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VOL.

AP-14,KO. 9

MARCH,

1966

J

AND

L. PETERS,

p., SENIOR

~MBER, IEEE

Absfracf-Edge diffraction theory is used in analyzing the radiation characteristics of typical horn antennas. The far-sidelobe and backlobe radiation has been solved without employing field equivalence principles which are impractical in the problem. A corner reflector with a magnetic line source located at the vertex is proposed as a model for the principal E-plane radiation of horn antennas. A complete pattern, including multiple interactions and images of induced line sources, is obtained in intinite series f o m . Diffraction mechanisms are used for appropriate approximations in the computations. The computed patterns are in excellent agreement with measured patterns of typical horn antennas. Radiation intensity of the backlobe relative to mainlobe intensity is obtained as a back-to-front ratio and plotted as a function of antenna dimensions.

I. INTRODUCTIOX

NALYTICALLY,thedescriptions of thepropagatingmodesinahornaresummarizedby Kraus [l]. In general, aperture techniques must be used to calculate the radiation pattern, and it is assumed that the aperture distribution is t h a t of the incident wave and is zero outside the aperture. The patternsthusobtainedgivesatisfactorymainlobesand near sidelobes. As for far sidelobes and backlobes, Schelkunoffsequivalenceprinciples could beapplied if current distributions on the outer surfaces were known. For a horn antenna, extreme difficultyis involvedinaccuratelydescribingthecurrentdistributions. Furthermore, difficulty would arise in evaluating the consequent surface integrals. The impracticality of the equivalence principles had left radiation problems of the far sidelobes and backlobes still unsolved until edge diffraction techniques were applied [ 5 ] . In 1962, Ye Kinber [2] derived horn patterns and the coefficient of coupling between two adjacent horns by diffraction theow. Examples are given for both E-plane and H-plane patterns, in which discontinuities are pointed out, and emphasis has not been made on side and backlobes. In 1963, Ohba [3] used diffraction theory to compute the radiation patternin the N-plane of a corner reflector. Disagreement was noted as a result of neglecting contributions from the other edges of thecornerreflector.Recently,Russo,Rudduck,and Peters [j] employed edge diffraction theory with

properassumptionstoobtainE-planepatterns of a thin-edged and a thick-edged horn. Only the first-order diffraction terms were used to compute the thin-edged horn patterns. The results, n-ith possible discontinuities left in the side and backlobes, are in good agreement n-ith the measured pattern.Eventhoughthehigherorderdiffractiontermsandthe reflectionsinside the horn are neglected, the combination of the employed concepts and assumptions constitutes a new method of analysisforhornantennas. IVe shall follow this new method to develop a more complete analysis by includingthepreviously neglectedhigher-orderdiffractions and the reflections inside the horn antenna.

Manuscript received August 12, 1965; revised November 4,1965. The research reported herein was supported in part by Contract AF 30(602)-3269 between Air Force Systems Command, Research and Technology Division, Rome Air Development Center, Griffiss Air Force Base, New York, andtheAntenna Laboratory, The Ohio State University Research Foundation, Columbus, Ohio, Project No. li67. The authors are with the Antenna Laboratory, Dept.of Electrical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 138

11. RADIATION ~IECHAKISMS T h e proposed antenna model used inRusso,Rudduck, and Peters [SI was a corner reflector formed by two perfectly conducting plane walls intersecting at an angle 283 a s shown in Fig. 1. If we let the corner reflector beinfinitein extent along the z-direction, the problem is thus reduced t o a two-dimensional one. T h e primary source is a magnetic line current assumed at the vertex S. This assumption considerably simplifies treatment in the principal E-plane of a horn antenna fed by a waveguide supporting the TElo mode. The angular coordinate 8, shown in Fig. 1, is the common reference angle. T h e angles 4 are the field angles referred to each individual wedge a t x h i c h diffraction occurs. The angles a are called incidentangles of illumination. All the first subscripts refer to the points a t whichdiffractionoccurs,while the second subscripts refer to the pointsof origin of incident rays. This notation will be used throughout the following discussions. There are four wedges ( A , B , S, and W ) to be treated by diffraction theory. IjTedges A and B have zero wedge angle, whilewedges S and W have wedge angles of 20E and 2 ( r - e E ) , respectively. The property of symmetry of the reflector will be used to simplify the problem by considering only the upper half of the pattern. From the assumed magnetic line source a t S , a uniform cylindrical wave is radiated in the region - 8 E < 8 58,. This uniform cylindrical wave is called the geometrical optics wave which illuminates wedges A and B. The diffractionsat A and B caused by this illuminationarethefirst-orderdiffractions, which are directional cylindrical waves radiated from the wedges. T h e geometrical optics rays from S and the first-order diffracted rays from A and B are shown in Fig. 2(a). T h e first-order radiation pattern in the far-field can now be

FAR-FIELD

139

L*JW

T h e reflected rays can be described by the method of images. Figure 2(d) shows t h a t wedge A is illuminated by one of the first-order images from the lower wall. The number of images is determined by the flare angle of the reflector. T h e effects of the reflector walls can then be taken into account by the images and the subsequent diffraction of the images. Whenthe process of diffraction and reflection described above is completed, the far-field patterns of the reflector antenna can be obtained by superimposing the contributionsfromtheprimarysource at S; theinduced sources a t -4, B , S , and W ; and the imagesin both walls. Formulation of the pattern, includingall orders of diffraction and reflection, is obtained in Section 111. 111.

FORMULATION OF SOLUTION I N INFINITE SERIES FORM

V*

Inthisformulationthediffraction of a cylindrical wave by a perfectly conducting wedge is employed [4], [SI. Paulisformulation [ 6 ] of Sommerfeldssolution [7] t o wedge diffraction of a plane wave permits the diffracted wave to be expressed in terms of Fresnelintegrals. T h e far-zone diffracted waves, boththe incident and reflected terms, induced by auniformcylindrical wave of unit intensity from a line source, can be written as

I I .

1.

Fig. 2. Radiation mechanism of the antenna model. (a) Direct rags and thefirst-order diffracted rays due to illimination from primary source at S. (b) The second-order diffractions due t o the firstorder illumination from B. (c) The first image in the lower wall due to the first-order diffraction at A . (d) The second-order diffraction due to the first image in the lower wall.

obtained by superposition of the far-field intensities of the primary source and the two induced sources. T h e first-order analysis is presented in Russo, Rudduck, andPeters [SI. To consider the diffraction process further, one can observefromFig.2(b) that the inducedsource a t B illuminates wedges A , S , and T.t. to give three secondorder diffraction terms. In the same manner, the firstorder-induced source a t A illuminates wedges B , S, and W to givethreemoresecond-orderdiffractedwaves. These six second-order-induced sources will continue to givethird-andhigher-orderdiffraction. T h e induced intensitybecomessmallerwithincreasingorder,and the phase delay of successive illumination can be properly taken into account. Since thereflector has perfectly conducting walls, the diffracted waves fromA and B are partially reflected by the walls. Some of the first-order diffracted rays from A are reflected by the lower wall, as shown in Fig. 2(c).

a =

kp

or FZ very close to 2

+ cos f#A~.

(2)

The propagation factor I?-/* Exp ( - j k X ) where R is the distance of the far-field point from the edge is suppressed in (1). The quantity p is the distance from the edge to the source point. The angles4 i ~ are r the diffraction-fieldangles of theincidentand reflected terms, respectively. The value of n is obtained by setting the wedge angle equal to (2 - n)n.The solutionZJBis a directional cylindrical wave radiated from the edge of the wedge. I t m a y , therefore, be considered t h a t a directional line source is induced a t t h e edge of the wedge. The concept of induced line source is good in general except when n is quite different from 2 and Kp is very small.

140

MARCH

The method of images is also needed in the following formulation. For our antenna model, the reflection of waves by the malls can be described by image-waves [4]. The descriptions are strictly of geometrical considerations. 14?eshall use only the results for this paper. First, referring t o Figs. 1 and 2(a), the geometrical optics wave radiated from the primary source S is a and uniform cylindrical wave, normalized as

o*(e) = I,

1, 2, 3

. . .h;

(jb)

-e,

5e5

BE,

528E

(3)

where v* has point S as phase-reference, and outside the where the subscripts L and U indicate that the image defined regionv* is identically zero. T h e cylindrical-wave terms are from the lower and the upper walls, respecpropagation factor R-*/2Exp ( - j k R ) to the far-field is tively. The number of images in each wall is equal to thelargestinteger h whichisless than orequalto suppressed in ( 3 ) because only the angular dependence n/2f?~. N?hen the ratio 7r/28E is not an integer, the valid is of interest. region for the last images should be modified t o Wedges A and B are illuminated by the cylindrical wave from S with zero incident-angle. Since there is .no P reflection term, the diffracted waves fromA and B have - - ( h l)OE 5 0 5 T - ( 2 h 1)OE for the lower w a l l , 2 only one term. Excluding the portion of waves diffracted into the and corner reflector, the waves directly diffracted to the farfield can be written from (1) as

DAP

= Z B ( ~ EP ,

- BE

+ e, 2), - i 0 i + e,), 2

P (P

7r

Each term in (5) has its properly defined regions and is set zero outside the region. T h e first image in the lower where DAs and DES designate diffraction a t A and B wall, caused by the first-order-diffracted rays from A , because of illumination from 5 ' . Thesuperscript (1) is shown in Fig. 2(c). Figure 3 shows the images in the means first-order diffraction. T h e expressions of 4 ' s in Ion-er wall for h = 4 . I t is .noted that the true image terms of f? can be obtained from Fig. 1. The argumentf z waves of the diffracted waves from A are those with i odd in the lower wall and i even in the upperwall. is equal to 2 for both A and B because they have zero Descriptions of the first-order diffracted waves from wedgeangle. I t shouldbenoted that the notation z B -4 and B and their reflected waves have been completed follows the form of the original solution and the subabove. The higher-order terms to be treated in the folscript B has no connection with the wedge B. loxx*ing discussion are necessary for cases in which small T h e first-order radiation patterns, neglecting the redimensions are encountered orhigh accuracy is desired. flections inside the corner reflector, can now be obtained by simply superimposing the terms in (3) and (4). The Physicalll-, the higher-order terms describe the effects discontinuities in v* at f?=_+BE in (3) are eliminated by of illumination of edges bythe lower-order-induced sources and their images. llathematically, they are reDAs(I) and DES"),respectivel>-. 4lthough the pattern is quired to overcome thediscontinuities of the lowercontinuous at f?= fdE, two sets of new discontinuities order terms in the radiation pattern. Taking the two a t 0 = f7r-/2 and (a+dE)are observedin(4).Therefirst-orderdiffractiontermsin(4),forinstance,the fore, the first-order pattern, in general, has discondiscontinuities mentioned earlier can only be eliminated tinuities a t these directions. by taking into account the second-order diffraction in Let us next examine the reflections of the first-order the specified directions. rays diffracted into the reflector.Sincethediffracted A t f? =7r/2, 11-edge A is illuminated by the first-orderwaves from A and B are symmetrical with respect to induced source a t B in (4b). This intensity of illumina8 = 0, as can be seenfrom (4),thetreatment of the image-waves from the reflector can be simplified. T h e tion from B t o A is called the first-order coupling coefficient, images are formed symmetrically in the lower and upper walls. The image waves from the two walls can be obtainedby replacing f? of D A s ( l )and DBs") in (4) by ( - 2iBE - 6 ) and (2iBE-f?), respectively, giving

DB S (1)

= C B ( ~ E ,P

- BE - 8, 2), - > 8 2 - (P

2 -

+ @E),(4b)

( f L ( * ) ) i = " B ( p E , 7r

- (2i

P -

P

(Sa)

of symmetry, the firstorder coupling coefficient from A t o B in the direction , g = -n/2 is equal t o CAB(^). Therefore, using (4), we have

1966

141

. .

9eE=

Similarly, wedge W illuminated is both by A and B at 0 = f ( r + d E ) , respectively. T h e couplingcoefficients can be obtained in the same manner as

i=1,2,3...(1~-1),

CWA ( l ) =

CWB'"

z B ( p ~ ,

2?1-,2).

(7)

are slowly var).ing funcsince the diffracted tions in the neighborhood of a certain angle, it is a good approximation that wedges A , B , and iv are illumiof intensities the nated by uniform cylindrical waves ( 6 ) and (7). Under this assumption, the setshown in ond-order diffracted waves can be obtained a s

at which the wedges A and B are illuminated by the rays from images of lower and upper walls, respectively. Figure 3 shows the geometry of the images with h = 4 in the lower wall. T h e coupling coefficients from the images to \\'edge A can be obtained from (5) as

?I-

CA,'~ = ) IL")

, i

= 1,

2,

, (12

- 1).

By symmetry, the coupling coefficients from the images in the upper wall to wedge B are equal to C-li(l)as

zlB

(:

b,

- 2eE

+ e, 2

I)

,

i=1,2,...

(12 - 1).

(9)

(sa)

1- VEi

and

nw=2--

pi,

- - (i

2

37r

+ 2)eE - e, 2

I)

28E

142

MARCH

and

where the arguments can be obtained by using Fig. 3 as reference. The second-order diffraction terms obtained in (10) are appropriately arranged for each boundary of the defined regions in ( S ) , except that the last boundary is given by 8 = f (7r/2 - (h+ 1)eE) if T/28E is an integer, or 8 = -t (r-(2h+l)BE) if a/289 is not an integer. The boundaries, in either case, correspond to the directions in xvhich wedge S is illuminated by the inducedsources a t A and B. Therefore,thecoupling coefficients from A and B t o S can be obtained from (5) by symmetry as

CSA)

= CSB

*dB(PE,0, 2),

(11)

and (12c)

Now, me have completed the descriptions of all second-orderdiffractions whichphysically take into accountthe effects of illumination bythe first-orderinducedsources and mathematically eliminate all the first-order discontinuities. Summing up the secondorder diffraction a t A , B , W , and S gives

and

i= 1

i=l

where (8), (lo), and (12) can be used for computation. Following the same procedure used to obtain (S), the second-orderimagewavesfromthe lower and upper walls can be obtainedas

where the 8 of DA(?) and D B ( ~ in) (13) have been replaced by ( T 2 8 E - 8 ) , respectively. Kote that the boundary of the last image i =k should follow (4), if7r/2BE is not exactly an integer. lye have observedabove t h a t while the first-order discontinuities are eliminated by the inclusion of second-order diffractions, new discontinuities occur again at the boundaries of the regions defined in (13) and ( 1 4 ) . Thesesecond-orderdiscontinuitiescanbeeliminated only by introducing third-order diffraction. T h e higher the orderof diffraction the smaller will be the magnitude of discontinuities. I t istheoretically possible t o consider theorder of diffraction a s high as desired. In other words, the magnitude of each discontinuity can be made negligibly small if sufficient orders of diffraction are included. For completeness, the iterative formulas for all possible higher-order diffractions a r e presented in the Appendix. The total far-field pattern of the corner reflector can now be obtained by superposition of all terms presented in the -Appendix. Taking wedge A a s a common phase reference, and considering .only the upper-half region, 058_<7r,thetotal far-field u(8) canbewrittenfrom (23) as:

1966

m

143

Ds(~) YAS

c,

a

DA(~)

Based on the approximations mentioned above the pattern of the corner reflector can now be obtained approximately from (15) as:

i= 1

i=l

[2

(13

where the last images in the upper wall are included because in general they may contribute to the upperhalf region. The local phase factors referred to A can be written fromFigs. 1 and 3 a s

+ + +

Since this is an approximated pattern, discontinuities are expected tobe increasingly noticeable with decreasing size of the corner reflector. Let u s examine, yas = EXP. [ --j2.rrpE COS (-ez e)], term by term, the continuity of (17) in the upper-half y - 4 ~ = Exp. [ -j2ab sin e ] , region O<O<n. A t 0 = 0 E , the discontinuityof v* is eliminated by D A S ( I ) . At 0=rr/2, the discontinuity of D B s " ) )JAW = Exp. [ - j 2 7 r p ~ COS (0, - e)] = Y A S , is eliminated by D - 4 B ( 2 ) , but there are no higher-order y A i = Exp. [ - j 2 n p i sin (io, e)], (16) terms included in (17) to compensate for the discontinuities of D B , ( ' ) and DB$2),with i = 1, 2, . . , ( h - 1). Similarly, a t 0 = - (n+O,), the discontinuity of D B s ( ' ) is and eliminated by D W B " ) , but those of D B A ( ~ )and D B ~ ' ~ ) , y B h = Exp. [-j2rpi sin ( M E - e)]. with i = 1, 2, . . . , (12- l ) , are left uncompensated. T h e discontinuities at B = r j 2 - $ E of ( I ~ ( l )are ) i alleliminated by D A i ( ' ) and DBiC2', with i = 1, 2, . . . , (12- 1). 11,'. THE APPROXIMATED SOLUTIOKS For the idealized corner reflector in Fig. 1, the pat- The discontinuity of ( I $ ) ) h takes place in the defined The tern can generally be calculated by (15) as accurately regions of w* and is usuallyunnoticeablysmall. discontinuities of D w ~ and ~ ( ~ Dw ) B ( ~ at ) 0 =eE are also unas desired. The fundamental limitation of the edge difnoticeably small for a typical corner reflector. fraction method is the approximation of the multiple Within the accuracy of the approximations made to diffraction a s omnidirectional line sources. However, obtain (17), it is desirable to have the pattern continuthis limitation will rarely be encountered for the symous in the entire region. T o accomplish this, the secondmetricalcornerreflector of typicaldimensions.Since order discontinuities a t 0 =n/2 and - (T+0,) mentioned the contributions of the higher-order terms to the patabove need to be eliminated. The coupling coefficients tern decrease with increasing order, computations may from B to A resulting from the second-order-induced be made by including only those terms which are sigsources at B can be obtained from (13b) as: nificant in their defined regions. T h e following approximations are made to obtain a pattern includingonly significant higher-order terms. The total contribution from wedge S is given by the first term of (15) which contains diffraction terms equal or higher than the second-order. For typical dimensions, thesediffractiontermsare negligibly small a s compared to v* of unit intensity. Therefore, for all practical purposes, the first term of (15) may simply be approxi- with mated by v* alone. In the following three terms in (15), the second-order diffraction should be retained for calculation because their regions include side- and backlobesinwhich o* is absent. The image terms in (15) contribute both to the regions of main- and sidelobes. where(8b) and (lob) are used.Because of theinteractionbetween A and B by C A B ( ? ) , athird-orderdiTherefore, approximation of images should, in theory, be made individually. We shall instead treat the images fractioncanbewrittenfor A and B withthesame of the same order as a group and assume that only the defined region in (13). If the process of interaction first-order images have significant contribution to the between A and B continues to infinite order, a coupling pattern. coefficient can be obtained [ 5 ] in closed form as

144

MARCH

+ 8, n ~ ) ]

7

os 5 8 5 a, (21)

where the property of symmetry is used and C A B A and CAB^ are given from (18). The continuity of the total pattern at 8 =a/2 is now ensured by using C A B instead of CAB(1) for DAB(?) and D,A@) in (17) as where

CWA

CWA(1)

CWA'.

Using (20) and (21), an approximated "continuous" pattern can be finally written from (1 7) a s

U(8)

[E*]~As

+ [D A S ( + ~ ) DAB+

h-l i=l

h- 1

DAi("l

i= 1

_I

and

h i=l

I

" F

(22)

Fortypicaldimensions of a corner reflector (22), in general, gives excellent prediction of the radiation pattern. Examples are given in Section V .

(20b)

0_<8_<-11_

where the V B terms in (8) are used and the regions are restricted to the upper-half region. As a consequence of the modified equations in (20), theuncompensatedterms at 8 = - (T+~E) are now DBA and D,i(2),with i = 1, 2 . . ( h - 1). T h e coupling coefficient from B t o W resulting from these terms can be written from (20) and (10) as

To illustrate the validity of the corner reflector as a model of the pyramidal horn antenna fed b ~ 7 a waveguide supportingTEla mode, (22) is computed and compared with measured patterns. Figure 4 shows theexperimental setup of a horn antenna in which the idealized model is the corner reflector ASB used to derive (22). T h e associated waveguide and the calibrated attenuatoranddiodedetectorarenot consideredin pattern prediction. First, consider a horn antenna of p ~ = 4 1 . 3cm a n d 20E = 35' which is fed by a waveguide propagating the TElomode a t 9.8 Gc/s. The horn lengthpE, in terms of wavelength, is equal to 13.5X. T h e measuredfar-field pattern is shown in Fig. 5 . The pattern computed by (22) is shown displaced 5 d B below the measured pattern. Comparison of two patternsshows excellent agreement in the overall lobe structure. The small deviation of relative field intensity in the region 50" <B <80" is primarily due to the approximation that secondthe and higher-order images are negligible. T h e presence of the waveguide and the associated attenuator and detector shown in Fig. 4 is responsible for the interference in the region 80' <e < 180' of the measured pattern. For comparison, the pattern computed by only first-order dif[ 5 ] ,is which is a new coupling coefficient to ensure the conti- fraction, treated in Russo, Rudduck, and Peters displaced 5 dB above the measured pattern. As nuity of the total pattern at 8 = - (a+eE) or ~ - 8 ~ plotted . earlier, thediscontinuitiesat t9=90 and Adding this new coupling coefficient t o CWA4(l) in (Sc), mentioned (180-eE) are expected in the first-order pattern. the diffracted fields at W a r e modified a s

1966

145

Whenthefrequencyisincreasedcorresponding t o fore, better patterns can be obtained for small horns by including the second-order image terms and their subpE=24.8X for the same horn, the three patterns are as shown in Fig. 6. The same conclusions drawn for Fig. 5 sequent effects on the total pattern. remain true, except that the interference from the wave- Thethreeexamplespresentedabovehavedemonof ( 2 2 ) for pattern computationsof guide and the associated structure becomes larger be- strated the accuracy of the expericause the physical size is larger in terms of wavelength. typicalhornantennas.Theaccuracy mental measurements is assumed to have 1 d B fluctuaI n Fig. 7, threepatternsareshownfor a smallhorn 40 d B below the antenna of pE=5.61X and 28E=21.2". A41though the tionwhentheintensityisaround overall lobe structure is still in good agreement with the reference intensity. I n view of this, ( 2 2 ) is sufficient for measured pattern, a larger deviation in intensity level is horn antennas of typical dimensions. When p E and observed around 0 = 80" of the pattern by( 2 2 ) . This dis- become smaller,it is easily observed from Fig. 7 that the agreement results because the second-order image terms second-order image terms in (14) should be included t o neglected are notnegligibly small forsmall horns. There- ensure good prediction around the region0 = 9O0-0E.

eE

CALIBRATED ATTENUATOR

PC: 13 5 x

__

e,:

1 7 50

- M E A S U R EFDA R - F I E LPDA T T E 9 N

- -COMPUTED PATTERN

BY EO 2 2 ( - 5 d b )

1dbl

. 2 0 --

_-

- 33-

-40.

30

90

1

120

I50

180

e:

Fig. 5

A comparison of patterns.

146

- MEASUREO FAR-FIELO PATTERN - - _ _ COMPUTED PATTERN BY EO. 22. ( - 5 d b l -. - COMPUTE0 PATTERN B Y REFERENCE 5. l t 5 d b l

- 30

- 40

60

teI

90

120

I50

. I80

pE ' 5 6 1 A

eE = 10.6"

MEASURE0 FAR-FIELO PATTERN COMPUTEDPATTERNBY EQ 2 2 ( - 5 d b l C O M P U T E DP A T T E R NB YR E F E R E N C E 5 (+5dbk-

-.-

(db)

-20 -

-30-

1

I

4--xp\/ f f

d ' ,

J

150

/-

-40

30

60

' / 1 \I \11

90

120

(e)

Fig. 7.

A comparison of patterns.

1966

(db

#E

J'

Fig. 8. Back-to-front ratios of the antenna model.

The radiation patterns, either measured or computed alwayshaveabacklobemaximum a t B = 180, even though this maximum value is not necessarily the largest maximum in the region 18Oo--B~<0<18O0. The differencebetweenthevalue a t e= 180" and that of the largest maximum is generally small. Therefore, the radiation intensity at 8 = 180' can be taken as a representative value for backlobe region. I t is also observed that the radiation intensity in the region 90' <O < 180" -8E is, in general, smaller than the mentioned representative value. The back-to-front ratios of the model are plotted in Fig. 9. Back-to-front ratio of 26g=3So. Fig. 8 as a function of length p~ for seven values of I t is interesting to compare the first minimum points angle 8 E . A set of measured data is compared with a in Fig. 8 t o t h e defined optimum [SI horn lengths. T h e calculated curve in Fig. 9. All calculated back-to-front values of optimum horn lengths are tabulated in Fig. 8 ratios are approximated by use of only the first-order and are found t o be one half of t h a t of p E , which give diffraction terms, which are sufficiently accurate for this the first minimum back-to-front ratios. purpose.

148

T h e sets of p~ and BE giving rise to the minima in the and curves do not necessarily imply that u(0) is maximum (Ic.("))i= D g ( " ) ( + 2 i 8 ~- e), and that U ( T ) is minimum. The reason for this is the main lobeof the patternbegins to bifurcateat the points where the valid regions are identical to thosedefined in where minimum back-to-front ratios occur. For a horn (13) and ( 1 4 ) . The components in ( 2 3 ) can be obtained antenna with 0 0 = 25", and P E = 6 3 , 17X, 2 i h , 38X, and analogous to ( 8 ) ,(IO), and (12) as follows: 48X, where minima take place in Fig. 8, the main beam of the pattern is split into two, four, six, eight, and ten lobes, respectively. However, Fig. 8 can beused to evaluate approximately the representative back-radiation intensity zt(7r) relative to front-radiation intensity ~(0). If the horn antenna is large enough, it is generally safe to expect that the radiation intensity, on the average in the region 90" <0 < 1 8 0 " - B ~ , is about 5 d B lower than the representative valueU ( T ) as shown in Figs. 8 and 9. VII. CONCLUSIONS The E-plane patterns, including far-sidelobes and backlobes, of horn antennas have been formulated without employing aperture methods and equivalence principles. The edge diffraction techniques employed here are those used inRUSSO, Rudduck, and Peters [SI. In this paper the higher-order diffraction at the edges and the reflection inside the antenna model have been taken into account. Considering the various assumptions and the mathematical difficulties inherent in aperture methods it is shown here t h a t diffraction theory is more accurate and practical in analyzing radiation characteristics of typical horn antennas. For typical dimensions of the proposed reflector model, the pattern may be computed by (15) asaccurately as desired. The approximated pattern has been shown, in Figs. 5, 6, and 7 to be in excellent agreement with the measured patterns of horn antennas for which the reflector model is intended. Comparisons with the first-order patterns indicate that the improvements of (22) are mainly in the far-sidelobes and backlobes. aconsequence of the approximations made to obtain (22), the pattern level tends to deviate more and more in the region around 0 = 90" - B E , when horn dimensions become smaller. Figure 7 shows that the second-order image terms can no longer be assumed negligiblefor small horns. In conclusion, (22) is generally sufficient to predict patterns of typical horn antennas.

APPENDIX

The mth order diffraction a t wedges A , B , T V , and S and the images of the corner reflector in Fig. 1 may be written similar to the second-order terms as follows:

VOL.

AP-14,NO. 2

ACKNOWLEDGMEKT

WCH,

1966

used toobtainsymmetricalterms.Thecouplingcoefficients of different orders can also be formulated in infiniteseriesform [4].T h e coupling coefficients are obtained as

Thanks are due to C. H. Davis for the measurements and M. L. Tripp for the computations.

(e = 5T (e= - e

3 +

eE)

REFERENCES

J. D. Kraus, Antennas. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950, pp. 375380. B. Ye Kinber, Diffraction at the open end of a sectoral horn, Radio Engrg. Electron. Phys., vol. 7-10, pp. 1620-1632, October

nr? IYUL.

4

BE)

E)

CA T ( m )

= =

Dw(m) DS(m)

(e

= eE)

CA S ( m )

(8 =

(25)

in which the process of iteration may be used t o include as many orders of diffraction as desired. As soon as coupling coefficients areproperlyevaluated,thediffraction of any order can then be obtained by making use of (23) and (24).

width, IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, vol. AP-11, pp. 127-132, March 1963. J. S. Yu and R. C. Rudduck, The E-plane radiation pattern of a n antenna model for horn antennas, Antenna Lab., The Ohio State University Research Foundation, Columbus, Rept. 1767-3, April 1, 1965, prepared under contract AF 30(602)-3269, Rome Alr Development Center, Griffiss Air Force Base, N. Y . P. M. Russo, R. C. Rudduck, and L. Peters, Jr., A method for computing E-plane pattern of horn antennas, IEEE Trans. m Antennas and Propagation, vol. AP-13, pp. 219-224, March 1965. \fT. Pauli, On asymptotic series for functions in the theory of diffraction of light, Phys. Rev., vol. 54, pp. 924-931, December 1938. A. Sommerfeld, Optics. New York: Academic, 1954, pp. 245-265. H. Jasik, Antenna Engineeying Handbook. New York: McGrawHill, 1961, ch. 10, p. 8.

Numerical Solutions for an Infinite Phased Array of Rectangular Waveguides with Thick Walls

Abstract-A numerical analysis of an infinite phased array of openrectangular waveguides has beenmade which includes the effects of wall thickness. Two planes of scan, the H andquasi-E planes, have been considered. I n these cases, the general vector problem can be expressed in the form of a scalar one-dimensional Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. The approxmate fields obtained numerically from the integral equation are used for the evaluation of the input complex reflection coefficient. A variational expression for the reflection coefficient is developed and used for improving the accuracy. Numerical results for the H and quasi4 plane scans are presented as a function of wall thickness and scan angle. Agreement with experimental results is very good.

INTRODUCTIOS

pedance to a given element varies with scan angle. This is due to mutual coupling between elements [l]. Since the coupling between elements decreases rapidlywithdistance(as l / r 2 forrectangularwaveguide arrays [l ]), the assumption of an infinite array is valid for centrally located elements. With this assumption, a large class of such problems becomes tractable

Manuscript received October 18, 1965. This work was supported by the U. S. Army under contract DA-30-069-AMC-333(Y). The authors are with Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., Whippany, N.J.

I X LARGE planarphasedarrays,theinputim-

analytically. I n particular, for those cases which can be reduced t o a one-dimensional problem, the analytic formulations for the tangential aperture fields and input impedancearereadilysolvedby use of a high-speed digital computer. A numerical analysis of infinite phased arrays of rectangular waveguides, as shown in Fig. 1, was made. 4 Fredholmintegralequation of thefirstkindforthe aperture field becomesscalarone-dimensionalintwo specialcases. The firstcasehas c = d withscanning taking place in the H-plane ( X - 2 plane). In the other case, a = b and the fields vary sinusoidally with period 2b in X.Under this condition, scanning in the E-plane is called quasi-E plane scanning. When the waveguide walls are thin,a = b and c =d, these two cases have exact solutions [l]. However,evenamoderateguide wall thickness does have an appreciable effect on the results for the reflection coefficient. Apertureand near-field solutions for these cases, when the walls are thick, are obtained numerically as a function of scan angle and wall thickness in the respective planes of scan. The approximatefield solutions that are obtained numerically from the integral equation are then used in the evaluation of a variational expression for the complex

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