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Origami in Engineering and Architecture

An art spanning Mathematics, Engineering and Architecture

Dr Mark Schenk (ms652) October 25th 2012

Advanced Structures Group

Origami
Objective: introduction to Origami in mathematics, engineering and architecture. Examples from academic research and real life applications. Today - lecture (~1 hr) - workshop + presentations (~2 hrs)

Origami
origami
from Japanese for oru (fold) and kami (paper) earliest book to describe origami dates to 1682, with the classic crane dating to a 1797 book The Secret of One Thousand Cranes Origami resurgence of interest in 20th century rapid development over the last 2 decades.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/jasohill/118616905/sizes/m/in/photostream/

Origami Art

Photo courtesy of Andreas Bauer

From simple

Origami Art
to advanced

Designed and folded by Robert J. Lang

Origami Art

http://www.flickr.com/photos/origamijoel/3226036918/

Joel Cooper (2008)

Origami Art : tessellations

http://www.flickr.com/photos/87477835@N00/5038642136/

Star Tessellation by Eric Gjerde

Origami Art : tessellations

http://www.flickr.com/photos/origomi/290031886/

http://www.flickr.com/photos/9874847@N03/

Origami Art : tessellations

http://www.flickr.com/photos/polyscene/2200937797/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/cambridgeuniversity-engineering/4706414628/

Origami Art : curved folding

David Huffman (1925-1999)


http://www.graficaobscura.com/huffman/index.html http://www.theiff.org/oexhibits/paper04.html http://www.nytimes.com/2004/06/22/science/22orig.html

Origami Art : developments


increased model complexity crease patterns vs. linear folding instructions computer aided design of models a more fundamental understanding of the underlying mathematics of origami

Designed and folded by Robert J. Lang

Origami : Mathematics

Origami Mathematics
origami & mathematics are deeply intertwined origami foldability i.e. can a crease pattern actually be folded? surface geometry i.e. what shapes can you attain?

Origami Mathematics : foldability


Example : Miura-ori sheet

flat and rigid foldable

Origami Mathematics : flat foldability


flat foldability after folding all creases by 180, the final pattern lies in a plane

Kawasaki-Justin theorem: 1 2 + 3 4 = 0

Origami Mathematics : flat foldability


flat foldability counter example

engineering : compact stowage

Origami Mathematics : rigid foldability


rigid foldability if the pattern were made of rigid panels connected by hinges, it can be folded.

Dureisseix (2011)

engineering : deployable (or rigid) plate structures

Origami Mathematics : rigid foldability


rigid foldability counter example paper shopping bag only exists in either the collapsed or upright position.

Balkcom (2004)

Origami Mathematics : rigid foldability


a rigid-foldable shopping bag:

Wu and You (2011)

Further research: Huffman (1976), Wu and You (2010), Stachel (2009,2010), Tachi (2009)

Origami Mathematics : foldability


the unfoldable hyperbolic paraboloid

Demaine et al. (2009)

Origami Mathematics : foldability


modelling the 'unfoldable'

Dias, Dudte, Mahadevan, Santangelo (2012)

Origami Mathematics : surface geometry


surface geometry (aka, differential Geometry)
Atlas: zero Gaussian curvature

What kind of folded shapes can we attain? - assume no stretching deformations (i.e. developable)

?
Sphere: positive Gaussian curvature

Origami Mathematics : surface geometry

Atlas: zero Gaussian curvature

Sphere: positive Gaussian curvature

Origami Mathematics : surface geometry


developable surface (i.e. a sheet of paper) Gaussian curvature is invariant under bending

Origami Mathematics : surface geometry

Kilian et al. (2008)

engineering : curved surfaces from flat sheets

Origami Mathematics : surface geometry


Image courtesy of Carol M. Highsmith

Frank Gehry (1999) Walt Disney Concert Hall (Los Angeles, USA)

Summary
Origami Mathematics
be aware of certain concepts: - flat foldability - rigid foldability - surface geometry (Gaussian curvature) It is an active field of mathematics!

Origami : Engineering

Engineering Origami
Engineering Origami : application of origami to solve technical problems.

Examples from my current research (i.e. shameless self-promotion): i) Deployable Space Structures ii) Folded Meta-Materials

Engineering Origami : deployable


i) Deployable Space Structures inflatable satellite de-orbiting device large sail structure (2x2m) 3U CubeSat

3U CubeSat

2m mylar membrane

Inflatable booms

Engineering Origami : deployable


Inflatable Booms Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE, 1996)

L'Garde & NASA JPL (1996)

Engineering Origami : deployable


So, how do you fold an inflatable boom?

Engineering Origami : deployable


So, how do you fold an inflatable boom? rolling/coiling folding - z-fold - origami patterns conical stowage

ILC Dover (ITSAT)

Wang and Johnson (2003); NASA LaRC

Engineering Origami : deployable


Guest and Pellegrino (1994)

origami booms (1/3)

Barker and Guest (2004)

Hoberman (1993)

Engineering Origami : deployable


origami booms (2/3)

EADS Astrium

Senda et al (2006)

Engineering Origami : deployable


origami booms (3/3) - stowed volume (flat-foldable) - material deformation (rigid-foldable) - straightness of deployment

Schenk, Viquerat, Seffen and Guest (2012)

Engineering Origami : deployable


conical telescopic booms (1/2) - concentric folds - telescopic deployment

Palisoc (2004)

L'Garde, ISPSS (2005)

Engineering Origami : deployable


conical telescopic booms (2/2)

experiments

analysis

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials


ii) Folded Meta-Materials Meta-Material - A synthetic composite material engineered to display properties not usually found in natural materials. fold patterns introduce kinematic properties
Schenk and Guest (2012)

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials


Basic component: Miura-ori sheet

a) Folded Shell Structure b) Folded Cellular Meta-Material

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials


a) meta-material : Folded Shell Structures

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials


novel property : doubly-curved surface

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials


novel property : negative in-plane Poissons ratio

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials


novel property : positive out-of-plane Poissons ratio

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials


application : morphing structures - change shape - maintain continuous surface Example: morphing wings

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials


b) Folded Cellular Meta-Material - stacking of folded layers - maintains folding motion

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials


novel properties: - omni-directional negative Poisson's ratio - highly anisotropic material properties

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials


Folded Sandwich Panel Core - blast impact mitigation
bla im st pa ct

Schenk, Guest, McShane (2012)

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials


folded sandwich panel core
- numerical simulations - core manufacture

Engineering Origami : applications


Engineering Origami : application of origami to solve technical problems. i) deployability ii) increased stiffness iii) impact absorption iv) meta-materials v) energy-efficiency

Miura-ori sheet

Engineering Origami : deployable


Lang (2003)

i) deployable structures
space telescope solar panels
Miura and Natori (1989)

Engineering Origami : deployable


i) deployable structures
solar sails

Guest (1992) Leipold et al. (2002) JAXA IKAROS (2010)

Engineering Origami : deployable


i) deployable structures
emergency shelters medical stent bio-mechanics

Kuribayashi et al. (2006)

de Temmerman (2007)

Kobayashi (1999)

Engineering Origami : deployable


most common fold pattern: Miura-ori
flat-foldable rigid-foldable

Engineering Origami : deployable


generalized Miura-ori: rigid-foldable and flat-foldable

http://www.tsg.ne.jp/TT/software/

Tachi (20092011)

Engineering Origami : deployable


rigid-foldable hyperbola
Tachi (2010)

Engineering Origami : deployable


i) deployable structures
programmable matter

Hawkes et al. (2010)

Engineering Origami : stiffness


ii) increased stiffness
architecture : folded plates

Engineering Origami : stiffness


ii) increased stiffness
folded plates

Engel (1968)

Origami Engineering : stiffness


ii) increased stiffness
sandwich panel cores
Miura (1972)

Heimbs (2007)

Rapp (1960)

Engineering Origami : impact resistance


iii) impact resistance
sandwich panel cores

Tessellated Group (2010)

Elsayed and Basily (2004)

Engineering Origami : impact resistance


Miura (1969)

iii) impact resistance


car crash boxes

Wu (2010)

Tarnai (1994)

Engineering Origami : meta-materials


iv) meta-materials
deployable cellular solids

Miura and Tachi (2010), Tachi (2011)

Engineering Origami : meta-materials


iv) meta-materials
curved corrugated shell structures

Norman (2009)

Seffen (2012)

Engineering Origami : energy efficiency


v) energy-efficient manufacturing - sheet metal bending - curved folding

Tachi and Epps (2011)

Engineering Origami : curved folding


curved folding : RoboFold

www.robofold.com

Rhino3D with Grasshopper and Kangaroo

Summary
Origami Engineering used for a wide range of technical applications: i) deployable structures ii) increased stiffness iii) impact resistance iv) meta-materials v) sheet metal folding And more applications are being developed!

Origami : Architecture

Origami Architecture : Bauhaus

Josef Albers (1927)

Origami Architecture : applications


1) folded plate roofs / faades
mechanical advantage visual appeal materiality : timber, glass, etc. approximation to curved surfaces

2) deployable architectural structures 3) transformable / kinematic architecture

Origami Architecture : folded plates

Milo Ketchum (1910-1999)

Origami Architecture : folded plates


Engel (1968)

Origami Architecture : folded plates

Engel (1968)

Origami Architecture : folded plates


Skidmore, Owings and Merill (1956) US Air Force Academy Cadet Chapel, Colorado Springs

Origami Architecture : folded plates


Miura (1969)

Coppa (1970)

Tonon (1993)

Origami Architecture : folded plates


Renzo Piano (1966) Mobile Sulphur Extraction Factory, Pomezia, Rome

Origami Architecture : foldable dome

Ron Resch (1939-2009)

Origami Architecture : Ron Resch

Origami Architecture : Ron Resch

(1960-1963)

http://www.ronresch.com

"Made with Paper Show" Nov. 1967

Origami Architecture : foldable dome

http://flickr.com/photos/72567727@N00/page2/

http://www.flickr.com/photos/elelvis/

Origami Architecture : folded plates

Foreign Office Architects (2002) Yokohama International Cruise Terminal

http://www.richardsweeney.co.uk

Origami Architecture : folded plates


St. Bridget Church Gdask, Poland

From Heavenly vaults: from Romanesque to Gothic in European architecture

Origami Architecture : folded plate


Revival of interest in folded plate structures? Recent developments timber / glass structures computer design tools free-form geometry (i.e. BLOB architecture)

Origami Architecture : timber panels

Buri et al. (2009)

Origami Architecture : timber panels


computer design tools
case study: temporary chapel of St. Loup

Buri et al. (2009)

Origami Architecture : timber panels

case study: temporary chapel of St. Loup

Origami Architecture : glass panels

Trometer et al. (2006)

Origami Architecture : glass panels


Olafur Eliasson (2007) One-way Colour Tunnel

http://flux.net/take-your-time-olafur-eliasson-new-york http://www.designboom.com/weblog/cat/10/view/1647/take-your-time-olafur-eliasson.html

Origami Architecture : free-form

Trautz et al. (2009)

Origami Architecture : free-form

Heinzelmann (2009)

Origami Architecture : deployable

De Temmerman (2007)

Origami Architecture : deployable

http://www.inhabitat.com/2008/10/22/origami-inspired-folding-bamboo-house-by-ming-trang/

Origami Architecture : deployable


http://www.inhabitat.com/2008/09/03/matthew-malone-recovery-shelter/

accordeon reCover shelter

Boler and Tandon (1967)

Origami Architecture : deployable

Tachi (2009)

Origami Architecture : deployable


Emilio Prez Piero (1935-1972)

http://www.flickr.com/photos/wannesdeprez/466371180/

http://www.u.arizona.edu/~shunter/pinero.jpg

Origami Architecture : deployable

Daniel MacGibbon (2008)

http://designstudio5.blogspot.com/

Origami Architecture : transformable


Linstitut du Monde Arabe, Paris Jean Nouvel (1987)

http://www.archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=851

Origami Architecture : transformable

Hoberman Arch (2002) Salt Lake City, USA

Chuck Hoberman

Origami Architecture : transformable


http://www.adaptivebuildings.com

Chuck Hoberman

Iris Dome, 2000 Worlds Fair, Hannover, Germany

http://www.hoberman.com

Adaptable Sunshade, 2006 Building Center Trust, London, UK

Origami Architecture : transformable

Kiefer Technic Bad Gleichenberg Giselbrecht + Partner ZT GmbH (2007)

Origami Architecture : transformable


Hyposurface (concept)
Hyposurface Corp (2000)

http://hyposurface.org/

Origami Architecture : transformable

Robotic Membrane (concept); OrangeVoid

http://www.orangevoid.org.uk

Origami Architecture : transformable

Responsive Kinematics, John Hobart-Culleton

Origami : Summary

Summary
Origami Art
recent developments due to computational tools and improved understanding of its mathematics

Origami Mathematics
active field of mathematics be aware of some of the concepts
foldability (flat & rigid) surface geometry (Gaussian curvature)

Summary
Origami Engineering
used for a variety of applications, mainly for the design of deployable structures

Origami Architecture
folded plate structures
visual appeal / strength / deployability / materiality

kinematic architecture
very much under-explored; plenty of challenges

Origami : Workshop

Workshop
Origami Engineering
3 different assignments (limited copies of each) groups of ~5 people explore aspects of
inflatable foldable cylinders curved folding