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# Mass Haul Diagram The definition : A graphical representation of the cumulative amount of earthwork moved along the centreline

and distances over which the earth and materials are to be transported.

The basic concept : Used to compare the economies of the various method of earthwork distribution on road or railway construction schemes. With the combined use of mass haul diagram plotted directly below the longitudinal ection of survey centre-line, one can find : a. b. c. d. The distances over which cut and fill will balance. Quantities of material to be moved and the direction of movement. Areas where earth may have to be borrowed or wasted and the amount involved. The best policy to adopt to obtain the most economic use of plan.

Concept mass haul : There are : i. Overhaul ii. The authorized hauling of excavation beyond the specified free haul distance.

## Free haul Average haul for project

iii.

Overhaul Exceptions a. Overhaul is paid for when you exceed the average or free haul distance. b. Overhaul is only paid if you are outside of the balance points. c. This means that if your average or free haul distance is exceeded within the balance point, you do not have to pay for overhaul.

iv.

When using borrow, the dead haul is not included in calculations. The mass is entered into the diagram where it enters into the project. This is represented by a vertical line.

Calculation Mass Haul Diagram : Haul : haul volume x average haul distance /100 stn.m Freehaul : freehaul volume x freehaul distance /100 stn.m Overhaul : overhaul volume (average overhaul distance freehaul distance) /100 stn.m

Process of Mass Haul Diagram : o Diagrammatic representation of earthwork volumes along a linear profile. Horizontal stationing is plotted along the X-axis. Net earthwork values are plotted along the Yaxis. o An earthwork profile is a plot of the net earthwork along a roadway or airstrip. o Net cut values are plotted above the X-axis (positive Y values). Net fill values are plotted below the X-axis (negative Y values). Present a picture of the earthwork requirements. o Upward sloping curves indicate (rising left to right) indicate to cut. Downward sloping (falling left to right) curves occur in a fill section. o Peaks indicate a change from cut to fill and valley occur when the earthwork changes from fill to cut.

o The accumulated volume of earthwork at the horizontal axis (Y=0) is 0. When a horizontal line intersects two or more points along the curve, the accumulated volumes at those points are equal. A negative value at the end of the curve indicates that borrow is required to complete the fill. A positive value at the end of the curve indicates that a waste operation will be the net result.

o To construct the Mass Haul Diagram manually: a. Compute the net earthwork values for each station, applying the appropriate shrink factor. b. Net cuts have a positive value, net fills have a negative value. c. The value at the first station (origin) = 0. d. Plot the value of each succeeding station which equals the cumulative value to that point, i.e., the value at i = net cut/fill a+b+c+...i

Normally earthworks operation= Cut for the High and Fill for the Low

Characteristic of mass curve o Rising section of the mass curve indicates areas where excavating exceeds fill, whereas falling sections indicate where fill exceeds excavation. o Steep slopes reflect heavy cuts and fills, while flat slopes indicate areas for small amount of earthwork. o In difference in ordinates between any two points indicate net excess of excavation over embankment or vise versa. o Any horizontal line dawn to intersect two points within the same curve indicates a balance of excavation (cut) and embankment (fill) quantities between two points. o Point of zero slope represent points where roadway goes from cut to fill or from fill to cut. o The highest or the lowest points of the mass haul diagram represents the crossing point between the grade line (roadway level) and natural ground level.