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The Developmental Stages according to Robert Havighurst Overall Idea Certain task need to be mastered at certain times of ages

s in order to mature successfully. The driving forces behind these tasks are the persons physical growth, social pressures upon him or her as well as his or her inner pressures. Developmental Tasks of Infancy and Early Childhood (ages birth to 6) Learning to walk Learning to take solid foods Learning to talk Learning to control the elimination of body wastes Learning sex differences and sexual modesty Forming concepts and learning language to describe social and physical reality Getting ready to read

Developmental Tasks of Middle Childhood (ages 6-12) Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games Building wholesome attitudes toward oneself as a growing organism Learning to get along with age-mates Learning an appropriate masculine or feminine social role Developing fundamental skills in reading, writing, and calculating Developing concepts necessary for everyday living Developing conscience, morality, and a scale of values Achieving personal independence Developing attitudes toward social groups and institutions

Developmental Tasks of Adolescence (ages 12-18) Achieving new and more mature relations with age-mates of both sexes Achieving a masculine or feminine social role Accepting ones physique and using the body effectively Achieving emotional independence of parents and other adults Preparing for marriage and family life Preparing for an economic career Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide to behavior; developing an ideology Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior Developmental Tasks of Early Adulthood Selecting a mate Achieving a masculine or feminine social role

Learning to live with a marriage partner Starting a family Rearing children Managing a home Getting started in an occupation Taking on civic responsibility Finding a congenial social group

Developmental Tasks of Middle Age Assisting teen-age children to become responsible and happy adults Achieving adult social and civic responsibility Reaching and maintaining satisfactory performance in ones occupational career Developing adult leisure-time activities Relating oneself to ones spouse as a person To accept and adjust to the physiological changes of middle age Adjusting to aging parents

Developmental Tasks of Later Maturity Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health Adjustment to retirement and reduced income Adjusting to death of a spouse Establishing an explicit affiliation with ones age group Adopting and adapting social roles in a flexible way Establishing satisfactory physical living arrangements

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