedro y NovicioAncheta (October 29, 1866 June 5, 1899), an Ilocano born in Manila, was a Filipino pharmacist and general who fought in the PhilippineAmerican War. He was also the founder of thePhilippines's first military academy, which existed during the First Philippine Republic. He was regarded as the most brilliant of the Filipino military officers during the war. Succeeding Artemio Ricarte as commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army, he organized professional guerrilla soldiers later to be known as the Luna sharpshooters. His three-tier defense, now known as the Luna Defense Line, gave the American troops a hard campaign in the provinces north of Manila. Antonio Luna de San Pedro y Novicio-Ancheta was born on October 29, 1866 in Urbiztondo, Binondo, Manila. He was the youngest of seven children of Joaqun Luna de San Pedro, from Badoc, Ilocos Norte, and Spanish mestizaLaureana Novicio-Ancheta, from Luna, La Union (formerly Namacpacan). His father was a traveling salesman of the products of government monopolies. His older brother, Juan, was an accomplished painter who studied in the MadridEscuela de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Another brother, Jos, became a doctor. At the age of six, Antonio learned reading, writing, and arithmetic from a teacher known as Maestro Intong. He memorized the Doctrina Christiana (catechism), the first book printed in the Philippines. Common Catholic vocal prayers were all included in the book. The primary goal of the book was to propagate the Christian teachings in the Philippines.

He initially studied at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1881. He went on to study literature and chemistry at the University of Santo Tomas, where he won first prize for a paper in chemistry titled Two Fundamental Bodies of Chemistry. He also studied pharmacy, swordsmanship, fencing, and military tactics, and became a sharpshooter. On the invitation of his brother Juan in 1890, Antonio was sent by his parents to Spain, to acquire a licentiate (at Universidad de Barcelona) and doctorate (at Universidad Central de Madrid) in Pharmacy.

Graciano Lpez Jaena

Graciano Lpez Jaena (December 18, 1856-January 20, 1896) was a journalist, orator, revolutionary, and national hero from Iloilo, the Philippines, who is well known for his newspaper, La Solidaridad. Philippine historians regard Lpez Jaena, along with Marcelo H. del Pilar and Jos Rizal, as the triumvirate of Filipino propagandists. Of these three ilustrados, Lpez Jaena was the first to arrive in Spain and may have founded the genesis of thePropaganda Movement. His parents sent Lpez Jaena to Jaro to study at St. Vincent Ferrer Seminary which had been opened under the administration of Governor General Carlos Mara de la Torre y Nava Cerrada. While there, he served as a secretary to an uncle, Claudio Lpez, who was the honorary vice consul of Portugal in Iloilo. His ambition to become a physicianconvinced his parents that this was the better course of action.

Lpez Jaena sought enrollment at the University of Santo Tomas but was denied admission because the required Bachelor of Artsdegree was not offered at the seminary in Jaro. Instead he was appointed to the San Juan de Dios Hospital as an apprentice. Unfortunately, due to financial problems, he dropped out and returned to Iloilo to practice medicine. In his honor, the Jaro Plaza has been renamed the Graciano Lpez Jaena Park, where there is also a statue of him. The Graciano Lopez Jaena Foundation Inc works to continue his legacy and supports various public recognition of his life and works, such as the Dr. Graciano Lopez Jaena Poetry Contest. An Order of DeMolay Chapter, a youth fraternal group for young men originating in freemasonry, was founded around 1965 in Jaro, and named Graciano Lopez-Jaena Chapter because Lopez Jaena was the first and foremost Freemason from Jaro.