Landmarks in genetics and genomics

U C A G

U

C

A
Tyr
stop stop

G
Cys
stop

4
U C A G U C A G U C A G U C A G

G

A

T

C

Phe Leu Ser

Trp Arg

Leu Pro

His Gln Asn Lys Asp

International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium formed
5' 3' 5'

US National Research Council issues report on Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome
STS Markers

lle Met

Thr

Ser Arg

New strands

Val

Ala

Glu

Gly

Muscular-dystrophy gene identified by positional cloning

Gregor Mendel discovers laws of genetics

Rediscovery of Mendel’s work

Archibald Garrod formulates the concept of human inborn errors of metabolism

Development of yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) cloning

Sequence-tagged sites (STS) mapping concept established

Human Genome Project
1990 2003

Alfred Henry Sturtevant makes the first linear map of genes

Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty demonstrate that DNA is the hereditary material

James Watson and Francis Crick describe the double-helical structure of DNA

Marshall Nirenberg, Har Gobind Khorana and Robert Holley determine the genetic code

Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer develop recombinant DNA technology

The Belmont Report on the use of human subjects in research is issued

Frederick Sanger, Allan Maxam and Walter Gilbert develop DNA-sequencing methods

GenBank database established

First human disease gene — for Huntington’s disease — is mapped with DNA markers

First public discussion of sequencing the human genome

Desired fragment strands

First automated The polymerase DNA-sequencing instrument chain reaction (PCR) is invented developed

First-generation human genetic map developed

Human Genome Organization (HUGO) formed

Cystic-fibrosis gene identified by positional cloning

1865

1900

1905

1913

1944

1953

1966

1972

1974

1977

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990
The Human Genome Project (HGP) launched in the United States

1991
First US genome centres established
Genetic Map

1992

1993
New five-year plan for the HGP in the United States published

1994
The HGP’s human genetic mapping goal achieved

1995
The HGP’s human physical mapping goal achieved

1996
First human gene map established Pilot projects for human genome sequencing begin in the United States

1997
The DOE forms the Joint Genome Institute

1998
Incorporation of 30,000 genes into human genome map New five-year plan for the HGP in the United States published

1999
Full-scale human genome sequencing begins

2000
Draft version of human genome sequence completed

2001
Draft version of human genome sequence published

2002
Draft version of mouse genome sequence completed and published

2003
Finished version of human genome sequence completed
The HGP ends with all goals achieved

20

30

30

20

25

cM

Cytogenetic Map

25

50

75

100

125

Physical Map 150 Mb

Second-generation human genetic map developed

…GATCTGCTA TACTACCGC ATTATTCCG…

US National Center for Human Genome Research becomes the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)

US President Bill Clinton and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair support free access to genome information

RH Map

Clone-Based STS Map

Sequence Map

First archaeal genome sequenced First bacterial genome (Haemophilus influenzae) sequenced Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) genome sequenced

Fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) genome sequenced

Ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) programmes founded at the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Department of Energy (DOE) Rapid-data-release guidelines established by the NIH and DOE

Escherichia coli genome sequenced

RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center established in Japan

Sequence of first human chromosome (chromosome 22) completed Mustard cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome sequenced

Draft version of rice genome sequence completed and published

Roundworm (Caenorhabditis elegans) genome sequenced The Sanger Centre founded near Cambridge, UK, (later renamed the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission issues policy on genetic discrimination in the workplace The HGP’s mouse genetic mapping goal achieved Genoscope (French National Genome Sequencing Center) founded near Paris

10,000 full-length human cDNAs sequenced Draft version of rat genome sequence completed

Mammalian Gene Collection
Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) initiative begins

To be continued...

First gene for breast cancer (BRCA1) mapped

GTGCT GTCCT
Bermuda principles for rapid and open data release established Chinese National Human Genome Centers established in Beijing and Shanghai Executive order bans genetic discrimination in US federal workplace

DESIGN BY DARRYL LEJA PEAS COURTESY J. BLAMIRE, CITY UNIV. NEW YORK; WATSON & CRICK COURTESY A. BARRINGTON BROWN/SPL; SCIENCE COVERS COURTESY AAAS

© 2003 Nature Publishing Group

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