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Computer Organization & Assembly Language

Instructor: Nausheen Majeed Email: nausheen.majeed@ciitlahore.edu.pk

Course Objective

To understand organization of a computer system To gain an insight knowledge about the internal architecture and working of microprocessors. To understand working of memory devices, interrupt controllers and I/O devices.

To learn Assembly Language

Course Contents

Introduction to Microprocessors History & Evolution of Intel Microprocessors Organization of Intel 8086 Processor Fetch-Execution Cycle Microprocessor Bus Structure Internal Memory, External Memory, Input Output Devices Instruction Representation Memory Organization & Structure Memory Addressing Cache Interrupts, DMA Pipelining

Contd..

Introduction of Assembly Language:


Data Declaration Loop and Jump Using Arithmetic and Logical Instructions Using Shift and rotate instructions Input / Output and display text Stack and operations on stack Subroutine and Procedures Interfacing with High level languages

Overview of Debugger and practice of writing and debugging programs Using EMU8086 to write and test assembly language programs Introduction to Microcontroller Programming

Text Books

Assembly Language programming and Organization of the IBM PC by Ytha Yu and Charles Marut. Computer Organization and Architecture, William Stallings Kip Irvine, Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, Third Edition,, Prentice Hall Incorporated

Outline

Introduction to Computer Organization An Introduction to Microprocessors History of Intel 8086 Microprocessors An Introduction to Assembly Language

Introduction

What is Computer Organization?

Organization is how features are implemented. How does a Computer Work? For Example: Is there a special hardware multiply unit for multiplication operation or is it done by repeated addition?

Structure & Function


Structure is the way in which components relate to each other Function is the operation of individual components as part of the structure.
Main functions performed by a computer system are: Data processing Data storage Data movement Control

Contd..

When data is received from or delivered by a device that is directly connected to the computer, process is called Input-Output (I/O). When data are moved over longer distance, to or from a remote device, the process is known as Data Communication.

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Structure - Top Level

Peripherals

Computer
Central Processing Unit Main Memory

Computer

Systems Interconnection

Input Output

Communication lines
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Structure - The CPU

CPU
Computer
I/O System Bus Memory CPU

Registers

Arithmetic and Login Unit

Internal CPU Interconnection

Control Unit

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Structure - The Control Unit

Control Unit
CPU
ALU Internal Bus Registers Control Unit

Sequencing Logic Control Unit Registers and Decoders

Control Memory

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Microprocessors

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Microprocessor

Microprocessor is an electronic circuit that functions as the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, providing computational control. Microprocessors are also used in other advanced electronic systems, such as computer printers, automobiles, and jet airliners.

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Processor Integration
Early computers had many separate chips for the different portions of a computer system Registers ALU

Control

Memory

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Microprocessors

Data Bus
Address Bus

CPU (ALU + Reg + control)

Memory

I/O Devices

Control Bus

First microprocessors placed control, registers, arithmetic logic unit in one integrated circuit (one chip).
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Modern Processors
Modern microprocessors (general purpose Processors) also integrate memory onchip for faster access. External memory and I/O components still required. Memory integrated on the microprocessor is called cache memory.
Data Bus

CPU
Registers, ALU, Fetch, Exe Logic, Bus logic, Cache Memory

Address Bus

Memory

I/O Devices

Control Bus
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Microcontrollers
Microcontrollers integrate all of the components (control, memory, I/O) of a computer system into one integrated circuit. Microcontrollers are intended to be single chip solutions for systems requiring low to moderate processing power.

Microcontroller

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Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller


Microprocessor CPU is stand-alone, RAM, ROM, I/O, timer are separate designer can decide on the amount of ROM, RAM and I/O ports. general-purpose Microcontroller CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer are all on a single chip fix amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, I/O ports single-purpose

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History of Intel Microprocessors

1971 - 4004

First microprocessor All CPU components on a single chip 4 bit

Followed in 1972 by 8008


8 bit Both designed for specific applications


Intels first general purpose microprocessor

1974 - 8080

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Pentium Evolution (1)

8080

first general purpose microprocessor 8 bit data path Used in first personal computer Altair much more powerful 16 bit instruction cache, prefetch few instructions 8088 (8 bit external bus) used in first IBM PC 16 Mbyte memory addressable up from 1Mb 32 bit Support for multitasking

8086

80286

80386

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Pentium Evolution (2)

80486

sophisticated powerful cache and instruction pipelining built in maths co-processor Superscalar Multiple instructions executed in parallel Increased superscalar organization Aggressive register renaming branch prediction data flow analysis speculative execution

Pentium

Pentium Pro

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Pentium Evolution (3)

Pentium II

MMX technology graphics, video & audio processing Additional floating point instructions for 3D graphics Note Arabic rather than Roman numerals Further floating point and multimedia enhancements

Pentium III

Pentium 4

Itanium

64 bit

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Assembly Language

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Programming Languages

High-Level Languages (HLL) Assembly Language Machine Language

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High-Level Language

Allow programmers to write programs that look more like natural language. Examples: C++, Java, C#.NET etc A program called Compiler is needed to translate a highlevel language program into machine code. Each statement usually translates into multiple machine language instructions.

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Machine Language

The "native" language of the computer Numeric instructions and operands that can be stored in memory and are directly executed by computer system. Each ML instruction contains an op code (operation code) and zero or more operands. Examples:

Opcode Operand Meaning ------------------------------------------------40 increment the AX register 05 0005 add 0005 to AX

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Assembly Language

Use instruction mnemonics that have one-to-one correspondence with machine language. An instruction is a symbolic representation of a single machine instruction Consists of: label always optional mnemonic always required operand(s) required by some instructions comment always optional

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Sample Program Written in Debug

1. mov ax, 5 2. add ax, 10 3. add ax, 20 4. mov [0120], ax 5. int 20

ax ax ax ax

05 15

Me mory 011C 011E 35 0120 0122 0124 0126

35 35

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Figure 1. Machine Language Generation by ASM and HLL programs.

ASM

ML

ML ML ML ML

HLL

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Why Learn Assembly Language?


Learn how a processor works Explore the internal representation of data and instructions Allows creation of small and efficient programs Provides a convenient way to directly access the computers hardware Programmers write subroutine also known as Interface Subroutine / device drivers in assembly language and call them from high-level language programs.

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Essential Tools

Assembler is a program that converts source-code programs into a machine language (object file).

Linker joins together two or more object files and produces a single executable file.
Debugger loads an executable program, displays the source code, and lets the programmer step through the program one instruction at a time, and display and modify memory. Emulator allows you to load and run assembly language programs, examine and change contents of registers. Example: EMU8086

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References

Chapter 1 & 3, Ytha Yu and Charles Marut, Assembly Language Programming and Organization of IBM PC, Chapter 3, William Stallings, Computer Organization & Architecture Chapter 1, Kip Irvine, Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, Third Edition,, Prentice Hall Incorporated

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