Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 2

Contrastive Analysis 2 - Guidelines for Test 1

Test 1 will consist of two parts: I. 10 short questions (2 points each) on points of difficulty in the studied structures. II. 6 questions to identify and analyse an error in a learners sentence explaining its possible cause(s) (consider the instructions in the first handout on Error Analysis) 2,5 points each. Topics and points to pay attention to: I. Nouns 1. Sub-categories of nouns (proper vs common, concrete vs. abstract, countable vs. uncountable) and their significance for the grammatical structure. 2. What are the common difficulties that all learners of English encounter regarding countability of nouns? What may be more specific for learners who speak Macedonian as their first or second language? 3. The grammatical category of number Both English and Macedonian mark plural in the noun; identify the features specific for English and how they may affect the learners language. 4. The grammatical category of gender English and Macedonian assign gender to nouns on different grounds. How can this affect the acquisition of gender by learners of English? What errors may occur? 5. Case Compare the way English and Macedonian express possession and if the differences have any effect on the process of learning. 6. Definiteness Compare the article system of English and Macedonian and how they cover the three types of reference: classifying, indefinite and definite reference. Identify the points where most errors occur and explain the reasons. II. Adjectives 7. Attributive and predicative use of adjectives Identify similarities and differences (e.g. frequency of use of copula verbs in English and in Macedonian); position of adjectives; 8. Gradable and ungradable adjectives types of markers in both languages and clause structure; Which are the common errors and why do they occur? 9. Classifying adjectives form and function; in English nouns can take the same function what problems does that pose for foreign learners? 10. Participles functioning as noun modifiers why are they often confused? III.Adverbs 11. Form of adverbs of manner both English and Macedonian use the adjectival base what complexities in English cause problems? 12. Degree adverbs what are the restrictions in English? 13. Position of adverbs verb modifiers, degree adverbs and sentential adverbs; is it problematic for Macedonian learners? 1

IV. Pronouns consider form and function of the following types of pronouns. Pay attention to the points of difference between English and Macedonian and the potential errors that may occur. 14. Personal pronouns case differences; obligatory use in English; formal (expletive) it . 15. Possessive pronouns two series in English; difference in use with parts of the body; 16. Demonstrative pronouns two series in English, three in Macedonian is it a problem? 17. Reflexive pronouns form and function; Macedonian reflexive clitic is used much more how does it affect its use in English? 18. Indefinite pronouns (quantifies) some, any, no, all, every, each, either, neither, much, many; What difficulties do foreign learners encounter? 19. Interrogative pronouns 20. Relative pronouns V. The verb Group 21. Consider the difference between the word group in English and in Macedonian: simple and complex. 22. Why is it difficult for Macedonian learners to master complex verb groups such as would have been running? 23. Which are the most common errors in the simple verb group? 24. Which auxiliaries and non-finite forms are used in English? Is there conceptual and formal correspondence with the Macedonian forms? 25. What is the difference in formation of the negative and interrogative form? 26. Why do Macedonian learners have problems with acquiring the forms with the auxiliary do? Foe example, why do errors such as She didnt came. or They doesnt know. occur? 27. Why do Macedonian learners often wrongly use to with the modal verbs (e.g. *She must to come.) 28. Explain why learners often express past tense with was+ verb (She was come. He was cry.) VI. Modal verbs 21. Consider the Macedonian equivalents for the basic deontic and epistemic meanings of the English modal verbs. Note down the most striking differences. 22. Why dont Macedonian learners see the difference in politeness between may and can? What kind of errors does that produce? 23. Why is expressing lack of obligation in English a problem for Macedonian learners? 24. Why do Macedonian learners have problems with understanding and expressing past tense with modal verbs (e.g. They should have come earlier. She didnt need to submit it personally.) 25. In what functions are should and shall often wrongly translated in Macedonian? 26. Why do Macedonian learners avoid using should, could, would, might for present time? What kind of errors does this induce? 27. Why do Macedonian learners often wrongly use the English auxiliary verb mustnt? 2