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The Concepts and Methods of Sociology Author(s): Franklin H. Giddings Source: American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 10, No.

2 (Sep., 1904), pp. 161-176 Published by: The University of Chicago Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2761943 . Accessed: 19/08/2013 00:00
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THE CONCEPTS

AND METHODS

OF SOCIOLOGY.'

in a brief conceptions of paperthe fundamental To SET forth as task. The difficulty increases anymodern scienceis a difficult the have to with from sciences that do relatively simple we pass to the highlycomplexsciencesof life and of inorganic matter, by mind. And when we come to the phenomenapresented of aggregations of livingbeings-phenomenaof the interaction of activity many phenomena of the concerted mindwithmnind, a common destiny -we have a out together individuals working for too intricate, studytoo many-sided, subjectfor scientific in a few comprehensive phrases,and the scientific description onlyaftera long itself arrivesat fundamental conceptions study conceptions and extensive processof elimination.Fundamental in sucha field expressing the relageneraltruths, are necessarily tions that endless facts of detail bear to one another,or to processes,or causes. A brief account, underlying groupings, of the fundamental of sociology,and of conceptions therefore, studyof society,must the methods available for the scientific thatlendto our particulars remorselessly excludethoseconcrete real-its human life its pre-eminently knowledge of collective that are eleto conceptions -interest. It must be restricted and in a degreeabstract. mental, general, I shall group the fundamental to thisnecessity, Conforming of sociologyin threedivisions, connamely: first, conceptions that is to say, of sociologicalstudy, ceptsof the subject-matter of society;second, to theanalysisand classiconcepts pertaining fication of social facts,and incidentally to the corresponding of sociologicalscience; third, of the chief concepts subdivisions processesenteringinto social evolution,and of the inferred causes. " has three The significations. The word" society legitimate
1 An address delivered at the International Congress of Arts and Science, Departmentof Sociology, September,1904.

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first is that of the Latin word societas,meaning"companion" pleasurable consortingtogether," ship," " good-fellowship," regardedthat consort. or meaningthe individualscollectively by the Examples of societyin this originalsense are afforded the club, the familiar spirits at the tavern or comnmingling of resort, at the summer casual association of chanceacquaintances the nunmberless more formal"functions"of "the season." In of the word, "society" is a group of the second signification for the achievement of any object of individuals co-operating guild, commoninterest or utility, as, for example,a merchant a church, a Congressof Artsand Scicorporation, an industrial ence. Finally,in the thirdsignification of the word,"society" dwellingtogether and sharingmany is a group of individuals interests of life in common. A nestof ants,a savage horde,a confederation of barbariantribes,a hamletor village, a citystate,a nationalstate,a federalempire-all theseare societies definition of the term. A withinthe thirdand comprehensive of societymust lie withinthe boundaries scientific conception meanings, but it must seize upon fixedby thesethreefamiliar it may be, thatis fact,whatever and makeexplicit the essential in all social relations. a common element two At the presenttime we findin sociologicalliterature of the essential natureof society. They competing conceptions as the organic and the psychological are known respectively conception. assumesthatthegroupof individuals The organicconception is the true,or typical, society, dwellingand workingtogether and that it is as much a unity,althoughmade up of indiof cells body,composed viduals,as is theanimalor thevegetable into mutually tissuesand organs. and differentiated dependent Sketchedin bold outlinesby HerbertSpencerin his essay on has been in i86o, the organicconception The Social Orga-nism and is today acceptedas and Lilienfeld, elaborated by Schaiffle of an able groupof Frenchsociologists, theworking hypothesis in of L'Institutinternawhose work appears the proceedings tionalde Sociologie. or not The psychological assumesthat,whether conception

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it be true and of scientific importance, the organicconception failsto get to the bottomof things. It assumesthat,even if some interaction of thereis necessarily society is an organism, to common or some formof activity individual withindividual, and in helpful thatservesto bind themtogether all individuals instead of being pleasurable relations,and that this activity, like the cohesionof materialcells, is a mental merely physical, phenomenon.It assumesthatall social bonds may be resolved of individual intosome commonactivity or some interactivity minds. It is, in short,a view of societyas a mode of mental activity. in general terms.It takes, This is thepsychological conception to answerthe quesformsin attempting however, fourspecific tion: What definite mode of mentalactionis the mostelemenof the social relation? taryform of theseanswers, one that According to themostpretentious datesback to Epicurus,and lies at the basis of all the covenant or social-contract the psychotheoriesof politicalphilosophy, a perception of the utility society is found in logical originof of association. It assumesthatmen consciously and purposely createsocial relations to escape the ills of a "state of nature" and to reap the rewards of co-operation. This rationalistic formsof a true explanationof highlyartificial theoryoffers in a civil,especially social organization an industrial, state,but spontaneous it throwsno light upon the natureof elemental, co-operation. For thiswe mustturnto the otherthreeconcepformsof -all of them,I ventureto think, modernized tions notions. certain veryancient social fact According to one of these,the most elementary the contagious is seenin theconstraining power,the impression, that an aggregation, a mass, of living beings exerts influence mind. Societyis thusviewedas a phenomuponeachindividual and hypnosis. This view of enon closelyallied to suggestion in the writings and of Durkheim societyis mostfullyset forth Le Bon. A third conception, of our identified with the life-work lamentedcolleague, Gabriel Tarde, assumes that impression,

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as formsof the interaction of mind with influence, contagion, be accountedfor. It explainsthemas mind,may themselves modes of exampleand imitation. All societyis thus resolved intoproducts of imitation. " and " imiIn strict psychological analysisthese" impression as scientifically develtation" theories mustbe classed,I think, thatmay be of the "sympathy" 4theoriesof society, oped forms philosophy to very theliterature of political tracedbackthrough early days. They offerproximateexplanationsof the great of mutuality, of solidarity;but do social factsof resemblance, backto its absolute a doubt, traceconcerted activity they, beyond but origin? Above all, do theyaccountnot only forsimilarity, of communities into also for variation,for the differentiation forcompetition as wellas forcombination, leadersand followers, forliberty as wellas forsolidarity? The fourth put forth someyearsago by thepresconception, formof the instinct ent writer, shouldbe classedas a developed thatman is a political backto Aristotle's aphorism theory, dating animal. It assumes that the most elementary formof social is discovered in the verybeginning of mentalpherelationship is a responseof formmentalactivity nomena. In its simplest may happen sensitive matter to a stimulus. Any givenstimulus to be feltby morethanone organism, at the same or at different to the same given times. Two or moreorganisms may respond times. They may or at different stimulus simultaneously in like or in unlike to thesame givenstimulus ways; in respond promptithesameor in different degrees;withlikeor withunlike tude; withequal or withunequalpersistence. I have attempted to show that in like responseto the same given stimuluswe activity the absoluteorigin,of all concerted have thebeginning, while form of co-operation; theinception of every conceivable in unlikeresponse, we have the beginand in unequalresponse, of of differentiation, of individuation, ningof all thoseprocesses varied relationsto comcompetition, which,in theirendlessly of to co-operation, complexity bringabout the infinite bination, organizedsocial life. of society not It is unnecessary to arguethatthisconception

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onlytakesaccountof individuality as well as of mutuality, but of solidarity farther thatalso it carriesour interpretation back than the theoriesof impression and of imitation, since both impression and imitation must be accountedfor -in ultimate psychological analysis-as phenomena of reciprocal, or interstimulation and response. Indeed, the very language that Tarde uses throughout his exposition tacitlyassumesas much. the imitative Exampleis stimulus, act is responseto stimulus. The impression that the crowd makes upon an individualis and the submission, or conformity of the stimulus, obedience, is response of individual to stimulus. Moreover, the formation the crowditselfhas to be accountedfor,and it will be found in manycases, the formation that, of a crowd is nothing more norless thanthe simultaneous like-response of manyindividuals to some inciting event,circumstance, or suggestion. In short, impression, imitation, and conformity are specific modes,but not or simplest and byany meanstheprimary modes,of stimulation response; and some of the mostimportant phenomena of confrom certedaction can be explainedonly as springing directly primarylike-responses, before either imitationor impression has entered intotheprocess. This conception meetsone further scientific test. It offers and of the relation a simple consistent view betweensocial life and the material universe. It assumesthat the originalcauses of society lie in thematerial whichmaybe regarded environment, differentiated as an infinitely group of stimuliof like-response, of collectiveaction; while the productsof past and therefore the historical becomein their social life,constituting tradition, or secondary turnsecondary stimuli, causes,in thesocial process. A mere momentary like-response by any numberof indiof socialphenomena, butit does notconvidualsis thebeginning a society. Before societycan exist theremust be constitute and repeatedreactionupon tinuousexposureto like influences, the individuals thuspersistently them. Whenthishappens, actthemselves and practically ing in likewaysbecome mentally alike. But likeness is not identity. The degreesof resemblance or of in themanner to common of response difference stimuli manifest

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in typesof mindand of character as distinguishable themselves degrees of the aggregateof individuals; while the differing in responsehave as their conseand persistency promptitude a differentiation of the aggregateinto leadersand folquence and lowers, those that assume initiativeand responsibility, and look for guidance. These differences those thathabitually have subjective consequences. Differingindiresemblances individuals resembling vidualsbecomeaware of theirdifferences, and the consciousness of becomeaware of theirresemblances, a potent factor in kind so engenderedbecomes thenceforth social evolution. further our analysisto thispoint,we may say thatwe Summarizing creatures conceiveof societyas any plural numberof sentient to differto common stimuli, moreor less continuously subjected in thereto and responding and to inter-stimulation, ing stimuli, as well as in or co-operation, activity, concerted like behavior, with activity; and becomingtherefore, unlike,or competitive, coherentthrougha dominatingcondevelopingintelligence, consciousof differof kind,whilealways sufficiently sciousness enceto insurea measureof individual liberty. natureof of the ultimate Whichof thesevariousconceptions the social relationshall in the long run prevail must depend of social fitness to accountforall thephenomena upona certain only can be determined terms. That fitness life in the simplest of social theory. the further evolution through view maybe, thereare certhefinally accepted But whatever as among of social factsthatmaybe accepted tainclassifications of anysociological notions system. theelementary thereare typesor kindsof societies. The broadest And first made by to the familiardemarkations groupingscorrespond Natural History. There are animal societiesand humansocidividedinto the etheties; and the humansocietiesare further
communitiesof kindred,and the civil-or communities

nic -or

without that dwell and work together composedof individuals blood-relationships. regardto their Moresignificant is a classification forthesociologist, however,

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based on psychological characteristics. The fundamental division now is into instinctive and rationalsocieties. The bands, swarms, flocks, and herdsin whichanimalslive and co-operate, are heldtogether and not by rationalcomprehension by instinct of the utility of association. Their like-response to stimulus, theirimitative acts, the frequent appearanceamong them of impression and submission, are all purely instinctive phenomena. Not so are the social relations of humanbeings. There is no in whichinstinctive human community like-response to stimulationis notcomplicated by somedegreeof rational comprehension oftheutility of association. The combinations, and reason are of however,of instinct manygradations; and the particular combination foundin any givencommunity determines its modesof like-response to stimulus and its consciousness of kind -establishes forit a dominant modeof the relation of mindto mind,or, as Tarde would have phrasedit, of inter-mental activity. This dominantmode of inter-mental activity -inclusive of like-response and the consciousness of kind -is the chief social bond of the given and it affords community, the best distinguishing mark for a of any societyon psychological classification grounds. So discriminated, thekindsof rational or humansocieties are eight, as follows: i. There is a homogeneous community of blood-relatives, of individuals thatfrom composed infancy have beenexposedto a commonenvironment and to like circumstances, and who, therefore, byheredity and experience are alike. Alwaysconscious of themselves as kindred, theirchiefsocial bond is sympathy. The kindor typeof society, therefore, that is represented by a groupof kindred maybe calledthe Sympathetic. 2. There is a community made up of like spirits, gathered perhaps from widely distant points, and perhaps originally but drawntogether strangers, by theircommonresponseto a beliefor dogma,or to an opportunity forpleasureor improve" band, ment. Such is thereligious colony, likethe " Mayflower or the Latter-DaySaints; such is the partisanpoliticalcolony, like the Missouriand the New England settlements in Kansas;

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and suchis thecommunistic brotherhood, likeIcaria. Similarity and agreement in ideas constitute of nature the social bond,and the kind of societyso createdis therefore appropriately called theCongenial. 3. There is a community of miscellaneous and sometimes lawlesselements, drawntogether by economic opportunity -the frontier settlement, the cattle range, the miningcamp. The newcomer entersthis community an uninvited but unhindered probationer, and remains in it on sufferance.A generalapprobation of qualities and conductis practically the only social I ventureto call the bond. This type of society,therefore, Approbational. The threetypesof society thus far namedare simple,spontwoare homogeneous, and are taneously formed groups.The first found usually in relatively isolated environments. The third existencewhere excepis heterogeneous, and has a transitory tional economic are discovered on the confines of opportunities established civilizations. Societiesof the remaining fivetypesare in a measureartiin created reflection ficial, part by -by conscious planning. of conquestor of federaThey are usuallycompound, products tion,and, withfewif any exceptions, theyare of heterogeneous and bountiful composition. They are found in the relatively environments. differentiated of the fourthtype consistsof elements 4. A community widelyunequal in ability: the strongand the weak, the brave -like enough and the timorous, exploitersand the exploited and conquered. The social bondsof thiscommunity conquerors obedience. The social are despoticpower and a fear-inspired typeis the Despotic. of the fifth typearbitrary power has 5. In any community itself withtradibeenestablished long enoughto have identified tion and religion. Acceptedas divinelyright,it has become for authority is the social bond,and the authority. Reverence the Authoritative. social typeis, therefore, 6. Societyof the sixthtypearises in populations that,like the Italian citiesat theirworstestate,have suffered disintegra-

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tion of a pre-existing social order. Unscrupulous adventurers come forwardand create relationsof personal allegiance by meansof bribery, and preferment. and conpatronage, Intrigue are the social bonds. The social typeis the Conspirital. spiracy 7. Society of the seventhtype is deliberately created by of associationhas been perceived, agreement. The utility and a compactof co-operation is entered into for the promotion of the general welfare. Such was the Achaean League. Such was theLeague of theIroquois. Such was the confederation of American commonwealths in I778. The social bond is a covenantor contract. The social typeis the Contractual. 8. Societyof the eighthtypeexistswherea population collectively responds to certain greatideals,that,by unitedefforts, it strivesto realize. Comprehension of mind by mind,confidence,fidelity, and an altruistic spiritof social service,are the social bonds. The social typeis the Idealistic. Of thesevarieties of society thehigher, communicompound ties,or commonwealths, may,and usuallydo, includeexamples of the lowertypes, amongtheircomponent groups. All of theseeighttypes, and the instinctive typeexhibited by animal bands,have been observedfromthe earliesttimesand have suggested to social philosophers as manydifferent theories of thenature of society. Thus in thetotemistic lore of savagery we find endless suggestionsof an instincttheory. In the oftribally mythologies barbarians organized we find sympathy, or natural-brotherhood, theories,which later on are borrowed, adapted,and generalizedby the great humanitarian religions, and Christianity.Suggestedby societies like Buddhism of conin we have the consciousness-of-kind voiced genialspirits theories, that" birdsof a feather in thesaying theproverb flock together," of Empedocles that"like desireslike," in the word of Ecclesiasticusthat"all fleshconsorteth accordingto kind,and a man will cleaveto his like." From approbational societies have come our natural-justice theories. From despotic societies have come that "might makes right,"in our political-sovereignty theories the sense of creating law and order. From authoritative societies have come theoriesof the divine rightof kings; from

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conspirital societieshave come Machiavelliantheoriesof the inevitableness of intrigueand conspiracy; and fromsocieties of liberty and assemblies, to charters long used to deliberative have comethesocial-covenant or contract theories billsof rights, of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau. Finally,fromsocietiesthat have come the Utopian of civilization have attained the heights theories, fromPlato untilnow. thekindor typeof the society, thereare foundin Whatever of facts. it fourgreatclasses or groupings a certain of concrete living number Everysociety presupposes is a populaindividuals. The basis of everysociety, therefore, forobservation offers phenomena tion. EverySocial Population or distribution of density;phenomena of comof aggregation, of amalgamation position, by age, sex, and race; and phenomena or unity. as we have seen,is a phenomenon The social life,however, and of mind,and the varied modes that the commonactivity interplay of minds assume,presentthe second great class of social facts. These factsof the Social Mind, as we may call in their thephenomena and response of stimulation them, include of resemblances and differences, that genericforms;phenomena of kind,and is to say,of types; phenomena of theconsciousness volition. phenomena of concerted The commonmentalactivity, creates takinghabitualforms, social relationships, that is to say, a more or less permanent complexSocial Organization. In this we meetthe thirdgreat class of social facts. Two generalforms may be observed. In in groupsthat,by coalesone form, individuals dwell together cence and federation, compose the great compoundsocieties. may be called the social composition. These groupscollectively In the otherform, individuals, withmore or less disregardof ends. Such in associations to achievespecific residence, combine of labor,and represent thesocialdivision associations collectively therefore may be called the social constitution.In its entirety and in its subdivisions the social organizationis of one or

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or on the according as it is on thewholecoercive, another type, wholeliberal, in character. class of social factspertains to the greatend,to The fourth is a means. That of which thesocialorganization theattainment is seen in its most The social welfare endis theSocial WAelfare. in certain security, justice including form publicutilities, general material and popularculture. It is seen prosperity, and liberty, that the social life creates, in the type of personality finally and morality, mentality, and whichmustbe studiedas vitality, sociality. Not every society individuallyconsidered survives long all thepossible stagesof socialevolution, to pass through enough in the aggregate, and in historic butsociety displays continuity, advance. There stagesof evolutionary to us fourdistinguishable in whichthe mutual is, first, the stage of ZoogenicAssociation, aid and protection practiced byanimalbandsplaysan enormously of speciesand in thesurvival important partin thedifferentiation and sympathy.There is, of thosebestendowed withintelligence through in which, Association, next,the stageof Anthropogenic unnumbered ages, the creaturethat was destinedto become humanattributes man was acquiringthe distinctly of language Assoand reason. There is, lateron, the stage of Ethnogenic ciation,whereinis evolved that complex tribal organization life. Finally,thereis the characteristic of savage and barbarian in whichgreatpeoples stageof Civic or DemogenicAssociation, and createa politicalorganization outgrowtribalorganization, of blood-relationships. based on commoninterests, irrespective These categories of social fact have establishedcertain in social science. Corresponding to the natural subdivisions studiesin animal sociology; sechistorical orderwe have,first, thegreatsciences of primitive humanculture;third, ond,studies of ethnography and ethnology, organized investigating tribally the narrativeand descriptive history, mankind; and, fourth, to the of civil society. Corresponding accountof the evolution in contemporaneous fourgreat divisionsof phenomena society we have, first, or the studyof social populations; demography, and theculture-studies of comparative second,social psychology,

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and thehistory art,comparative religion, philology, comparative of the social mind; of sciencet all of whichare investigations devoted to a study of social organizathird, thepolitical sciences, such sciences of the social welfareas political tion; and, fourth, and ethics, studiesof the scientific studyof education, economy and criminology. pauperism, of the natureof society, and of Such beingour conceptions the properanalysisand classification of social facts,let us pass of social evoluon to examine of thegreatprocesses our concepts in tion,and of thecauses operation. We acceptthe evolutionist pointof view,and regardall the that occur withinany social group as a phase transformations of energy of thatceaselessequilibration takingplace throughout is in contactor finite aggregate of matter the universe. Every communication with otherfinite aggregates,no two of which are equally charged with energy. From the aggregatemore thatare underis givenoffto aggregates highly charged, energy and in thisprocessthe strong absorbs,or disintegrates, charged, theweak. Everysocial group,animalor human, or transforms, withits material sincetimebegan,has beenin ceaselessstruggle and withothersocial groups. Whateverhas hapenvironment accountedfor if we penedto it or withinit is mostintelligibly of energies, the between view theprocessas one of equilibration or betwengroup and group, or group and its environment, thegroupitself. elements between within unequaland conflicting assumesare many. The modesthatthisequilibration the external of the societywith There is, first, equilibration of migration, its surroundings.This givesriseto the processes in whichpopulations movefrom place to place,in searchof new intoconflict with foodsupplies. Social groupsare thusbrought of militarism are engendered. and the activities one another, external and internal There is, next,a processof combined is but the equilibration. Migration its chief manifestation, is not now one of entirepopulations organizedfor migration or families, war and conquest. It is one of individuals moving or of reliopportunity from land to land in searchof economic

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is that exceeding and its consequence gious or politicalliberty, of the demoticcomposition which is seen, for heterogeneity example, in thepopulation of the UnitedStates. There are, thirdly, the processesof internalequilibration. Firstamongtheseis thedifferentiation of the mindof thepopulation, consequent uponsomedegreeof unlikeness and inequality in the responses of differing individuals to the commonstimuli to whichall are subjected. This is followed by the segregation of resembling products into typesand classes. Secondly, there is an evolutionof the consciousness of kind, with increasing attention to meansof communication and association. Thirdly, is a struggle there between strong individuals and weak,between leadersand followers, betweenstrongand weak classes. This equilibration maytakeone of three possibleforms: (i) thesubjugationand perhaps theenslavement of theweak by thestrong; (2) economicexploitation; (3) the uplifting of the weak by the strongthrough education, justice,and economicaid. The moraladvanceof society is a progress from equilibration through subjugation and exploitation to equilibration through uplifting, and it dependsupon the broadening and deepening of the conof kind. sciousness A fourth phaseof internal equilibration appearsin the struggle amongdiffering groupsof thelike-minded in thecommunity. Some elements of the population are sympathetically emotional, or are alikein beliefs or dogmas. Othersare alike intellectually, rationally: they attain agreementthrough deliberation. In thereasoning and theunreasoning are elements every community in perpetual conflict. To theextent is controlled thatthecommunity by its deliberative element, it exhibitsa policy-a more or less consistent attempt consciously made to control its destiny. In the history of humansociety therehave beenthreegreatgroupsof policies, namely: (I) policiesof unification -attempts to makeall members of the community alike in type,in belief,and in conduct; (2) policies of liberty- attempts to give wide scope to individual initiative;(3) policiesof equality- attempts to prevent the disintegration of societythroughan excess of individual

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liberty. The struggle of conflicting in the community, interests whichthesethree modesof policyrepresent, is yetanother form of internal equilibration. To the extent thata policyof equalityis adopted,the communityis democratic. Political equality,equality before the law, and some approachtowardequalityof economicopportunity,are the essentialelements of democracy. No sooner is democracy evolvedthanwe see a struggle between theforces that makeforabsolutist, and thosethatmake forliberal, democracy. Either the majorityis permitted to rule at will, or it is compelled to leave inviolatecertainrightsof the minority and of individuals. The outcomeof all equilibration, externaland internal, is a of the individual certain relation to the social organization. In low types of society theindividual literally belongs to thevarious social groupsin whichhis lot is cast. He belongsto themfor life. To leave them is to become an outcast. He may not leave his clan,his guild,his caste,his church, or his state. In of society superior types we discover a highdegreeof individual mobility combined witha marvelous powerto concentrate enormous numbers of individuals in moments of emergency, upon any work needingto be done. The individualmay go freely fromstateto state,fromparishto parish,in searchof his best economic opportunity. He may sever connectionwith his churchto join another, or none at all. He may be a director todayin a dozencorporations, and tomorrow in a dozendifferent ones. The goal of social evolution is a complex, liberal flexible, and mobility organization, the utmostliberty permitting to the the efficiency individual, without as a impairing of organization whole. On themethods of sociology remnark at thistimemustnecessarilybe brief. Dealing as we do with highlyconcrete we place materials, our mainreliance induction. The experimental upon systematic methodof induction, is of littleavail in the scientific however, social experimenting studyof society. Although is at all times

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conditions goingon, it is difficult to isolatecauses or to control and crititherefore, withscientific thoroughness.Observation, made in bygonedays, cally established recordsof observations so faras theaccumulation of data mustbe our maindependence, is concerned. Yet in a fieldso vast,observation itselfwould be a fruitless rules. Canons of guidtoil if it were not directed by scientific ance we find in theso-called and historical methods. comparative in any of facts, observed Selecting any social fact,or correlation fact searchfora corresponding given society, we systematically or correlationin all contemporaneous societies,animal and human,ethnicand civil. This search has one clearlydefined whether the observed factis a uniobject,namely: to determine of an elementary phenomenon versal,and therefore an essential, to ascertainjust how wide society, and, if it is not universal, is. By such research we discoverthose resemits distribution in social phenomena that are the bases blancesand differences of scientific classification. arrivedat a schemeof classification, Having in thismanner as the chemist observation or precisely we use it in subsequent in thathave been established thebotanist uses the classifications look forthe factsand the correhis science. We systematically leads us to anticipate. lationsthatthe classification In like manner, the historical method, we search following for a given social factat each stage in the historical evolution of a givensociety, and thereby determine whatsocial phenomena are continuous. is established of natural causation A complete scientific theory becomes quantitatively precise. Often onlywhenour knowledge eludesus untilthecorrelations thelaw thatwe seekto formulate of phenomena have been determined with mathematical exactness. Sociology bhasunjustlybeen reproachedfor neglecting thatattention to precision whichis the boast of othersciences. The indictment of vagueness maybe a truebillagainstindividual not a true bill against sociolsociologists. It is demonstrably students of sociologythatthe world ogy. It is to the scientific of an inestimably owes the discovery and development valuable

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formof the comparative and historicalmethods, namely,the statistical method. Every inductive sciencetoday is adopting this method. Physics, chemistry, astronomy, and geology, wouldbe helpless it. The biologists without have acknowledged their dependence upon it by the establishment of a statistical journal,Biometrica. It is nottoo muchto claimthatthepossiof thisnow indispensable of all the sciences bilities method were first demonstrated in the epoch-making social studiesof Jacques and thatits employment in sociologyhas been out of Quetelet, all proportion to its emiployment elsewhere. As developedin recent yearsby the Dane, Westergraard; by Germans like Steinhauser, Lexis,and Meyer; byItalians, likeBodio; byFrenchmen, likeLavasseurand Dumont; by Englishmen, likeCharlesBooth, E. B. Tylor,Galton,Bowley,and Karl Pearson; by Americans, like Weber,Norton, Mayo-Smith, Cattell, Thorndike, and Boas, it has become,and will continueto be, the chiefly important of sociology;and assuredly, in thecourseof time, method it will of society of thoroughness bringour knowledge up to standards and precision comparable to the resultsattainedby any natural
science.
FRANKLIN
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY,

H.

GIDDINGS.

New York City.

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