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Chapter 3 Cell Structures and their Functions Cell Structures

Cells highly organized units containing organelles, which perform specific functions Nucleus contains genetic material Cytoplasm living material surrounding the nucleus Functions of the Cell: 1. Basic unit of life 2. Protection and Support 3. Movement 4. Communication 5. Cell Metabolism and Energy Release 6. Inheritance Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) - outermost component of a cell - encloses the cytoplasm and the cell - forms the boundary between materials inside and outside the cell - plays a role in communication between cells Extracellular Substances substances outside the cell Intracellular Substances substances inside the cell Phospholipids and Proteins major molecules that make up cell membrane The phospholipid forms a double layer of molecules: Polar hydrophilic (water loving), face the water inside and outside the cell Non-polar hydrophobic (water fearing) face away from the water Fluid-mosaic model arrangement of molecules in the cell membrane The double layer of phospholipid molecules has a liquid quality.. Cholesterol within the phospholipid membrane gives it added strength and flexibility Proteins function as membrane channels, carrier and receptor molecules , or structural support. Membrane Channels and Carrier Molecules are involved with the movement of substances through the cell membrane. Receptor Molecules part of intracellular communication system that enables cell recognition and coordination of the activities of cells.

Movement Through the Cell Membrane

Cell membranes are selectively permeable, allowing some substances, but not others, to pass into or out of the cells. Enzymes, glycogen and potassium ions are found at higher concentrations intracellulary. Na+, Ca2+, Cl- are found in greater concentrations extracellularly. Molecules pass through cell membranes in 4 ways: 1.) Directly through the phospholipid membrane 2.) Membrane Channels 3.) Carrier Molecules 4.) Vesicles

Diffusion tendency for solutes, such as ions or molecules, to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentrations. - Results from the constant random motion of all solutes in a solution *More solute particles occur in an area of higher concentration than in one of lower concentration. Ex: Smoke, Perfume, in Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Chloride ions and Urea Concentration Gradient a measure of the difference in the concentration of a solute in a solvent Osmosis diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane, from a region of higher water concentration to a lower concentration. - occurs only when the cell membrane is less permeable, selectively permeable or not permeable to solutes and a concentration gradient for water exists across the cell membrane. Osmotic Pressure force required to prevent the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane. Hydrostatic Pressure produced when the weight of the solution rises. Hypotonic Solution low solute concentration/results to swelling or bursting of RBC/water enters the cell by osmosis Isotonic Solution equal solute concentration/water moves into and out of the cell/no net water movement Hypertonic Solution high solute concentration/causes shrinkage of the RBC/water moves out of the cell by osmosis

Filtration movement of fluid through a partition containing small holes. Ex: in kidneys, blood, etc. Carrier-mediated Transport Mechanisms function to move large, water soluble molecules or electrically charged ions across the cell membrane - exhibit specificity, that is, only specific molecules are transported by the carriers 3 Kinds: Facilitated Diffusion, Active Transport, & Secondary Active Transport Facilitated Diffusion carriermediated transport process that moves substances into or out of cells from a higher to a lower concentration of that substance. *Because movement is with the concentration gradient, metabolic energy in the form of ATP is not required Ex: Glucose in most cells Active Transport carrier-mediated process that moves substances across the cell membrane from regions of lower concentrations to those of higher concentrations against a concentration agent. ATP is required. Sodium-Potassium Pump moves Na+ out of cells and K+ into cells. (3Na2K) Result is higher concentration of Na+ outside the cell and a higher concentration of K+ inside the cell. Cystic Fibrosis genetic disorder that affects the active transport of chlorine ions into cells.

Secondary Active Transport involves the active transport of one substance, such as Na+, across the cell membrane, establishing a concentration gradient Co-transport diffusing substance moves in the same direction as the transported substance Counter-transport diffusing substance moves in opposite direction as the transported substance Endocytosis uptake of material through the cell membrane by the formation of a membrane-bound sac called a vesicle Phagocytosis term often used for endocytosis when solid particles are ingested Pinocytosis cell drinking distinguished from phagocytosis in that much smaller vesicles are formed that contain liquid rather than particles Secretory vesicles membrane-bound sacs that accumulate materials for release from the cell Exocytosis - a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane

DNA influences the structural and functional characteristics of the entire organism because it directs protein synthesis Gene sequence of nucleotides providing a chemical set of instructions for making a specific protein 2 Steps in the Production of Proteins: Transcription and Translation Messenger RNA (mRNA) copy of information in the DNA Transfer RNA (tRNA) carry amino acids to the ribosome Codons groups of 3 nucleotides, code for specific amino acids. Anticodons series of 3 nucleotides of each tRNA molecule

Cell Division
Cell Division formation of 2 daughter cells from a single parent cell. *Each cell of the human body, except sex cells, contains 46 chromosomes *Sex cells have 23 chromosomes *46 chromosomes are called diploid *23 chromosomes are called haploid X Chromosome female X & Y Chromosome - male Autosomes remaining 22 pairs of chromosomes Mitosis - a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus 2 Types: 1. Genetic material within the cell is replicated/duplicated 2. Cell divides to form 2 daughter cells with the same amount and type of DNA as the parent cell

Whole Cell Activity

Cell Metabolism sum of all the chemical reactions in the cell Glycolysis breakdown of sugar glucose, by a series of reactions within the cytoplasm of the cell Aerobic Respiration occurs when oxygen is available Anaerobic Respiration occurs without oxygen and includes the conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid

Interphase the period between active cell divisions, during which DNA is replicated Chromatin thin threads that disperse the DNA through the nucleus. 4 Stages in Mitosis: 1.) Prophase chromatin condenses into chromosomes. Each chromosome consists of 2 chromatids joined at the centromere. The centrioles move to the opposite side of the cell. Nucleolus and nuclear envelope disappear 2.) Metaphase the chromosomes align in the center of the cell in association with the spindle fibers 3.) Anaphase chromatids separate to form 2 sets of identical chromosomes. Chromosomes move toward the centrioles at each end of the cell 4.) Telophase chromosomes disperse, nuclear envelopes and the nucleoli form, cytoplasm begins to divide to form two cells. Differentiation process by which cells develop with specialized structures and functions. Cellular Aspects of Aging: 1.) Cellular clock 2.) Death Genes 3.) DNA Damage 4.) Free radicals 5.) Mitochondrial damage