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What is the mass of a photon?

Matt Austern Scott Chase Phil Gibbs Don Koks

This question falls into two parts:

Does the photon have mass? After all, it has energy and energy is equivalent to mass.
Photons are traditionally said to be massless. This is a gure of speech that physicists use to describe something about how a photons particle-like properties are described by the language of special relativity. The logic can be constructed in many ways, and the following is one such. Take an isolated system (called a particle) and accelerate it to some velocity v (a vector). Newton dened the momentum p of this particle (also a vector), such that p behaves in a simple way when the particle is accelerated, or when its involved in a collision. For this simple behaviour to hold, it turns out that p must be proportional to v. The proportionality constant is called the particles mass m, so that p = mv. In special relativity, it turns out that we are still able to dene a particles momentum p such that it behaves in well-dened ways that are an extension of the Newtonian case. Although p and v still point in the same direction, it turns out that they are no longer proportional; the best we can do is relate them via the particles relativistic mass mrel . Thus p = mrel v. When the particle is at rest, its relativistic mass has a minimum value called the rest mass mrest . The rest mass is always the same for the same type of particle. For example, all protons have identical rest masses, and so do all electrons, and so do all neutrons; these masses can be looked up in a table. As the particle is accelerated to ever higher speeds, its relativistic mass increases without limit. It also turns out that in special relativity, we are able to dene the concept of energy E , such that E has simple and well-dened properties 1

just like those it has in Newtonian mechanics. When a particle has been accelerated so that it has some momentum p (the length of the vector p) and relativistic mass mrel , then its energy E turns out to be given by E = mrel c2 , and also
4 E 2 = p2 c2 + m2 rest c .


There are two interesting cases of this last equation: 1. If the particle is at rest, then p = 0, and E = mrest c2 . 2. If we set the rest mass equal to zero (regardless of whether or not thats a reasonable thing to do), then E = pc. In classical electromagnetic theory, light turns out to have energy E and momentum p, and these happen to be related by E = pc. Quantum mechanics introduces the idea that light can be viewed as a collection of particles: photons. Even though these photons cannot be brought to rest, and so the idea of rest mass doesnt really apply to them, we can certainly bring these particles of light into the fold of Equation (1) by just considering them to have no rest mass. That way, Equation (1) gives the correct expression for light, E = pc, and no harm has been done. Equation (1) is now able to be applied to particles of matter and particles of light. It can now be used as a fully general equation, and that makes it very useful.

Is there any experimental evidence that the photon has zero rest mass?
Alternative theories of the photon include a term that behaves like a mass, and this gives rise to the very advanced idea of a massive photon. If the rest mass of the photon were non-zero, the theory of quantum electrodynamics would be in trouble primarily through loss of gauge invariance, which would make it non-renormalisable; also, charge conservation would no longer be absolutely guaranteed, as it is if photons have zero rest mass. But regardless of what any theory might predict, it is still necessary to check this prediction by doing an experiment. It is almost certainly impossible to do any experiment that would establish the photon rest mass to be exactly zero. The best we can hope to do is place limits on it. A non-zero rest mass would introduce a small damping factor in the inverse square Coulomb law of electrostatic forces. That means the electrostatic force would be weaker over very large distances.

Likewise, the behavior of static magnetic elds would be modied. An upper limit to the photon mass can be inferred through satellite measurements of planetary magnetic elds. The Charge Composition Explorer spacecraft was used to derive an upper limit of 6 1016 eV with high certainty. This was slightly improved in 1998 by Roderic Lakes in a laboratory experiment that looked for anomalous forces on a Cavendish balance. The new limit is 7 1017 eV. Studies of galactic magnetic elds suggest a much better limit of less than 3 1027 eV, but there is some doubt about the validity of this method.

[1] E. Fishbach et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 514517, 25 July 1994. [2] Chibisov et al., Sov. Ph. Usp. 19, 64, 1976.