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EGB3013: HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT TUTORIAL 1 - SOLUTION

Instructions: There are 25 MCQs. Each MCQ is worth 1 point. In total, the essay/short answer questions are worth 35 points. Answer all questions. While group discussion is encouraged, this tutorial should be done on an individual basis and will be graded accordingly.

MCQ Questions: 1. A. B. C. D. What is the primary function of NIOSH? To provide education and training on environmental management issues To provide a platform for research on quality assurance To provide socio-economic insurance to workers in high-risk industries To provide consultancy on workplace health and safety matters Which of the following is NOT a benefit of an effective EMS? Improved worker safety Improved market competitiveness Improved long-term profits Improved legislative compliance An oil refinery that employs over 500 workers is making huge losses. Should the refinery spend additional funds to hire a safety and health officer? No, it is unnecessary as the refinery is not a high-risk area No, not until the refinery starts being profitable Yes, to ensure the well-being and safety of the workers Yes, it is required by government regulations Which of the following is NOT covered under the EQA 1974? Licensing for waste discharge into the environment Preservation of natural wetlands and marine life Enforcement of requirements of the act Specification of conditions of waste emissions It is illegal for a manufacturing company to discharge mercury waste, without treatment, into the environment. According to which of the following legislation is this true? EQA 1974 OSHA 1994 FMA 1967 ISO 14000 Which of the following is NOT the direct responsibility of a safety and health officer? Inspect the workplace for possible hazards Act as the secretary to the safety and health committee Provide training for the safe use of complex machineries Investigate any accident, poisoning or other incident

2.
A. B. C. D. 3. A. B. C. D.

4.
A. B. C. D. 5. A. B. C. D.

6.
A. B. C. D.

7. A. B. C. D.

An employer is required by law under the OSHA 1994 to establish a safety and health committee if ____________________ . he has 30 or more employees he has 35 or more employees he has 40 or more employees he has 45 or more employees Which of the following organizations is NOT covered by Malaysias OSHA 1994? Southern Bank Bhd. PETRONAS Gas Bhd. Universiti Sains Malaysia Royal Malaysian Air Force

8.
A. B. C. D.

9.

Which of the following statements is TRUE about Health, Safety and Environment movement? A. Redundancy is one of the widely used accident prevention techniques. B. The development of HSE movement is characterised by professionalism and integration. C. Enforcement in Three Es of Safety ensure the employees knows what are the hazards present in their workplace. D. Department of Environment is the government agency responsible to enforce the Environmental Quality Act 1974 in Malaysia. Which of the following is NOT an organisation related to Health, Safety and Environment movement? A. Department of Occupational Safety and Health B. Department of Environment C. Department of Irrigation D. Department of Public Health Which of the following rights under Occupational Safety and Health Act for employee is FALSE? A. B. C. D. File a health and safety grievance Participate in OSHA inspections Refusal to wear safety hat Participate in union activities concerning job safety and health

10.

11.

12.

Which of the following is NOT the purpose of Environmental Quality Act? A. Abatement of pollution B. Control of pollution C. Occupational health problems D. Prevention of pollution 13. A. B. C. D. 14. A. B. C. D. According to OSHA 1994, which of the following is a responsibility of an employee? Establish a safety and health committee and hire a health and safety officer Avoid unsafe acts that may endanger yourself or those around you Provide training and information for the safe use of complex machineries Ensure the workplace is safe with sufficient entry and exit points Environmental Management Systems is the component of an organisation with primary responsibility for leading, planning, controlling and organising as they relate specifically to the impact of an organisation ______________. processes products services all of the above

15.

Which of the following statements does NOT reflect the general principles of Environmental Management Systems? A. A process not an event B. About words and aspirations C. Serves organisation and its mission D. Start from the top and implement throughout 16. The Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) in Malaysia have the following functions EXCEPT to ______________. A. ensure public safety who may be affected by the activities of persons at work B. conduct strategic and effective enforcement to any organisation in complying with regulations C. perform environmental impact assessment at workplace in accordance with regulations D. ensure the safety, health and welfare of persons at work in accordance with regulations 17. A. B. C. D. The Occupational Safety and Health Officer has the following authorities EXCEPT to check work permit of workers at work premises shut down plant which poses hazards to safety and health investigate the plants to ensure compliance of OSHA seize articles or installation on work premises

18. The following regulations were made under EQA 1974 to control the environmental pollution EXCEPT A. Control of Industrial Emissions Legislation B. Control of Motor Vehicle Emissions Legislation C. Control of Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer D. Control of Global Warming Quality Legislation 19. I. II. III. IV. A. B. C. D. Which of the following statements are the objectives of OSHA 1994? Provide an umbrella framework for associated regulations and code of practice Protect general public against risk associated with workplace hazards Secure the safety, health and welfare of persons at work Reduce the employers cost of compensation I, II and IV I, II and III II, III and IV I, III and IV

II. IV.

20. Which of the following statements do describe the nature of ISO 14000? I. ISO 14000 family of standards has been developed to promote effective environmental management It is a quality system based on the participation of selected employees III. It is a compulsory international standard for use by any company, any size and anywhere in the world It advocates sustainable development for every nation and every person A. B. C. D. I and III II and IV I and IV II and III

21. Which of the following is FALSE? A. The ISO 14000 is a family of effective environmental management standards B. The ISO 14000 standards may be a market requirement. C. ISO is a government organization based in Geneva. D. A component of the ISO 14000 is continual improvement.

22. Which of the following is NOT TRUE of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1994? A. It is based on self-regulation. B. It outlines the duties of the employer and employee. C. It covers all sectors of the economy. D. It is administered under the Ministry of Human Resources. 23. The person directly responsible for the health and safety of an assigned employee is: A. the agencys safety officer. B. the officers from the Department of Occupational Safety and Health. C. the employee's immediate supervisor. D. the employee him/herself Essay/Short Answer Questions: 1. In the past, the method of treating wastewater, including raw sewage, was to release the wastewater into a large body of water without prior treatment. The belief then was that, as the saying goes, the solution to pollution is dilution. What do you think of this approach to wastewater treatment? Is this approach still practicable today? Explain your answer. This approach is no longer practicable. In the very distant past, the amount of wastewater generated was not much, and hence, the wastewater could be discharged into the environment without treatment as the environment had the natural capacity to absorb the waste. However, the amount of wastewater generated today has far surpassed that natural capacity and hence, the solution to pollution is no longer dilution. Furthermore, there are some wastes that do not naturally biodegrade and if discharged into the environment, will accumulate over time. Examples of such wastes are halogenated hydrocarbons, dioxins, organochlorines and heavy metals. These wastes pose serious human risks if allowed to accumulate to a high enough concentration. [5 marks]

2. The ISO 14000 and the EQA 1974 are both concerned with environmental protection. There are,
however, differences between them. Give THREE (3) differences between the ISO 14000 and the EQA 1974. (i) EQA 1974 is a legislation and therefore, compliance with it is compulsory. ISO 14000 is an industry standard and therefore, adoption of it is voluntary. (ii) EQA 1974 has national scope while ISO 14000 has an international scope. (iii) EQA 1974 was developed by the Malaysian government while ISO 14000 was developed by ISO, a non-governmental body. [3 marks]

3. The Department of Environment has recently fined Tronoh Electronics Industries Sdn. Bhd. for
violating the Environmental Quality (Schedule Wastes) Regulations. The Board of Directors is extremely worried of the amount of fines that has been imposed on the company, as this was not the first time. Thus in order to reduce the possibility of being fined again, they have decided to follow a system that will assist the company in attaining an environmentally friendly status.

a. Identify the system and discuss SIX (6) general principles of the system.
Continue review & Improvement Measurement & Evaluation Implementation Planning Policy/goa l Leadership & commitment

[6 marks]

b. In implementing the above system successfully, briefly discuss any THREE (3) viable
criteria that the company should be aware of. Cost effective and economically viable Not contradicting trade regulations, agreements, local and international legislation Practicable and address in national/international language Performance based Focused on continual improvement [6 marks]

c. ISO 14000 family of standards has been developed to promote effective environmental
management, in which ISO 14001 standard is specifically an approach to protect the environment. Some companies perceive the implementation of ISO 14000 as a cost of doing business. However, for some proactive companies, implementing ISO 14000 can bring return on investment in environmental-related measures. Discuss any FOUR (4) benefits that attract the proactive companies to invest in certification of ISO 14001. Improved compliance with regulations Increase marketability & competitiveness Reduce liability / risk Gain regulatory incentives Promote pollution prevention & waste minimisation Increased profit by less cost of compensation Improved internal management system Community goodwill by enhance environment [8 marks] 4. The Malaysian government in the effort to promote workplace safety and health, established the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). What is the major difference between the roles of the two organizations? Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) is responsible for ensuring the safety, health and welfare of persons at work and protections of other people from hazards arising from the activities of persons at work in various economic sector. National Institute Of Occupational Safety And Health (NIOSH) is the centre for training, consultancy, information dissemination and research in occupational safety and health in Malaysia. [2 marks] 5. The environmental-related regulations can be divided into two categories: the laws of prevention and the laws of environmental protection. Discuss and provide appropriate example. The prevention includes the environmental considerations that must be incorporated into project planning and implementation via mandatory requirement under Section 34A of the Environmental Quality Amendment) Act 1985 . The Section requires anyone who intends to undertake a prescribed activity to first conduct a study to assess the likely environmental impact that will occur from the activity and the mitigating measures that need to be taken in order to overcome it. An example of protection related environmental law is the acts and regulations enacted to prosecute and penalise polluters e.g. the Environmental Quality Act (EQA), incepted in 1974. 1. [4 marks]