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Will Roberts/Martyn Morris

Research Methods in Sport U76137

Tom Midgley 11054786

Does Male University Sports Culture have an Effect on Socio-Physical Health? Literature Review A literature review will highlight important and relevant work, then the data and methods will be described (Hartmann et al. 2012:115). This monograph will do just that by assessing the differing epistemological formats researchers have used in exploring sports culture and then gaging which is most successful, whilst also delving into the cultural discoveries themselves. The ontology of male university sports culture is predominantly known through experience and therefore subjective, so this piece intends to look at qualitative studies. The question stated at the top of the page is not set, and is subject to change in response to literary findings through this piece. Defining male university sports culture is key to this subject area, particularly as a starting point. Culture derives from identity (group or self), and studies have (sometimes inadvertently) depicted the relationship between the two. Ultimately though, culture is, The shared knowledge, values, language, norms, and behavioural patterns of a given society that are handed down from one generation to the next and form a way of life for its members (Delaney and Madigan, 2009:311). Marsh and Martin (2011) looked at academic self-concept, which seemed to have a direct relationship of academic success leading to a positive self-concept, whilst sports was effectively negligible. The validity of this study may be brought into question as it was conducted at Oxford University amongst highly academic surroundings the Department of Education. Christie and Barling (2010), relate status inequality with performance, seeing a causal link between the two. Parker and Curtner-Smith (2012) saw sports (education) as a hegemonic arena. All these findings are leaning towards the ontology that sport is a masculine and competitive environment where only the strong survive. Steinfeldt and Steinfeldt completed a study in eight American universities, studying athletic identity and masculine norms. This investigation was qualitative and quantitative in its method. They decided to measure these variables in two ways, firstly, athletic identity was measured using the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS: Brewer and Cornelius, 2001). The ontological inference here is that the identity of individuals is somehow quantifiable by a set of seven answers. For a question that is a relational and qualitative query, this methodology seems an epistemologically illogical approach with which to conduct this study. The second measure was to use the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46 (CMNI-46), a 46 item self-report instrument that uses a 4-point Likert-type scale with possible responses ranging from 0 (strongly disagree) to 3 (strongly agree) (Steinfeldt and Steinfeldt 2012:119). Identity and particularly self-identity is a hard thing to define, so this measurement is not fool proof. Giddens (1991:215) says, Self-identity is a reflexive achievement. The narrative of self-identity has to be shaped and altered and reflexively sustained in relation to changing circumstances of social life which could certainly be translated to mean there is no such thing as self-identity; we simply mould our identity around what we want others to see or we see ourselves. And while extensive ethnographic and qualitative work has elucidated mechanisms and dynamics on both sides of the question, the lack of more general data and analysis has made it difficult to know how to generalize or asses how these effects may vary by social background or context (Hartmann et al. 2012:113-114). Likewise, Brock and Tulasiewicz (1984:1) state, culture is a major element of social order, it does not derive from it.

Will Roberts/Martyn Morris

Research Methods in Sport U76137

Tom Midgley 11054786

D. Hartmann et al. begin their study by claiming that sport is a formative experiencenot only for athletic development but also in terms of socialization, character building, educational and social attainment (2012:113). They acknowledge there are significant gaps in the research, which prompted them to begin this piece of research. Hartmann et al. proceed with the aim of establishing some basic, baseline empirical data with which to further analyse and asses. Interestingly, Hartmann et al. have four questions upon which they base their research see appendix A. This would be extravagant for the research proposal entitled, as it is on a far smaller scale, but the idea is intriguing in order to cover the detail of variety, the expansion of questions helps to assess the difference more accurately. McAuley et al. (1997:69) note that the worthy vision of self is perceived as, physical conditioning, attractive body, physical strength, and sports competence; all are easily compatible with a hegemonic ideology. Two prominent and somewhat polar theoretical conceptions have often been employed in both popular and scholarly understandings about the impact of sport participation on attitudes and beliefs. In the first view, sport merely reflects and perhaps reinforce adherence to the dominant values of societysports serve a conservative social function. They express the values of the wider culture and perhaps socialise participants and spectators to accept those values as their own, (Simon, 1991:16). The values of hard work, effort, diligence, delay of gratification, social Darwinism and prestige of success are believed to be reinforced through sport. The second conception contends that sport can be an independent basis for criticism of the wider culture and, depending upon the morality dominant in the rest of society, can be a force for social change (Simon, 1991:17). In this view, sport can function as moral and ethical education, imbuing young athletes with respect for teammates and opponents alike, the rule systems that guide our interaction, and the importance of meeting challenges. Kath Woodward asserts, Language is deeply implicated in the process of making meaning (2002:77); a valid notion and one that a study into culture or identity must appreciate. Language is a prominent variable in identifying with a culture or other individuals i.e. one adapts their language to suit the environment. Woodward also provides a set of characteristics of identity (see Appendix B) which create a comprehensive picture of identity. Castell (1997:357) uses a definitive and succinct definition of 3 identity types (see Appendix C), which seem to efficiently encompass the different forms. Guilinotti (2005) says however, Castells recognizes that resistance identities do not result invariably in project identities, but does not explain adequately why this transition may not occur. Nonetheless, these definitions could provide a useful template for identifying identities. Merton (1968) suggested that individuals (in this case American Football players at college in a study of masculine identity) respond in five ways to cultural goals and institutional means conformism, innovative, ritualism, retreatism and rebellion (for detail, see Appendix D). These response classifications will be informed by reflexive identity and the culture itself, and may be a good insight into the impact of sporting culture, perhaps linking with Castells 3 identity types. His study of looking at masculine identity in American Football college teams is a very similar demographic to the research area this topic is looking at university male sports teams (rugby, hockey etc.) so it could be expected similar findings will be present. Conclusively, this monograph has established that a qualitative method is suitable for the interpretivist research question stated, as a subjective view on male university sports culture will undoubtedly render multiple realities. Ontologically speaking, male university sports culture is, of course, subjective. The nature of this topic is opinionated according to differing experiences of, or level of exposure to the culture, and differing personalities and beliefs of individuals. The epistemology will therefore be necessarily open, allowing for as 2

Will Roberts/Martyn Morris

Research Methods in Sport U76137

Tom Midgley 11054786

much scope and discretion as possible, or thick description (Geertz, 1973). Interviews provide the simplest and most coefficient form of data for the proposed topic, and as already highlighted, themes instead of specific questions should be used in order to eradicate closed or leading questions as much as possible. In terms of the question itself, from this research review, it is determinable that a two-fold study would be too large a project to undertake at this time. Therefore, the question shall be reformed into simply What is male university sports culture? This allows the research to be descriptive in defining male university sports culture, the affect it may have on individuals, and how the team ethos is formed around it.

Methodology What is Male University Sports Culture? A Case Study at Oxford Brookes University As the literature review showed, the question of male university sports culture is undoubtedly a qualitative query and requires an interpretivist epistemology. The definition and ontology of male university sports culture will be subjective (i.e. differently viewed by individuals in that culture) and will therefore produce multiple realities. Clifford Geertz called this level of understanding thick description (1973, all further references included), meaning the outcome of appropriate method and methodologies will provide the most cohesive of understandings a strong grasp, with great depth, of the aforementioned subject. Sports culture is predominantly imagined as a heavy drinking environment with (often, negatively) hegemonic characteristics that almost render it tantamount with the youth booze cultures of today. To decipher the actual sports culture, the right method is key. The methodology is interpretivist because a culture of any sort is not quantifiable or measurable in that way. The hermeneutics of culture are entirely subjective and must therefore be researched in a fashion that allows that to shine through. It is a qualitative query, asking questions of personal insight and experience into male university sports culture and therefore must use qualitative methods. Interviews are a sensible and obvious option. The process of interviews would be as follows; gather a group of males involved in university sport, (namely Rugby League, Hockey and Cricket, as they are the sports to which I have immediate access) bringing them together for individual or group interviews. Participants are given an information sheet (see appendix E), explaining their rights and freedom of choice within the study. The interviews, for maximum digression and transparency, shall be semistructured in nature. This means the participants largely have free reign over what they are saying and talking about, rather than a set of pre-established questions that are potentially loaded or perceived as such. Thus, it is preferable to have themes of topic, rather than specific questions, thereby giving a far more vague discussion starter and letting the participants form their own thoughts in relation to the culture. It would be easy to push and probe down paths that may give the desired answer (if there is one), so themes of topic will aid simply to direct the conversation and let the interviewees take it where they will from there (which should in turn, provide an insight into their priorities too). The sample, for a full-scale research study, would include 30 male sports players from various clubs and sporting societies around Oxford Brookes a selected sample, chosen to give as varied and unbiased answers as possible. The diaspora would include rugby league (rugby union has been banned but explayers may be interesting to interview retrospectively), hockey, football, athletics and cricket some of the biggest sports clubs at Brookes. The participants would be selected more or less randomly from 3

Will Roberts/Martyn Morris

Research Methods in Sport U76137

Tom Midgley 11054786

hereon in; volunteers who respond to the offer of partaking in the study. Priority would go to players in senior positions, and players who are consistently part of the team to grasp the best possible idea of male university sports culture. For example, the president/vice president of the society or club and a 1st team player would be prime samples to ask, and for the initial/pilot run of this proposal, such an example is available to the researcher. For analysis, the interviews are to be recorded and transcript will be subsequently analysed carefully; looking for themes and repeated phrases/descriptions, which will give a picture of what the culture is like. The transcript will include every hesitation, every pause, every umm and laugh, all of which will be analysed in context and studied. For example, a laugh when talking about a matter of pressure, depending on the context, may be a clue as to deeper feelings of uncertainty and the wish to appear casual about it. Clearly, one cannot assuredly conclude this imperatively but if what the participants say does not match their attitude, one can detect a mismatch. The analysis of language is key to hermeneutics and essential to deciphering culture, as Woodward infers (2002:77). This method provides insight into the subjective view of sports culture these persons are immersed in, but perhaps does not provide a clear-cut picture (only opinionated). That said, the interpretation of males in that sports culture are going to have the best insight into the culture and, given the right questions, will be able to provide thick description (Geertz, 1973), and it could certainly be said that the personal aspect of interpretation will in turn provide an even thicker description and insight into the mentality of sports culture amongst males. The potential negatives of interviews are that pressure upon the interviewee may impact on their answers, i.e. there is the risk that either they will give the answers they determine as preferred, or the answers that portray them in the most favourable light. Hopefully this problem will be overcome by the fact the interviewees shall be course-mates and good friends, thereby ruling out the element of uneasiness or insecurity. Ethically, interviews are a simple method to use, particularly in a semi-structured format. The participant information sheet explains the purpose and design of the study so participants are never unknowing and therefore the study remains ethically uncompromised. The Brookes E1 form asks the question, Will the study involve discussion of or responses to questions the participants might find sensitive? which is avoided by the semi-structured format of the interviews. Participants have control over what they talk about, therefore any personal or sensitive digression is entirely up to them and not enforced or pressured on them by the interview or interviewer. The reason for this piece of research is thus that understanding the workings, ethos and culture of a male university sports team involves the coach in a way that improves the coach/athlete relationship. If the coach were able to better understand the environment in which his/her players are immersed, then the implications would be beneficial to both players and coaching staff. This research intends to form a clearer picture of university sports culture for males through interviews and ethnography, and in doing so, allow coaches to relate to and engage with their players on a deeper level. Data Analysis From the interview conducted (see appendix F for quotation reference), multiple realities were found as indeed expected from a qualitative study. The interview yielded themes of strong team spirit; the two players repeatedly referring to the cohesion and united vision of growth the club have. The President (or Old Guard) was mentioned positively, knowing that the success of the club was not going to be achieved through a vibrant social but through creating a name for rugby league, comradery and team 4

Will Roberts/Martyn Morris

Research Methods in Sport U76137

Tom Midgley 11054786

cohesion. It appears that the two players interviewed, the Vice President and a first XV player, have grasped this vision. There were recurring mentions of acceptance or allowance in different forms, as 1P stated, the ethos is very much about making everyone fit in, and both players referred to the nonpressurised form of the social scene, that no-one is forced to take part. This is somewhat contradictory to the preconception of university rugby as 1P puts it, compared to like, what you hear about the rugby unionthey were very much about Freshers being putunder high pressure to join in with what ever the older years set. This is also contradictory to what Christie and Barling (2010) found as here, the teams equality statuses lie in attitude, not performance (social or sporting). This seems like a positive place to be in for rugby league there is a vibrant social scene and players who wish to take part in that, can do so, whilst those who are not that way inclined are more or less allowed their quiet. Some players are inferred to be participating for the enjoyment of the socials as well as playing rugby, looking for the crazy side of things whilst others distance themselves from that scene for various reasons and seek to play rugby. Following on from this, there is certainly a laddish and hegemonic culture for the club, which is probably expected with any age group or sports team (Parker and Curtner-Smith, Steinfeldt and Steinfeldt, Merton), yet here it is clear. Sex, girls, crudeness and alcohol are common linguistical themes (Woodward, 2002) but it is interesting that the players interviewed repeatedly play down the existence of hegemonic practices, or at least distance themselves from it, despite clear indications of its presence (McAuley et al. 1997). Delaney and Madigans statement, sport reflects the mores, values and general culture of a society (2009:19), reinforces the link made between the culture of sport and simply the university culture. Indeed, the difference of we as a collective unit, and they as the team (but inferred not us) is most apparent on these topics. These two interviewed players are supportive of the team and cohesive in their reference to the conceived positive aspects of the team, such as sporting cohesion, team ethos and inclusion (referring to the team as we) but upon these more coarse topics, the duo are keen to distance themselves (referring to the team as they). Their identity seems to be in questions here, for identities become more fluid, less fixed and increasingly based upon life-styles (Crawford, 2004:6), their lifestyles and their teams lifestyle are in contradiction. This may well be due to their faith as Christians (indicated by their attendance to church in the opening answers) something perhaps to be addressed in future conductions. The contradiction of self and society is explained by du Gay (2007:24), that most sociology has taken the idea of individual standing outside of society. The we and they differentiation is a key insight into the distinction between the approved aspects of this culture, and the aspects which are not preferable which is somewhere between Mertons responses innovation or retreatism (1968) and links to Eichbergs notion that identity develops by nostrification: This is us (Eichberg, 2004:67). Likewise, the VP speaks of the mixed reaction of Freshers hearing about the lack of initiations at the stall in Freshers Fair. Some are relieved at this revelation, whilst some are not but again, whether this is due to the need to appear laddish and the big dog as VP puts it (Mertons conformism 1968), is unclear. However, the taken reading of these terms and usage is that there is some form of hegemonic desire to be that big dog, an almost egotistic practice. Coulter (2007:76) refers to the bottom-up approach, and how local leadership being a vital factor in the success of initiatives (sports clubs are surely included). This idea is present in the Brookes RLFC, as the VP phrases it; there is no hierarchical structure, but an appointed leader who seeks to develop the club another accreditation Deane (1998), Witt and Crompton (1996) and Coulter (2000) refer to. Male university sports culture (MUSC) then, is a complex idea. From the data gathered, one can establish the culture has multiple levels and dichotomy in purpose for some players. The culture of this particular 5

Will Roberts/Martyn Morris

Research Methods in Sport U76137

Tom Midgley 11054786

rugby league club (whether it can be generalised to other universities remains to be seen), therefore, is somewhat forgiving to those who decline the manic social scene a characteristic praised by the two players here. It is interesting to note that both players observe the social scene and language are not solely located to rugby or sports as a wider bracket, but are simply part of the culture of university itself for males, which is subsidiary to Brock and Tulasiewiczs theory (1948). Therefore, this study induces the conclusion that this culture would need further studies to look at team cohesion, social practices, and hegemonic realisms to better define MUSC, or as one study puts it, identity politics (Elliot and du Gay, 2009). Regarding the method and conducting of the study itself, there are aspects that worked and some that would need rectification upon a full-scale study. The aspects that worked well were the interviews themselves the two players involved covered many of the topics and themes the interviewers sheet had ready to ask without interviewer prompts. This showed that the themes were well chosen and relevant to the studys aim, applicable to the answers searched for in this study. The participants, whilst informative and insightful, were perhaps unsuitable for the study on this scale because they almost saw themselves as outsiders of the culture, perhaps because of their Christian faith, despite being in key positions in the club. This could therefore mean their responses were invalid for thick description. For future conductions of this study, a wider and more varied interview group would be needed to gain a better understanding. Also, observations, it is conceded, would be a valuable addition to the study. Appendices A) Hartmann, D. (2012) Questions 1. Do athletes and non-athletes differ in their concern about prominent social issues and problems? 2. Do athletes and non-athletes experience equal exposure to peers of other races and have similar attitudes towards race relations? 3. Do athletes perceive gender roles and sex-based discrimination differently than non-athletes? 4. Do the basic political orientations of athletes differ from non-athletes? B) Woodward, K. (2002:xii) Identity Characteristics Identity provides links between personal and social, self and society, psychic and social. Identity is relational, being constructed through relations of difference, such as us and them. Identity also has to accommodate and manage difference. Formation and establishment of identity involves both locating and transgressing boundaries. Identity is historically specific; it can be fluid, contingent and changing over time. Uncertainty about identity may lead people to lay claim to essential truths in their search for identity and stability. Identity involves identification and thus the exercise of agency on the part of those who identity with a particular identity position. Identities are marked symbolically and reproduced through representational systems. Identity has material bases, including social, political and economic bases. C) Castells, M. (1997) 3 Identity Types 6

Will Roberts/Martyn Morris

Research Methods in Sport U76137

Tom Midgley 11054786

Legitimizing identity formulated through dominant institutions and groups, to mould the actions and selfunderstanding of actors (participants). Resistance identity emerges among dominated social actors as a survival or resistance strategy. Project identity lends political coherence to resistant acts through new or alternative identities that challenge domination directly. D) Merton, R.K. (1968) 3 Responses Conformism individuals conform to specific cultural aims that are pursued through recognised institutions. Innovation individuals follow cultural goals, but employ their own means of attainment Ritualism individuals lose track of cultural goals, and follow institutional rules out of blind habit Retreatism individuals abandon/reject both cultural goals and institutional means. Rebellion individuals reject cultural goals and institutional means, replacing these with radical alternatives. E) Participant Information Sheet

The reason for this document is to grant participants all necessary knowledge of the study they have been asked to be involved with, and in doing so, build an assurance that they nature and design of the study has been understood. Purpose The purpose of this study is, as the title indicates, to gain an understanding of male university sports culture and in so doing create a better coach/athlete mutuality. If a coach understands and grasps the culture with which his or her team are immersed, relational communication will be improved and a potential for training and performance improvement is unlocked. Therefore, the aim of this study is to be achieved through research of male university sports culture by interviewing insiders; those who are already part of the culture and understand its workings, ethos, pressures, and freedoms. Protocol This acquisition of knowledge is straightforward in design. Participants will take part in a group interview, semi-structured in nature, discussing the aforementioned themes. Themes will be presented as conversation initiators, but discourse will predominantly be participant led, granting an unbiased and untainted view. Interviews in this case will last no longer than 20minutes, and allow participants as much freedom in digression as possible. Participants reserve the right to Leave the study interview at any point Have any questions answered (unless researcher bias may affect) Hold back any information they deem private or do not wish to contribute

By signing below, the participant acknowledges the protocol and purpose of this study and accepts the aforementioned rights.

Will Roberts/Martyn Morris

Research Methods in Sport U76137

Tom Midgley 11054786

Participant: ___________________

Date: _________________

F) Interview Themes and Questions What sports clubs are you involved in? How long have you been in the team? Whats most important to you at university? Team ethos Does the team have a club motto? What are the team principles? How is the organisation of the club structured? Hierarchy/diplomatic etc.? Socials What happens on a social night? Why? Are there any initiations? What do people talk about? (Looking into Woodwards theory of language (2002)) Hegemonic practices how does that work/make you feel? (Steinfeldt and Steinfeldt, 2012)

G) Interview Transcript Present are Tom Midgley, interviewer. (TM) Vice President, Oxford Brookes RLFC (VP) 1st XV Player, Oxford Brookes RLFC (1P)

VP: I play rugby league, ahh, Brookes Bulls, Oxford Brookes UniversityIm in the first team, and Ive been ahh in the squad for two years. 1P: I too play rugby league, er, for Brookes Bulls. Im a fresher so its my first year ahh, and err, currently in the first team.

Will Roberts/Martyn Morris

Research Methods in Sport U76137

Tom Midgley 11054786

TM: Okay. Ahh, okay, whats most important to you at university? *PAUSE* VP: Ah, for me, I think it would be umm the relationships, so having a great umm friendshipumm having great friendships with er teammates or housemates and or people from church or er sub social groups that Im involved with. If I didnt have those, I dont think Id enjoy university. 1P: I too would agree with that. Relationships are a err massive part of errr making everything a bit easier errrr works essential but I wouldnt necessarily say thats the most important thing. Relationships, with yeah, teammates, housemates and church. TM: Umm, in terms of team ethos, what um, in Rugby League, yeah.what kind of ethos is there? VP: Yeah Ill start umm, err, the rugby league teams quite..interesting in the fact that um they really, cos theyre quite a new team theyre quite focused on being more sport orientated so on the pitch rather than things off the pitch. However having said that the ethos that they bring umm obviously involves a lot of social scene and gathering people together ahh whether theyre freshers, third years, second years having a good time whether thats on the bus off the bus err yeah I guessyeahitsye the ethos is a good one I really enjoy it. They just want people to play Rugby...league. 1P: Ah yeah Id agree. *laugh* Being a new team, they errrtheyre keen to grow um grow the club and as a result the ethos is very much about making everyone fit in and enjoy rather than putting pressure on to do anything people dont necessarily want to do..ummtheres a definite play hard ethos, um followed by umm, by aa party hard afterwards umm of which you can join in as much as you want umm*laugh* VP: *Mumbling* well, yehaa okay umm it is an interesting point as some people would say I guess that rugby club especially at a university are quite heavily dominated by drinking culture and er the ethos is kinda I dont knowuhherr set into stone. If theyve been in a rugby team for a while, theyre often quite, the freshers are quite put under pressure to perform not only, like, on the pitch whether which team theyre playing for but also um, I guess like joining the club and getting...getting with girls or guys or whatever 1P: *mumble* VP: *laugh* yeah, exactly, like depending whatever floats your boat. So...ummI think like, our club has a really good ethos I think ummwe dont pressurise anyone, I think thats something that makes us stand out. Yehhhave you found that? 1P: Yeah, nah, Id agree with that. They ummm especially compared to like, what you hear about the rugby uniontheyerthey were very much about freshers being under pressure, under high pressure to join in with whatever the older years set, so that all.and all sorts of social umm initiations which resulted in err the team getting banned in the end actually but umm the rugby league err although there is that going on, so those who want to partake in err the livelier side of things, its not necessarily pressure for everyone umm toI think Id definitely say Ive found that. VP: Yeah, I think theres a resting culture as well, I mean, if people want to have a break and not come out I dont think youre judged for it as much maybe, in other sports clubs. Although Ithey often like, we 9

Will Roberts/Martyn Morris

Research Methods in Sport U76137

Tom Midgley 11054786

were in the car yesterday, and theyre like youre boring cos you dont come out ummm its interesting how they see ummI dont know excitement and things with going out. Umm.not saying I havent been before I do enjoy the...the social atmosphere sometimes, cos its good. But it gets to the stage in the night I guess, when everyone gets a little too rowdy and its gets a little bit too crazy 1P: And with that, stages in the night, theres definitely lots ofdifferent stages in the night so you, you play your game, afterwards you socialise and you go, you go get your showers and get freshened up and you can go and join in the first bit which is just a few drinks to start off with and then it turns into a bit of a pub crawland if you dont wanna join in you can drop that butand if you do wanna carry on then they go on to the club, but you dont have to join in. Umm, so you can drop out at any point* trails off* (except?) VP: Yup, ahha I think the reason why the clubs been so successful in terms of just keeping a, a solid ethos is partly due to umm the the way clubs structured, having a president thats been in the club for a few years and we call him the Old Guard umm or the Big Da-, Big D- 1P: Big D VP: Big D! umm and basically he hes led it really well and theyve just really wanted to be successfulumm.on the pitch and get a name for rugby league so umm yeh, I guess the structures quite..ummauthority doesnt really come through the titles and more respect for their character errjust cos someones the president umm or vice president or something, I think it doesnt really matter, its all the things that you do, its all an act of service and I think that makes us stand out as well. 1P: Yup. The err, theres lots of roles in the club so theres lots of positions for the senior players um cos theres quite a few it means its spread out across and, as you say, it brings aa sense of responsibility of what can you contribute ummm and I think thats been a major help for the success of the club um and everyones approachable and umm everyones willing to um to, to help and to er make a difference so thats definitely been a help. Also theres been a .ertheres definitelyerr, theyre attempting to try and make it more well known across the university so theres a umm..err...all sorts of erweve had some filming at the clubs to show, to errto try and attract people to the big games. Weve got a big varsity game coming up which were trying to get as many as possible to and thatll only help to erraise the profile of the club. VP: Yup. I guess, going back to that social scene, thinking like, justhow like, the president and stuff I dont knowhave banned initiations I guess, they know how detrimental it is. They know like, bringing freshers along to I guess, for me when I was a fresher, I was really grateful they didnt have initiations, it was just one less thing to worry about. UmmIm sure youve found that as well.umm and that encourages people to come to the club. I did kinda force you to...you to join the club *both laught* But I guess like, one of the things, the sweeteners of that deal was that there was no initiationsand thats something you find when I was on the stall this year was people would be like, so when are initiations happening? just to see the look on their face when you say theres no initiations, theyre like, either quite pleased the majority of them were really happy I think, one or two were like, what? Thats weirdI wanna do likedodgy things like, *both laugh* it didnt really, like, much sense but yeah, I, I think umm there is that ability though, to like, mess about and do things you want that if you wanted to be on initiations that like, no one is gonna stop you from doing those things but umm, like, if you act um out of line towards the club in any way, you will be er I guesslooked down upon. 10

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Research Methods in Sport U76137

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1P: Yeum, I for one, coming in as a fresher this year, knowing there were no initiations from the beginning definitely makes it umm.a far more comfortable experience youre not on your toes to be honest, so you can really just settle in and as a result you get to know the lads a lot better, and theres, theres a social every week just er means you have lots of opportunity to get to know people and actually have a laugh, and as times going on, umm youll find theres a split between people who do want to take part in those activities and those who dont. And those who dont do it have to go with those who do love it and having a great time and its not as though theres anyone missing out on what they were expecting, hoping for um yeah, as a club it means everyones keen to get involved and join in and no ones VP: Have you ever been on a social, (name)? 1P: I have actually VP: Balls. 1P: - Yeah I have VP: (name) *laugh* 1P: Ive been to a couple. Have you? VP: Yeah Ive been to a few. I went to a few in my fresher year 1P: Oh yeah? I quite enjoyed the curry night the other nightI though that was err VP: Yeah, the curry night was good. Good gets to a point where you get good conversations and then it I dunno whatlike, they, they talk about so many different things umm its really random. You see a progression, like the other night, like of itlike it goes from like, girlsand drink and people theyve slept with and what what they did last weekend and things like that. We do like, a, a fresher minute of entertainment on the bus which often goes on until the curry nights or the social stuff. And we have a Brookes Banter Buswhich is a Facebook page which is hilariouswhere people just post.just silly things bout like.silly silly things TM: Like what? VP: Ummm 1P: Is it appropriate for er. VP: *Laugh* Yeah, *laugh* um, can you remember anything? You get pictures of like, banter, so you get pictures of fish fingers 1P: *laugh* VP: which is an inside joke, 1P: An inside joke VP: Butbutthings like, I dunno.theres like one half of the club that enjoy that type of thing like, I dunno.like big bummed girls if they squat or if they bench press and things like that 11

Will Roberts/Martyn Morris

Research Methods in Sport U76137

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1P: Yeah, yeah its a mixture between girls, and VP: Music.? 1P: Horrendous stories which have happened. VP: Tour! 1P: Tour. But also, ummthings like the bus with the girl getting hit on the bus, those kinda things go up for entertainment purposes for those interested in those kinda things. VP: Yupso theres just lots of umI guess its whats topical for some of them. Some of the lads that, meet like, like when you talk to them not even on a social scene, just when you talk to them like, out and about, often what theyre preoccupied with like, with generally, seems to have taken over not just their rugby lives, not just like, just a rugby culture seems to drive most of their life its all about going out and seeing how many girls, or whoever you can sleep with umm, at once or *laugh* or umm throughout your year, how many pints you can down I guess, ummbut its notits not as bad as it, as people make it out to be 1P: Yeah. VP: I think social nights can be quite tame, its up to you 1P: Its how you wanna do it. VP: Umm, its how you wanna do it I dont think anyone peer pressures, I mean, I mean toummlike, when they had player awards and if you won an award you get a few drinks given to you and but theres no like, you must drink it or what are you drinking out of its not likeits not umm its not a power culture of fresher, down this 1P: Yeah, ye Id agree VP: its not as harsh as, as some university sports clubs. 1P: Theres, theres the obvious expectation of youuu, as a fresher are presumed to join in but theres no ramifications umm but I think thats the unique thing about sport universities, you are, as you were saying, in university life, whichgoes beyond just the sport these people are living, regardless of the sport, which actually goes onto the sport sceneso you are gonna get that, that lifestyle in thisthis particular point in time. VP: Its ummmpff.I was just gonna say like, when, when you go out on socials or youre playing on the pitch and being with the rugby league ladsdoes it make youdo you feel good like, you pleased to be a part of the team? 1P: Yup. Nah theres a, theres a sense of, of err, of being part of a team which is always good and especially with rugby, you have that natural kind of comraderyofyou go out and you, you almost fight about together and you, you come so much closer and um, which I think is quite a unique thing in sportparticularly to like, rugby. Umm so you, you look forward to that and it becomes a bigumm VP: Definitely. 12

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1P: Becomes a big part of your every day week. TM: Is there, umm, hegemonic practices? So like, whos the biggest man that kinda thing? 1P: *pause* Theres a bit of banter theres a bit of err. VP: From like the competitions .ummm..competitions, which could indicate that someone is the big dog but that could just be size, or ummsize of a phallus, but nothing *Laughter* but nothing in particular in terms of whos the lead we actually have a, I wouldnt say a leadership problem, we dont have a clear cutummleader in some senses so umm, ummm we dont really have umm I dont think that culture is standing out as much as it could do.. 1P: Yeah, theres no one, as you said, theres no one leading that kind of practice, theres noand on the other side, theres no small guy chapumm VP: Yup. 1P: Which means its all pretty ummm.so yeah. TM: Cool, well I think thats everything cheers guys. Thank you. H) Abstracts
1. Br J Sociol. 2012 Jun;63(2):370-87. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2012.01414.x.

Fans, homophobia and masculinities in association football: evidence of a more inclusive environment. Cashmore E, Cleland J. Source Faculty of Health and Psychology, Staffordshire University, UK. Abstract This article draws on 3,500 responses from fans and professionals involved in association football (soccer) to an anonymous online survey posted from June 2010 to October 2010 regarding their views towards gay footballers. The overall findings are that, contrary to assumptions of homophobia, there is evidence of rapidly decreasing homophobia within the culture of football fandom. The results advance inclusive masculinity theory with 93 per cent of fans of all ages stating that there is no place for homophobia within football. Fans blame agents and clubs for the lack of openness and challenge football's governing organizations to oppose the culture of secrecy surrounding gay players and to provide a more inclusive environment to support players who want to come out. London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

2. Lik Sprava. 2011 Jul-Sep;(5-6):131-4. [Analysis of motivational orientation of young people for systematic tutoring improving sports]. [Article in Ukrainian] Yvashchenko SN. Abstract This article examines the results of core and additional motivation which define the content of motivational orientation of young persons in regular classes recreational physical culture and sports. To determine the nature and capacity-building incentive used experimental method of calculating the integral coefficient of incentive tension. PMID: 22606906 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3.

Int J Speech Lang Pathol. 2012 Jun;14(3):247-59.

Sport, scales, or war? Metaphors speech-language pathologists use to describe caseload management. Kenny B, Lincoln M.

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Source

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Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe 1825, NSW, Australia. belinda.kenny@sydney.edu.au Abstract Professionals' experiences, perceptions, and attitudes may be reflected in the metaphors they use to describe and discuss important professional issues. This qualitative study explored speech-language pathologists' experiences of caseload management through metaphorical analysis. Metaphors provided a lens for reflecting participants' lived experiences and professional knowledge construction. Data was obtained from 16 practising speech-language pathologists during individual work place interviews. Participants included new graduate and experienced speech-language pathologists who were employed in hospital and community settings. Metaphors for caseload management were identified from participants' transcribed narratives, then coded and organized into themes. Participants produced a total of 297 metaphors during professional practice narratives. Thematic analysis indicated that participants used three salient metaphors of sport, measuring scales, and war when they addressed caseload issues. Metaphors of sport, scales, and war reflected speech-language pathologists' concerns about managing clients efficiently, perceived caseload burdens, and the conflict they experienced when resources were inadequate. These metaphors may also represent a continuum in speech-language pathologists' personal and professional responses to caseload demands. Shared metaphors may contribute to the professional socialization of individuals entering a profession and to changing or maintaining workplace culture. Hence, speech-language pathologists need to consider the impact of using metaphors of sport, measuring scales, and war during interactions with clients and colleagues. PMID: 22563897 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4.

N Z Med J. 2012 Mar 30;125(1352):60-70.

Binge drinking and alcohol-related behaviours amongst Pacific youth: a national survey of secondary school students. Teevale T, Robinson E, Duffy S, Utter J, Nosa V, Clark T, Sheridan J, Ameratunga S. Source Pacific Health, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. t.teevale@auckland.ac.nz Abstract AIM: Previous studies show Pacific youth polarised as either non/occasional drinkers or heavy binge drinkers. The aim of this study is to describe the demographic, cultural, home and neighbourhood environments of the two types of Pacific drinkers (non-binge drinkers and binge drinkers) to develop risk and protective profiles for alcohol related behaviours. METHODS: Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of New Zealand youth. 1,190 Pacific students who identified any of their ethnicities as Samoan, Cook Islands, Tongan, Niue, Tokelauan, Fijian, or Other Pacific Peoples were included. RESULTS: Data was available on 974 students of whom 31.6% were binge drinkers. Students who were younger and had parental Pacific language use at home were less likely to binge drink than other students. Parents' knowledge of young people's activities after school and at night time was also protective of binge drinking, while participating in

sports teams or a sports club was

associated with increased risk of binge drinking. CONCLUSION: This study indicates the transnational nature of Pacific communities in New Zealand who bring and maintain traditional cultural practices which seem health protective. While participation in

sports activities may have health benefits, our findings indicate

the need for a more proactive approach on the part of policymakers and the sporting sector to address the associated risk of binge drinking. Alcohol interventions that de-normalise alcohol overconsumption are warranted for young Pacific New Zealanders.

5. Eighteenth Century Stud. 2012;45(2):189-205. Popular culture and sporting life in the rural margins of late eighteenth-century England: the world of Robert Anderson, "The Cumberland Bard". Huggins M. Abstract

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This study sets out to extend and challenge existing historiography on late eighteenth century British popular culture, customary sports, class and cultural identity, focusing upon the rural geo-political borderland of England. It suggests that prevailing class-based and more London-biased studies need to be balanced with more regionalist-based work, and shows the importance of northern regional leisure variants. The textual and historical analysis draws largely on the published works of a neglected working-class dialect poet, Robert Anderson, living and working in Cumberland, arguing that he represented a strain of ''bardic regionalism,'' a variant of Katie Trumpeners ''bardic nationalism.'' PMID: 22400156 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6.

Span J Psychol. 2012 Mar;15(1):90-100.

Prediction of adolescents doing physical activity after completing secondary education. Moreno-Murcia JA, Huscar E, Cervell E. Source Universidad Miguel Hernndez de Elche, Centro de Investigacin del Deporte, Avenida de la Universidad, s/n. 03202 Elche, Spain. j.moreno@umh.es Abstract The purpose of this study, based on the self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) was to test the prediction power of student's responsibility, psychological mediators, intrinsic motivation and the importance attached to physical education in the intention to continue to practice some form of physical activity and/or sport, and the possible relationships that exist between these variables. We used a sample of 482 adolescent students in physical education classes, with a mean age of 14.3 years, which were measured for responsibility, psychological mediators, sports motivation, the importance of physical education and intention to be physically active. We completed an analysis of structural equations modelling. The results showed that the responsibility positively predicted psychological mediators, and this predicted intrinsic motivation, which positively predicted the importance students attach to physical education, and this, finally, positively predicted the intention of the student to continue doing sport. Results are discussed in relation to the promotion of student's responsibility towards a greater commitment to the practice of physical exercise. PMID: 22379700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7.

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:1511-4.

Analysis of time-series correlation between weighted lifestyle data and health data. Takeuchi H, Mayuzumi Y, Kodama N. Source Scientific Research, Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. htakeuchi@ takasaki-u.ac.jp Abstract The time-series data analysis described here is based on the simple idea that the accumulation of the effects of lifestyle events, such as ingestion and exercise, could affect personal health with some delay. The delay may reflect complex bio-reactions such as those of metabolism in a human body. In the analysis, the accumulation of the effects of lifestyle events is represented by a summation of daily lifestyle data whose time-series correlation to variations of health data is examined (healthcare-datamining). The concept of weighting is introduced for the summation of daily lifestyle data. As a result, it is suggested that the nature of personal health could be represented by a weighting pattern characterized by a small number of parameters. PMID:22254607 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8. J Hist Sociol. 2011;24(4):472-93. "The necessity for better bodies to perpetuate our institutions, insure a higher development of the individual, and advance the conditions of the race." Physical culture and the formation of the self in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century USA. Martschukat J. Source Erfurt University, Germany. Abstract

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This article explores the significance of sports and physical exercise in the turn-of-the-century culture and society of the U.S. It depicts how physical fitness became a decisive feature of collective and individual self-perception and was understood as being at the core of a successful shaping of both the self and of the American body politic. I concentrate in particular on paradigms and strategies of human resources management to exemplify the overarching significance of physical fitness as it established itself at the heart of the USA's enterprise culture that began to emerge in the later nineteenth century. American peculiarities will be considered, alongside ties and allusions to European, and particularly British, developments. PMID:22250307 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9. Int J Psychol. 2012;47(1):67-75. Epub 2011 Jul 26. Cultural differences in athlete attributions for success and failure: the sports pages revisited. Aldridge LJ, Islam MR. Source School of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, Australia. Abstract Self-serving biases in attribution, while found with relative consistency in research with Western samples, have rarely been found in Japanese samples typically recruited for research. However, research conducted with Japanese participants to date has tended to use forced-choice and/or reactive paradigms, with school or university students, focusing mainly on academic performance or arbitrary and/or researcher-selected tasks. This archival study explored whether self-serving attributional biases would be shown in the real-life attributions for sporting performance made by elite Olympic athletes from Japan and Australia. Attributions (N=216) were extracted from the sports pages of Japanese and Australian newspapers and rated by Australian judges for locus and controllability. It was hypothesized that Australian, but not Japanese, athletes would show self-serving biases such that they attributed wins to causes more internal and controllable than the causes to which they attributed losses. Contrary to predictions, self-serving biases were shown to at least some extent by athletes of both nationalities. Both Australian and Japanese men attributed wins to causes more internal than those to which they attributed losses. Women, however, attributed wins and losses to causes that did not differ significantly in terms of locus. All athletes tended to attribute wins to causes that were more controllable than the causes to which losses were attributed. Results are inconsistent with a large body of research suggesting that Japanese do not show self-serving biases in attribution, and are discussed in the light of differences in methodology, context, and participants that may have contributed to these effects. PMID:22046996 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 10. J Phys Act Health. 2011 Nov;8(8):1074-83. Adolescent physical activity participation and motivational determinants across gender, age, and race. Butt J, Weinberg RS, Breckon JD, Claytor RP. Source Centre for Sport and Exercise Science, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom. Abstract BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) declines as adolescents get older, and the motivational determinants of PA warrant further investigation. The purposes of this study were to investigate the amount of physical and sedentary activity that adolescents participated in across age, gender, and race, and to investigate adolescents' attraction to PA and their perceived barriers and benefits across age, gender, and race. METHODS: High school students (N = 1163) aged between 13 and 16 years completed questionnaires on minutes and intensity of physical and sedentary activity, interests in physical activity, and perceived benefits and barriers to participating in PA. RESULTS: A series of multivariate analyses of variance were conducted and followed up with discriminant function analysis. PA participation decreased in older females. In addition, fun of physical exertion was a primary attraction to PA for males more than females. Body image as an expected outcome of participating in PA contributed most to gender differences. CONCLUSION: There is a need to determine why PA drops-off as females get older. Findings underscore the importance of structuring activities differently to sustain interest in male and female adolescents, and highlights motives of having a healthy body image, and making PA fun to enhance participation. PMID:22039125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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11. Appetite. 2012 Feb;58(1):98-104. Epub 2011 Oct 17. Nutrition and culture in professional football. A mixed method approach. Ono M, Kennedy E, Reeves S, Cronin L. Source Department of Life Sciences, Roehampton University, Whitelands College, Holybourne Avenue, London SW15 4JD, UK. Abstract An adequate diet is essential for the optimal performance of professional football (soccer) players. Existing studies have shown that players fail to consume such a diet, without interrogating the reasons for this. The aim of this study was to explore the difficulties professional football players experience in consuming a diet for optimal performance. It utilized a mixed method approach, combining nutritional intake assessment with qualitative interviews, to ascertain both what was consumed and the wider cultural factors that affect consumption. The study found a high variability in individual intake which ranged widely from 2648 to 4606 kcal/day. In addition, the intake of carbohydrate was significantly lower than that recommended. The study revealed that the main food choices for carbohydrate and protein intake were pasta and chicken respectively. Interview results showed the importance of tradition within the world of professional football in structuring the players' approach to nutrition. In addition, the players' personal eating habits that derived from their class and national habitus restricted their food choice by conflicting with the dietary choices promoted within the professional football clubs. Copyright 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID:22027271 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12. J Sports Sci. 2011 Oct;29(13):1417-24. Epub 2011 Aug 11. "I am" versus "we are": effects of distinctive variants of self-talk on efficacy beliefs and motor performance. Son V, Jackson B, Grove JR, Feltz DL. Source Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823, USA. sonveron@msu.edu Abstract Before completing a team-based dart-throwing activity, 80 undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of three preperformance self-talk conditions: (a) self-talk statements that focused upon one's personal capabilities, (b) self-talk statements emphasizing the group's capabilities, or (c) a control condition where neutral statements were implemented. Participants in all conditions subsequently rated their confidence in their own (i.e. self-efficacy) as well as their team's (i.e. collective efficacy) capabilities, before carrying out the task. Overall, self-efficacy, collective efficacy, and performance indicators were all greatest for individuals who practised self-talk focusing on the group's capabilities, as opposed to individual-focused and neutral conditions. Findings are considered with respect to their novel theoretical contribution to the social cognition literature and their implications for fostering efficacy perceptions and team performance. PMID: 21831003 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13. J Homosex. 2011;58(5):565-78. Masculinities and sexualities in sport and physical cultures: three decades of evolving research. Anderson E. Source Department of Sports Studies, University of Winchester, Winchester, UK. EricAndersonPhd@aol.com Abstract This article traces the foundation of the study between sport and physical cultures and masculinities and sexualities principally by examining the homophobic zeitgeist by which the academic discipline was formed. I show that the intense homophobia of the mid-1980s waned throughout the 1990s, and that during the new millennia, researchers found more inclusive forms of heterosexuality. Indeed, research on masculinities and homophobia today shows that, even in the traditionally conservative institution of sport, matters have shifted dramatically. This has resulted not only in improved conditions for sexual minorities, but it has also promoted a culture of softer, more tactile and emotional forms of heterosexual masculinities. These studies,

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alongside those within this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality, highlight the necessity of developing new ways of theorizing the changing dynamics between masculinities, sexualities, and physical cultures in the next decade. PMID:21534070 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 14. World Neurosurg. 2010 Dec;74(6):560-5. The National Football League and concussion: leading a culture change in contact sports. Ellenbogen RG, Berger MS, Batjer HH. Source Department of Neurological Surgery, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. rge@u.washington.edu PMID:21492616 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 15. Alcohol Alcohol. 2011 May-Jun;46(3):270-7. Epub 2011 Mar 29. Alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking among undergraduates at English universities. Heather N, Partington S, Partington E, Longstaff F, Allsop S, Jankowski M, Wareham H, St Clair Gibson A. Source School of Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Northumberland Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE18ST, UK. nick.heather@northumbria.ac.uk Abstract AIMS: To report on alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking from a survey of university students in England in 2008-2009. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was carried out in a purposive sample of 770 undergraduates from seven universities across England. RESULTS: Sixty-one per cent of the sample (65% men; 58% women) scored positive (8+) on the AUDIT, comprising 40% hazardous drinkers, 11% harmful drinkers and 10% with probable dependence. There were large and significant differences in mean AUDIT scores between the universities taking part in the survey. Two universities in the North of England showed a significantly higher combined mean AUDIT score than two universities in the Midlands which in turn showed a significantly higher mean AUDIT score than three universities in the South. When the effects of university attended were extracted in a binary logistic regression analysis, independent significant predictors of AUDIT positive status were younger age, 'White' ethnicity and both on-campus and off-campus term-time student accommodation. CONCLUSIONS: Undergraduates at some universities in England show very high levels of alcohol-related risk and harm. University authorities should estimate the level of hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders among students at their institutions and take action to reduce risk and harm accordingly. Research is needed using nationally representative samples to estimate the prevalence of alcohol risk and harm in the UK student population and to determine the future course of drinking problems among students currently affected. 16. J Ethn Subst Abuse. 2011;10(1):48-70. Coming of age: how adolescent boys construct masculinities via substance use, juvenile delinquency, and recreation. Sanders JM. Source Hood College, Frederick, Maryland 21701, USA. sandersj@hood.edu Abstract This research aims to uncover aspects of adolescent masculine development among adult substance abusers. In-depth interviews and the resulting narrative provide the data for this exploratory analysis. Three main areas of adolescent masculinities are discussed: substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, and recreation. The findings are interpreted in light of Connell's conceptualization of hegemonic masculinities. Based on this sample, masculinities are constructed via a menu of adolescent behaviors that are descriptive of a working class lifestyle. It is the cultural context that sets the stage for substance abuse and its meaning to identity formation in adolescence, as well as in adulthood. Substance abuse in adolescence, along with other forms of juvenile delinquency and recreation, is a means of achieving masculinity. Unfortunately, for these men the

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use of substance abuse to achieve masculinity in adolescence becomes problematic later in adulthood. This article concludes that to successfully recover from substance abuse and addiction, these men must revisit and reframe their adolescent constructions of masculinity to better fit the problems and challenges they face as adults. PMID:21409704 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 17. Br J Educ Psychol. 2011 Mar;81(Pt 1):59-77. doi: 10.1348/000709910X503501. Academic self-concept and academic achievement: relations and causal ordering. Marsh HW, Martin AJ. Source Department of Education, Oxford University, UK. herb.marsh@education.ox.ac.uk Abstract BACKGROUND. A positive self-concept is valued as a desirable outcome in many disciplines of psychology as well as an important mediator to other outcomes. AIMS. The present review examines support for the reciprocal effects model (REM) that posits academic self-concept (ASC) and achievement are mutually reinforcing, each leading to gains in the other - and its extension to other achievement domains. METHOD. We review theoretical, methodological, and empirical support for the REM. Critical features in this research are a theoretical emphasis on multidimensional perspectives that focus on specific components of self-concept and a methodological focus on a construct validity approach to evaluating the REM. RESULTS. Consistent with these distinctions, REM research and a comprehensive meta-analysis show that prior ASC has direct and indirect effects on subsequent achievement, whilst the effects of self-esteem and other non-academic components of self-concept are negligible. We then provide an overview of subsequent support for the generality of the REM for: young children, cross-cultural, health (physical activity), and non-elite (gymnastics) and elite (international swimming championships) sport. CONCLUSION. This research is important in demonstrating that increases in ASC lead to increases in subsequent academic achievement and other desirable educational outcomes. Findings confirm that not only is self-concept an important outcome variable in itself, it also plays a central role in affecting other desirable educational outcomes. Implications for educational practice are discussed. 2010 The British Psychological Society. PMID:21391964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18. Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab. 2012;18(1):27-32. The physique and body composition of students studying physical education: a preliminary report. Smolarczyk M, Winiewski A, Czajkowska A, Kska A, Tkaczyk J, Milde K, Norkowski H, Gajewski J, Trajdos A, Majchrzak A. Source Department of Sports Games, Jzef Pisudski University of Physical Education, Warszawa, Poland. marcin.smolarczyk@awf.edu.pl Abstract INTRODUCTION: Young people who study physical education are a priori regarded as having proper body structure and body composition. This assumption cannot be confirmed in the subject literature. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the basic auxological parameters in youth who study physical education. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 235 first-year students studying physical education were examined: 32% women (n=74) and 68% men (n=161). The students' body height, weight, waist, and hip circumference were measured. Body composition (bioimpedance method), specifying the body fat percentage (FM%) and fat free mass (FFM%) was also assessed. RESULTS: The mean normalized height of the female body was 0.481.07 SDS, and for the male body 0.511.04 SDS. The mean normalized weight for women was 0.40.94 SDS, and for men it was 0.830.9 SDS. The mean fat percentage in the body composition of women and men was, respectively, 21.55.06, ranging from 10.16% to 35.06%, and 12.53.97, ranging from 4.36% to 22.28%. In one-third of the women, the percentage of fat in the body composition was higher than 25%. CONCLUSIONS: 1. Young people who choose to study physical education and physical

culture are characterized by greater height and

greater body weight than the general population, regardless of gender. 2. Short persons study physical education less often than tall individuals. 3. The greater body weight observed in the majority of students studying physical education, in comparison to that of the general population, was caused by a dominant percentage of lean body mass in body composition; unexpectedly, however, some women were observed to have relatively high fat content. 4. Use of the body mass index and waist-hip ratio

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was not a sufficiently sensitive screening examination to detect fatness in physically active young adults; therefore, it should not substitute for the determination of fat content in body composition. PMID:22525688 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19. J Phys Act Health. 2010 Nov;7(6):770-5. Adolescent gender and ethnicity differences in physical activity perceptions and behavior. Yoo S, Lounsbery M AF, Bungum TJ, Gast J. Source Dept. of Sports Education Leadership, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA. Abstract OBJECTIVES: To examine gender and ethnicity differences in adolescents' physical activity (PA) behavior and perceptions. METHODS: Surveys designed to measure PA behavior and perception were completed by 175 adolescents. Gender and ethnicity differences in PA behavior were examined using chi-square tests. A two-way between groups MANOVA was used to examine perception. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between gender groups for PA. Caucasian students were more likely to be active and to perceive that PA makes their health better. Hispanics were more likely to perceive that PA requires more time than Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest greater consideration be given to the ethnic orientation of PA behavior antecedents when promoting PA to adolescents. 20. PMID: 21088308 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Child Dev. 2012 Mar-Apr;83(2):442-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01729.x. Epub 2012 Feb 7. A network method of measuring affiliation-based peer influence: assessing the influences of teammates' smoking on adolescent smoking. Fujimoto K, Unger JB, Valente TW. Source Division of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health University of Texas at Houston, TX 77030, USA. kayo.fujimoto@uth.tmc.edu Abstract Using a network analytic framework, this study introduces a new method to measure peer influence based on adolescents' affiliations or 2-mode social network data. Exposure based on affiliations is referred to as the "affiliation exposure model." This study demonstrates the methodology using data on young adolescent smoking being influenced by joint participation in schoolbased organized sports activities with smokers. The analytic sample consisted of 1,260 American adolescents from ages 10 to 13 in middle schools, and the results of the longitudinal regression analyses showed that adolescents were more likely to smoke as they were increasingly exposed to teammates who smoke. This study illustrates the importance of peer influence via affiliation through team sports. 2012 The Authors. Child Development 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc. PMID:22313152 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC3305834 [Available on 2013/3/1]

21. J Appl Psychol. 2010 Sep;95(5):920-34. Beyond status: relating status inequality to performance and health in teams. Christie AM, Barling J.

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School of Business and Economics, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3C5. achristie@wlu.ca Abstract Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status individuals when uncooperative behavior is high. Trajectories of the outcomes across time are also explored. Analyses using multilevel modeling largely support our hypotheses in a sample of National Basketball Association players across six time points from 2000 to 2005. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

22. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2010 Mar;5(1):103-16. Talent development in adolescent team sports: a review. Burgess DJ, Naughton GA. Source Australian Catholic University, Faculty of the Health Sciences, North Sydney, Australia. Abstract Traditional talent development pathways for adolescents in team sports follow talent identification procedures based on subjective games ratings and isolated athletic assessment. Most talent development models are exclusive rather than inclusive in nature. Subsequently, talent identification may result in discontentment, premature stratification, or dropout from team sports. Understanding the multidimensional differences among the requirements of adolescent and elite adult athletes could provide more realistic goals for potential talented players. Coach education should include adolescent development, and rewards for team success at the adolescent level should reflect the needs of long-term player development. Effective talent development needs to incorporate physical and psychological maturity, the relative age effect, objective measures of game sense, and athletic prowess. The influences of media and culture on the individual, and the competing time demands between various competitions for player training time should be monitored and mediated where appropriate. Despite the complexity, talent development is a worthy investment in professional team sport. PMID:20308701 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23. Am J Occup Ther. 2007 Jul-Aug;61(4):451-62.

Boys with developmental coordination disorder: loneliness and Poulsen AA, Ziviani JM, Cuskelly M, Smith R. Source

team sports

participation.

Division of Occupational Therapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The 4072, Queensland, Australia. a.poulsen@uq.edu.au Abstract OBJECTIVE:

University of Queensland, Brisbane,

This study investigated the mediational role of team sports and other leisure occupations for boys ages 10 to 13 years in the relationship between physical coordination ability and perceptions of loneliness. METHOD: Sixty boys with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 113 comparison boys without DCD completed a self-report measure of loneliness. Parents recorded information on leisure involvement over 7 days. RESULTS: Boys with DCD recorded significantly higher loneliness and lower participation rates in all group physical activities, whether structured (e.g.,team sports) or unstructured (e.g., informal outdoor play) than boys without DCD. An inverse relationship between physical coordination ability and loneliness was mediated by participation in team sports. No other leisure pursuits were found to be significant mediators. Childhood physical coordination difficulties were significantly associated with loneliness. CONCLUSION: Participation in team sports acted as one potential mechanism mediating the inverse relationship between physical coordination ability and loneliness in boys. Occupational therapists can act as advocates to support boys with DCD who choose

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to participate in team sports. Further investigations are recommended to determine aspects of team sports environments that promote an optimal fit among child, activity, and environment. PMID:17685178 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 24. BMC Fam Pract. 2012 Mar 12;13:16. Evaluating a team-based approach to research capacity building using a matched-pairs study design. Holden L, Pager S, Golenko X, Ware RS, Weare R. Source School of Medicine, Griffith University, University Drive, Meadowbrook, Queensland 4131, Australia. l.holden@griffith.edu.au Abstract BACKGROUND: There is a continuing need for research capacity building initiatives for primary health care professionals. Historically strategies have focused on interventions aimed at individuals but more recently theoretical frameworks have proposed approaches. Few studies have evaluated these new approaches. This study aims to evaluate a individual, team and organisation domains. METHODS: A non-randomised matched-pairs trial design was used to evaluate the impact of a multi-strategy research capacity building intervention. Four intervention teams recruited from one health service district were compared with four control teams from outside the district, matched on service role and approximate size. All were multi-disciplinary allied health teams with a primary health care role. Random-effects mixed models, adjusting for the potential clustering effect of teams, were used to determine the significance of changes in mean scores from pre- to post-intervention. Comparisons of intervention versus control groups were made for each of the three domains: individual,

team-based

team-based approach to

research capacity building (RCB) in primary health using a validated quantitative measure of research capacity in

team and organisation. The Individual Domain measures the research

skills of the individual, whereas Team and Organisation Domains measure the team/organisation's capacity to support and foster research, including research culture. RESULTS: In all three domains (individual, team and organisation) there were no occasions where improvements were significantly greater for the control group (comprising the four control teams, n = 32) compared to the intervention group (comprising the four intervention teams, n = 37) either in total domain score or domain item scores. However, the intervention group had a significantly greater improvement in adjusted scores for the Individual Domain total score and for six of the fifteen Individual Domain items, and to a lesser extent with Team and Organisation Domains (two items in theTeam and one in the Organisation domains). CONCLUSIONS: A team-based approach to RCB resulted in considerable improvements in research skills held by individuals for the intervention group compared to controls; and some improvements in the

team and organisation's capacity to support

research. More strategies targeted at teamand organisation research-related policies and procedures may have resulted in increased improvements in these domains.

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ARTICLE | March 17, 1993

Sports Participation, Age at Smoking Initiation, and the Risk of Smoking Among US High School Students Luis G. Escobedo, MD, MPH; Stephen E. Marcus, PhD; Deborah Holtzman, PhD; Gary A. Giovino, PhD JAMA. 1993;269(11):1391-1395. doi:10.1001/jama.1993.03500110059035. ABSTRACT | Objective. To examine smoking patterns, smoking initiation, and the relationship of sports participation and age at smoking initiation to regular and heavy smoking among adolescents. Design. Survey. Participants. A nationally representative sample of US high school students. Outcome Measures. Prevalences of smoking patterns, prevalence and incidence of smoking initiation, and prevalences and odds of regular and heavy smoking in relation to sports participation and age at smoking initiation.

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Research Methods in Sport U76137

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Results. Seventy-two percent of students reported experimenting with, formerly, or ever smoking cigarettes, and 32% reported smoking in the past 30 days. Students who had participated in interscholastic sports were less likely to be regular and heavy smokers than were others who had not participated. Smoking initiation rates increased rapidly after age 10 years and peaked at age 13 to 14 years. Students who began smoking at age 12 years or younger were more likely to be regular and heavy smokers than were students who began smoking at older ages. Conclusions. These data suggest that smoking initiation at a young age can increase the risk of nicotine addiction during adolescence and that sports participation may influence smoking behavior. Interventions to prevent smoking should be available before age 12 years to help combat the smoking epidemic among youth.(JAMA. 1993;269:1391-1395)

26. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 24:115-128, 2012 Copyright Association for Applied Sport Psychology Athletic Identity and Conformity to Masculine Norms Among College Football Players Matthew Steinfeldt; Jesse A. Steinfeldt. Sport represents an influential institution of masculinity socialization that impacts the psychosocial development of many men in American society. In order to examine this dynamic, we investigated conformity to masculine norms among 523 college football players. Results indicated that participants conformity to traditional masculine was influenced by year in school, on -field position played and athletic identity. Results of this interdisciplinary endeavour between the fields of sport psychology and the psychological study of men and masculinity can assist sport psychologists in designing interventions to help football players better understand messages of masculinity conveyed within the unique socialization context of football. 27. Sport Education and Society, Vol. 17, No. 4, August 2012, pp. 479-496 Sport Education: a panacea for hegemonic masculinity in physical education or more of the same? Mitchum B. Parker; Mathew D. Curtner-Smith. Sport education has received considerable support from teachers, teacher educators and the sport pedagogy literature as a cure for much that ails physical education. The purpose of the study described in this paper was to determine the extent to which teachers employing the sport education model rejected and combatted or supported and reinforced masculine bias and sexism. Participants were one male and one female pre-service teacher. The study was conducted in the United States. Data collection and analysis were driven by the theory of hegemonic masculinity. Data were collected using a series of qualitative techniques as pre-service teachers taught four sport education seasons to middle school pupils aged 11-14years. Data were analysed by employing analytic induction and constant comparison. Results revealed that hegemonic masculinity was supported and reinforced and masculine bias and sexism were prevalent within the scaffolding of the sport education seasons. These findings suggest that merely adhering to the curricular scaffolding of the sport equation model provides no more insulation against inequality than working within more traditional curricular frameworks. It was hypothesized that the support and reinforcement of hegemonic masculinity were due to the pre-service teachers orientations to teaching/coaching, interpretation of sport education and inexperience

28. Sport, Education and Society, Vol. 17, No. 3, June 2012, pp. 293-311 A sociocultural perspective as a curriculum change in health and physical education Ken Cliff As a lens through which to read and understand a subject area and its curriculum content and issues, a sociocultural perspective is a recent and arguably significant change for the Health and Physical Education (HPE) Key Learning Area (KLA) in Australia. Its significance lies, first, in the fact that it seems to respresnt a notable departure from the predominantly medicoscientific, bio-physical and even psychological foundations of the learning area as it stood through the second half of the twentieth century, and second, because its attention to social and cultural influences on health put it in direct opposition to notions which locate health almost solely in the individual and his or her decisions. Despite the potential ramifications of these shifts for practitioners, to date there has been little research that has examined this change within the context of the classroom. This paper reports on a research project conducted in two classrooms in the Australian sate of New South Wales, which began with the question what happens when you introduce a unit of work planned with the aim of developing a sociocultural perspective into the HPE classroom? I respond to this question by drawing on teacher and student interviews, planning sessions, and classroom observations and recordings to discuss the most prominent discursive tensions and organisational contraints that stand as impediments to a sociocultural perspective as a practiced curriculum change. 29. Sport, Education and Society, Vol. 17, No. 2, March 2012, pp. 181-206 Body practices exposure and effect of a sporting culture? Stories from three Australian swimmers.

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Jenny McMahon, Dawn Penney and Maree Dinan-Thompson This paper contributes to sport, sociology and the body literature by exploring the exposure and effect of culture, in particular bodily practices placed on three adolescent swimmers immersed in the Australian swimming culture using an ethnographic framework. The research reported is particularly notable as it addresses two distin ct time points in the swimmers lives. The first section explores the adolescent experiences of three female swimmers within the cultural context of Australian swimming by articulating some of the specific body practices and memes (ideas, symbols and pra ctices) that they were exposed to and/or engaged within relation to the body. The second section of this paper focuses on the same three swimmers in the present day , some 10-30 years after being immersed in the Australian swimming culture as adolescents. It excavates their body practices and the relationships they now have with their body, and thus pursues the sustained impact of the body practices and memes they were exposed to as adolescents. Analysis employs concepts drawn mainly from Foucault, particularly his thesis in regard to disciplinary power, regulation, classification and surveillance. At a club (amateur) and National level, Australia n swimming is revealed as an institution, a site and culture where particular techniques of power have become concentrated and have been brought to bear on individuals in systematic ways, with sometimes damaging effects arising for athletes long term health and well-being, particularly if the individuals concerned continue to engage with cultural practices in regard to the body post-career. 30. Sport, Education and Society, Vol. 17, No. 1, January 2012, pp. 113-132 The attitudes and opinions of high school sports participants: an exploratory empirical examination Douglas Hartmann, John Sullivan, and Toben Nelson Sports scholars and public commentators have long held both positive and critical opinions about the influence of athletic involvement on participants and their perceptions of the social world. Yet for all the strong claims and deeply held assumptions, relatively little empirical data or social scientific analysis have been available. This study begins to address this deficiency using new data from a nationally representative survey of American high school students. We compare sports participants and their peers in terms of concern for social problems, interracial contact and attitudes, views of gender roles and sex-based discrimination and political orientation. We find participants and non-participants differ very little in their social concern and views of gender role and sex-based discrimination, while significant differences were found in levels of interracial contact, views on race relations and political orientation. In view of these findings, we make some general conclusions about how social influence of sport in the lives of American youth and how this topic may be further explored in subsequent work.

31. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2009, 31, 484-504 Human Kinetics, Inc. Test, Revision, and Cross-Validation of the Physical Activity Self-Definition Model Deborah Kendzierski and Mara S. Morganstein Structural equation modelling was used to test an extended version of the Kendzierski, Furr and Schiavoni (1998) Physical Activity Model. A revised model using data from 622 runners fit the data well. Cross-validation indices supported the revised model, and this model also provided a good fit to data from 397 cyclists. Partial invariance was found across activities. In both samples, perceived commitment and perceived ability had direct effects on self-definition, and perceived wanting, perceived trying and enjoyment had indirect effects. The contribution of perceived ability to self-definition did not differ across activities. Implications concerning the original model, indirect effects, skill salience and the role of context in self-definition are discussed. 32. The Sport Psychologist. Volume 25. Number 3. September 2011 Psychological Skills Training with Community College Athletes : The UNIFORM Approach Colleen Marie Horn, Jenelle N. Gilbert, Wade Gilbert and Dawn K. Lewis

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3. Christie, A.M. and Barling, J. (2010) Beyond Status: Relating Status Inequality to Performance and Health in Teams. IN Journal of Applied Psychology. September 2010; 95(5):920-34 APA. 4. Coulter, Fred; Allison, M and Taylor, J. (2000) The Role of Sport in Regenerating Deprived Urban Areas. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive (cited in Coulter, 2007) 5. Coulter, Fred (2007) A Wider Social Role for Sport: Whos Keeping the Score? Abingdon: Routledge 6. Crawford, Gary (2004) Consuming Sport: Fans, Sport and Culture. London: Routledge 7. Deane, J, (1998) Community Sports Initiatives: An Evaluation of UK Policy Attempts to Involve the Young Unemployed. The 1980s Action Support Scheme IN Sport In The City: Conference Proceedings. Loughborough and Sheffield: Lboro University and Sheffield Hallam University, vol. 1 Sheffield, 2-4 July, pp. 140 159 (cited in Coulter, 2007) 8. Delaney, Tim and Madigan, Tim (2009) The Sociology of Sports: An Introduction. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. 9. Du Gay, Paul (2007) Organizing Identity. London: Sage 10. Elliot, Anthony and du Gay, Paul (2009) Identity in Question. London: Sage 11. Geertz, Clifford (1973) Description: Toward and Interpretive Theory of Culture, The Interpretation of Culture. New York, NY: Basic Books. 12. Giddens, Anthony. (1991) Modernity and Self Identity. Cambridge: Polity Press. P215 13. Guilianotti, Richard (2005) Sport: A Critical Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press 14. Hartmann, D; Sullivan, J and Nelson, T. (2012) The attitudes and opinions of high school sports participants: an exploratory empirical examination IN Sport, Education and Society Vol. 17, No. 1, January 2012, pp. 113-132 15. Marsh, H.W. and Martin, A.J. (2011) Academic Self-Concept and Academic Achievement: Relations and Causal Ordering IN British Journal of Educational Psychology 2011 March; 81 (Pt. 1):59-77. The British Psychological Society 2010 16. McAuley, E; Mihalko, S.L; Bane, S.M. (1997) Exercise and Self Esteem in Middle Aged Adults: Multidimensional Relationships and Physical Fitness and Self-Efficacy Influences IN Journal of Behavioural Medicine, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1997. 17. Merton, R.K. (1968) Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press 18. Parker, Mitchum B. and Curtner-Smith, Matthew D. (2012) Sport Education: A Panacea for Hegemonic Masculinity in Physical Education or More of the Same? IN Sport, Education and Society, Vol. 17, No. 4, August 2012, pp. 479-496 19. Simon, (1991) TITLE UNKNOWN pp.16-17 (citation) 20. Steinfeldt and Steinfeldt (2012) Athletic Identity and Masculine Norms, IN Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, April June 2012, Vol 24, No. 2. 21. Witt, P.A. and Crompton, J.L. (1996) Recreation Programs that Work for At-Risk Youth. State College, PA: Venture Publishing. (Cited in Coulter, 2007). 22. Woodward, Kath (2002) Understanding Identity. London: Hodder Education

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