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Njoud Maitah

## and Lila Bdour

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The Goal
We will present an optimization algorithm that inspired by decision-making process of honey bees .

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Bee Algorithm

## Presented by : Njoud Maitah and Lila bdour

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Outline
Introduction Bee in nature Bee algorithm Example Applications

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Introduction
Honeybee search for the best nest site between many sites with taking care of both speed and accuracy . This analogues to finding the optimal solution (optimality) in an optimization process.

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Bee in nature
The group decision making process used by bees for searching out the best food resources among various solutions is a robust example of swarm-based decision method. This group decision-making process can be mimicked for finding out solutions of optimization problems.

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## Bee in nature cont..

Bee use a waggle dance to communicate What is the waggle dance ?! It is a dance that performed by scout bees to inform other foraging bees about nectar site. What are the scout and foraging ?! Scout bee : the navigator Forging bee : the collector of food from

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## Bee in nature cont..

The waggle dance is showed in the following video .

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?? A moment of thinking
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## Bee in nature >>

Waggle dance is a communication method used by bees to inform other bees about food resources and location of nest site .

Figure-eight running 8 .
Number of runs represents the distance . The angle of run indicates the direction.

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## Bee in nature >>

Waggle dance in decision-making Waggle dance gives precise information about quality ,distance and direction of flower patch.

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## Bee in nature >>

Decision 1 : Quiescent bees evaluate the patch and decide to recruit or explore for other patches. decision If the patch still good ,increase the number of foraging bees.

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## Bee in nature >>

Decision 2 : decide the number of bees recruited to the patch based on the quality.

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## Bee in nature >>

Decision 3 : Nest-site selection. Two activity to reach to the decision : Consensus : agreement among the group of quiescent. Quorum : threshold value.

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## Bee Algorithm (BA)

The Bees Algorithm is an optimisation algorithm inspired by the natural foraging behaviour of honey bees to find the optimal solution.

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## Bee Algorithm (BA)

1. Initialise population with random solutions. 2. Evaluate fitness of the population. 3. While (stopping criterion not met) //Forming new population. 4. Select sites for neighbourhood search. 5. Recruit bees for selected sites (more bees for best e sites) and evaluate fitnesses. 6. Select the fittest bee from each patch. 7. Assign remaining bees to search randomly and evaluate their fitnesses. 8. End While.

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Initialise a Population of n Scout Bees Evaluate the Fitness of the Population Select m Sites for Neighbourhood Search Neighbourhood Search

## Determine the Size of Neighbourhood (Patch Size ngh)

Recruit Bees for Selected Sites (more Bees for the Best e Sites) Select the Fittest Bee from Each Site Assign the (nm) Remaining Bees to Random Search New Population of Scout Bees

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## Simple Example: Function Optimisation

Here are a simple example about how Bee algorithm works

The example explains the use of bee algorithm to get the best value representing a mathematical function (functional optimal)

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Simple Example
The following figure shows the mathematical function

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Simple Example
1- The first step is to initiate the population with any 10 scout bees with random search and evaluate the fitness. (n=10)

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Simple Example
y

* * * * * * * *
Graph 1. Initialise a Population of (n=10) Scout Bees with random Search and evaluate the fitness.

*
x

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2- Population evaluation fitness: An array of 10 values is constructed and ordered in ascending way from the highest value of y to the lowest value of y depending on the previous mathematical function

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3- The best m site is chosen ( the best evaluation to m scout bee) from n
m=5, e=2, m-e=3

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* *

*
x

Graph 2. Select best (m=5) Sites for Neighbourhood Search: (e=2) elite bees and (m-e=3) other selected bees

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## Graph 3. Determine the Size of Neighbourhood (Patch Size ngh)

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5- recruits bees to the selected sites and evaluate the fitness to the sites:
Sending bees to e sites (rich sites) and m-e sites (poor sites). More bees will be sent to the e site.
n2 = 4 n1 = 2 (rich) (poor)

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** **
y

**

* * * * *

**
* *

*
*

Graph 4. Recruit Bees for Selected Sites (more Bees for the e=2 Elite Sites)

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6- Select the best bee from each location (higher fitness) to form the new bees population.
Choosing the best bee from every m site as follow:

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Simple Example
y

* * * * *

* *

* *

*
*

## Graph 5. Select the Fittest Bee * from Each Site

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Simple Example
7- initializes a new population:
Taking the old values (5) and assigning random values (5) to the remaining values n-m

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Simple Example
y

* * o o * o

o *
m

o
x

## Graph 6. Assign the (nm) Remaining Bees to Random Search

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Simple Example
8- the loop counter will be reduced and the steps from two to seven will be repeated until reaching the stopping condition (ending the number of repetitions imax) At the end we reach the best solution as shown in the following figure
This best value (best bees from m) will represent the optimum answer to the mathematical function

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Simple Example
y

* * * * *

## Graph 7. Find The Global Best point

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BA- Applications
Function Optimisation BA for TSP Training NN classifiers like MLP, LVQ, RBF and SNNs
Control Chart Pattern Recognitions Wood Defect Classification ECG Classification

Electronic Design

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## Honeybee foraging algorithm for load balancing in cloud computing

Servers are bees Web applications are flower patches And an advert board is used to simulate a waggle dance. Each server is either a forager or a scout The advert board is where servers, successfully fulfilling a request or may place adverts

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Flow chart of Honeybee Foraging Algorithm in load balancing for cloud computing

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