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Customers with
large generators
being paid Rs. 21.15
per unit for
generating their
own power . Two days before news
Copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) verified by NREL to be as efficient as 14.6% in 2006,

NANOSOLAR POWERSHEET
THE NEW DAWN OF SOLAR

http://www.popsci.com/popsci/flat/bown/2007/index.html
Solar cell Price and
production 2008=3700 MW
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ON AVERAGE AROUND THE WORLD, SUNLIGHT DELIVERS A BARREL OF OIL OF ENERGY ON EVERY SQUARE METER OF LAND EVERY YEAR

Incoming solar energy

Sri Lanka gets at


6 (kWh/m2/day)
7000kWh/year
Colombo
Efficiency Rated Life Cost per 50,000
(Lumens/Watt) (Hours) hours
Supply of
Kerosene .03 $1251
Kerosene
Incandescent Bulb 5-18 1000 $175
Light Emitting Diode
25-50 50,000 $20
(LED)
Buy power during the night
CEB TARIFF
Domestic effective from Nov 2008

Fuel Adjustment Charge 30% on all unit charges except DP & RP consumers
consuming less than 90 units per month
Residential tiered tariff
30.00X1.3=Rs39

25.00X1.3=Rs32.50

16.00X1.3=Rs20.80

Rs7.50
Rs4.70
Rs3.00
Rs 39

Rs39/kWh
Technology
transfer to
rural Sri
Lanka
.
.

Annual Savings Before and After


.

10000
.
8000

6000

4000

2000
20
. 0

1 2 3 4 5

3
Accumulated Net Savings
.
8000

6000

4000

2000
20
. 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
How Storage will Help Smoothing of Out Put

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101
Conversion factor
(multiply top row by factor to obtain side column)

W/m² kW·h/(m²·day) sun hours/day kWh/m²•y kWh/kWp•y


W/m² 1 41.66666 41.66666 0.1140796 0.1521061
kW·h/(m²·day 0.024 1 1 0.0027379 0.0036505
sun hours/day 0.024 1 1 0.0027379 0.0036505
kWh/m²•y 8.765813 365.2422 365.2422 1 1.333333
kWh/kWp•y 6.574360 273.9316 273.9316 0.75 1
Solar Radiation in W/m sq
Efficiency of Solar cells
2009

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1 2 3 4 5 6 71314
Cost of Generation by Solar
CEB DOM tariff for>600kWh/m
SUN POWER PRODUCTION vs LOAD
PROFILE
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A Typical CEB
Load curve
The annual results for Sri Lanka, which range from 4.5 to 6.0 kWh/m2/day, are consistent with, and
slightly higher than earlier studies using sunshine recorders, which gave results of 4.2 to 5.6 kWh/m2/day.
The slightly higher results are due most likely to the fact that, for Sri Lanka, we chose to
calculate the resource for a flat plate collector tilted to latitude, rather than the more
traditional method of calculating the resource on a horizontal surface that the earlier studies
used. With two axis tracking one axis done manually for seasons we can get 7.32 kWh/m2/day.

http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy03osti/34645.pdf http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/codes_algs/PVWATTS/version1/#map
With a 4kW system we can get this amount of Energy
• Radiation Energy Energy
• 2
(kWh/m /day) (kWh) Axis tracking per Watt/day
• Colombo Ratmalana
• 6.58 7411 2 1.85 22.5% Extra
• 6.35 7172 1 1.79
• 5.38 6028 0 1.51
• Colombo/Katunayake
• 6.71 7632 2 23.56% Extra
• 6.47 7377 1
• 5.46 6177 0
• Hambantota
• 7.32 8494 2 2.12 29% Extra
• 7.00 8140 1
• 5.71 6583 0
• Trincomalee (AFB)
• 7.11 8033 2 26.1% Extra
• 6.83 7731 1
• 5.64 6343 0
Solar Power Costs for Sri Lanka
Power needed 1577 kWh/yr OR 131 kWh/Month AC output needed 0.75 kW
Module area 1.33 sq.ft Area needed 11 sq.ft No of Modules 8 Power per module
100 watts DC power 789 watts Inverter efficiency 95 % AC power 750 watts
Module cost rate $2.00 watt Module Cost $1,500 Rs/house 178,406
(assuming today’s exchange rate) Inverter cost rate $0.50 watts Inverter cost $395 Installation
cost rate $0.50 per watt Installation cost $395 Capacity factor 24 % Sri Lanka 2102.4
kWh/Year/kW Output per year 1577 kWh Degradation rate -0.30 %/Output after
year: 25 Total power delivered – kWh 37,991
Cost per kWh amortized with out batteries = $0.11
(With net metering no Batteries are required). Simple Payback period < 4 Years
Cost per kWh amortized with batteries = $0.25
Money saving for consumers >331kWh/M = Rs1,252,693/Y (At today’s tariff of Rs32.50 for>180
units Net metering but surely the CEB tariff will increase ) Typical CO2 emission from oil 583 kg/MWh
Emissions saved (kg) 22,148 Typical fuel consumption per MWh 125 gal. Fuel saved (gal)
4,749. Cost of fuel saved for the country Rs 1,258,336. Assuming all marginal units are from Diesel

Fuel Saving in Import Rs719,049/house


(At today's import price but which will soon go up )
NANO ORGANIC PV CELL
(HIGH EFFICIENCY)
Flexible Plastic PV Cell

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Ultra Triple Junction Solar Cells
Solar Concentrators

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The SolarWall® PV/thermal
solar system
is housed on the roof of a
service
centre and health clinic for the
Olympic athletes in Beijing

PV module efficiency is typically between 8-20%.


What happens to the rest of the sun’s energy that
shines on the panels? Most of it is converted into
heat energy, which normally is lost and provides
no value to the system owner. As well, the heat
build-up behind PV modules reduces the electrical
output by 0.4-0.5% for every 1°C above its rated
output temperature (which is 25°C). Given that
roofs can reach temperatures as high as 90°C,
the actual operating efficiency of PV systems is
often significantly less than the rated output.
Benefits of Solar Cell Energy a Zero
Emission Technology
• More manual labor jobs will be created
• The value of the property will go up
• By distributed generation day peak will come down. Transmission and Distribution losses will be reduced.
• Reduction of costly oil imports to the country
• Reduction of costly Gas turbine generation and costly Private power.
• Reduction of Global warming
• Reduction of polluting CO2 and other CHS Gasses
• Reduction of wasteful use of water in thermal Power stations
• With net metering the large homes will benefit more on reducing there costly electricity bills.
• Combined with energy efficiency and energy saving and use of LED lamps the night peak can also be reduced to
benefit the utility.
• Should be able to get Renewable Energy Certificates and Carbon trading
• Low interest soft loans will become available from the local banks like for Rural solar home systems
• A mental satisfaction that we have not contributed to Pollution and Global warming.
• It is expected that bilateral and multilateral finance and market stimulation programs based on best service at least
cost will be soon available

Distributed Generation: the Next Step in Smart Power Distribution

Solar Power is commercially viable.


123
456
7

20% efficiency =
200W/m2 or
20W/ft2.
LED lamp LIFESPAN
of up to 50,000
hours!
Up to 90% more
efficient than
traditional lighting
Solar Powered LED Lantern
Solar street lamps in China
D Light India
Solar power has several advantages
• Economical Benefits:
• The energy from the sun is practically free, after the initial investment has been recovered
• Solar energy reduces our dependence on foreign or centralized conventional source of energy
• Solar energy supports local jobs and creates wealth, which elevates local economies

• Environmentally Friendly:
• Solar energy is clean, quiet, renewable and sustainable unlike other conventional energy sources such as gas,
oil, and coal
• Solar energy does not contribute to global warming, acid rain, or smog, on the contrary, it helps to lower
harmful green house gas emissions

• Independent/Semi-Independent:
• Solar energy reduces our dependence on foreign or centralized sources of energy
• Solar energy can reduce your electric bill, and also supply your property with electricity in the event of a power
outage
• Solar energy systems can operate entirely independent from a power or gas grid; therefore systems can be
installed in remote location

• Low or no Maintenance:
• Solar energy systems are virtually maintenance free and will last at least 25 years
• System sizes can be increased in the future as your electricity needs grow
• Systems operate silently, and have no moving parts
Toyota 2010 Solar Roof Prius
These panels will power the air conditioning system, allowing its operation without turning on the car's main engine.
Toyota has announced that the next redesign
of their highly successful hybrid Prius
automobile will include solar panels on its
roof
A photo of the new world record solar cell.

The sunlight was concentrated 454-times onto a 5 mm² multi-junction solar cell
composed of GaInP/GaInAs/ Ge (gallium indium phosphide, gallium indium
(© Fraunhofer ISE) arsenide on a germanium substrate) a record 41.1 percent efficiency.
A new phone
of Samsung
"Blue Earth"
powered by
solar energy is
seen at the
Mobile World
Congress in
Barcelona,
Spain,
Monday, Feb.
16, 2009.
Priced at
$40
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE)
in Freiburg have reached a record 41.1 percent efficiency
http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,25105900-2862,00.html
First Solar first to US$1 per watt
manufacturing cost
http://www.pv-tech.org/news/_a/first_solar_first_to_us1_per_watt_manufacturing_cost /
ou
Bicycle Powered Generator
http://www.mattshaver.com/bikegen/index.htm Ind Rs.4000