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Thefollowingslidesprovideguidanceontheeligibilitycategory,definition,andcriteriafor childwithavisualimpairment,includingblindnessinColoradopublicschools. TheseslidesmayalsobefoundwithintheComprehensiveOverviewTrainingPowerPoint, whichprovidesguidanceoneveryeligibilitycategory. Iftheseslidesareusedasaselfstandingtrainingtool, tool itisrecommendedthattheybe supplementedwiththepostedslidesspecifictotheHB111277Overview,whichcanbe foundat:http://www.cde.state.co.us/cdesped/Training_ECEAEligibility.asp TheHB111277Overviewslideswilldetailthehistoryandtimelinesofimplementationof theneweligibilitycategories,definitions,andcriteria.

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IfthereareanyquestionsaboutthedefinitionandeligibilitycriteriaforVisualImpairment, includingBlindness,pleasebeincontactwithTanniAnthonyatanthony_t@cde.state.co.us or(303)8666681. Ifthereareanyquestionsaboutwhetheraspecificchildmeetstheestablishedcriteriafor VisualImpairment,IncludingBlindness,pleasebeincontactwiththeadministrativeunits SpecialEducationDirector.

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ThenexttwoslidesincludetheexactwordingofaChildwithaVisualImpairment,including BlindnesseligibilitycriteriathatareinthecurrentRules for the Administrationof the ExceptionalChildrensEducationalAct1CCR3018

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Theaboveconditionsmustbediagnosedandquantifiedbyaneyecarespecialist ( h h l l i oroptometrist). (ophthalmologist i ) Thereisnoschoolprofessionalwhocandilateachildseyestodetermine(a)thecauseofa visionlossand(b)whetherthevisionlosscanbetreatedsuccessfullywithprescriptive lenses,surgery,and/orothertypesofmedicalintervention. Aschool h lnurseandacertified f teacher h of fstudentswith hvisual limpairments( (TVI) )aretrained toreadacliniceyeevaluationreport. AnindividualwhoconductsvisionscreeningcanonlydetermineifachildPASSESorFAILSa visionscreeningconductedintheschoolenvironment.Whenavisionscreeningisfailed, thenextstepistoseekfurtherevaluation. Acertifiedteacherofstudentswithvisualimpairment(TVI)istrainedtocompletea FunctionalVisionAssessment.Thisassessmentisdesignedtocomplementtheresultsof aneyecarespecialistsfindings.TheTVIcannotdiagnosisblindnessorvisualimpairment. TheFunctionalVisionAssessmentistodeterminethefunctionalimplicationsofthechilds visualimpairmentandwhatstrategies,includingspeciallydesignedinstructionand equipment,mayassistthestudenttomaximizevisualperformance. ThecertifiedteacherofstudentswithvisualimpairmentswillalsocompleteaLearning MediaAssessmenttodeterminethestudentslearningandliteracymodalities.This assessmentwillbeonetoolthatwillassistwithdetailingtheneedforspeciallydesigned instruction.

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Onlyaneyecarespecialistcandeterminewhetherachildhasarefractiveerror ( (nearsighted, i h d farsighted, f i h d orh hasastigmatism) i i )oranother h ocular l based b dreasonfor f blurred bl d vision.Onlyaneyecarespecialistcandeterminewhetherachildwillbenefitfrom prescriptivelenses(glassesorcontactlenses). Ifachildcanbecorrectedto20/60orbettervisioninoneeyeaftercorrection(glasses/ contactlenses),heorshewouldnotqualifyasachildwithVisualImpairment,Including Blindness. Ifoneeyeis20/70orworse,buttheothereyeisbetterthanthisdesignation,thechild wouldnotqualifyasachildwithVisualImpairment,IncludingBlindness. Whilelegalblindnessrequiresavisualacuityinthebestcorrectedeyeof20/200orworse, tobeeligibleasachildwithaVisualImpairment,includingBlindnessmayhaveavisual acuityinthebestcorrectedeyeof20/70orworse.

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Normalvisualfieldextendstoabout180degrees.Fieldlossrestrictedto20degreesorless israreandusuallyassociatedwithconditionssuchasretinitispigmentosa. Certaineyeconditionsorneurologicalimpairmentsmayhaveanassociatedfieldloss.In thesesituations,thevisionlossmayalsobeaccompaniedbyreducedvisualacuity. FieldlossbyitselfoftendoesnotmeettheeligibilitythresholdofVisualImpairment Impairment, includingBlindness.Forexample,achildwithcerebralpalsywhohasvisualscotomas (areasofdepressedvisioninthevisualfield),butvisualacuityinthebestcorrectedeyeof 20/60orbetterwouldnotqualifyasachildwithavisualimpairment,includingblindness.

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CorticalVisualImpairmentistheleadingcauseofpediatricvisualimpairmentintheUnited StatesandEurope. ThemajorcausesofCVIareasphyxia,perinatalhypoxiaischemia("hypoxia":alackof sufficientoxygeninthebodycellsorblood;"ischemia":notenoughbloodsupplytothe brain),developmentalbraindefects,headinjury,hydrocephalus,andinfectionsofthe centralnervoussystem,suchasmeningitis,andencephalitis. ThediagnosisofCVImustbemadebymedicalpersonnel.Itmaybemadeexclusivelybyan eyecarespecialistoritmadebemadeinconsultationwithaneurologistorfamily physician.Theremustbeevidenceofabnormalvisualfunctioningandadocumented historyofneurologicalcompromise.ThehallmarkfeaturesofCVIarenotedinthenext slide.

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Thelistedfeaturescanbefoundinbothmedicalandeducationalliterature.Achildwith corticalvisualimpairmentmayhaveseveralofthesecharacteristics.ATVItrainedin functionalvisionassessmentspecifictothefeaturesofCVIcanquantifythecharacteristics presentinthechild.ATVI,however,cannotdiagnosecorticalvisualimpairment. Oftenitisthereportofthesevisualand/orbehavioralcharacteristics,inassociationwitha historyofneurologicalinsult,thatwillmotivateafamilytopursueaneyeexaminationfor theirchild.Theeyecarespecialistmaybeabletoverifysomeofthesecharacteristics withinanofficeexamvisit,butwillbenefitfromthishistorytohelpconfirmthediagnosis ofCVI.

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Thereisarangeoftheageofonsetandthespeedofprogressionofeyeconditionsthat resultindeterioratingvision.Whencertainmedicalconditionshavebeendiagnosed,the IEPteamwillwanttoaddressthechildscurrenteducationalneedandtheexpected educationalneedasvisionislost.Speciallydesignedinstructionmaybeneededtoprepare thechildfortheresultsoftheprogressivevisionloss.

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ToqualifyasachildwithVisualImpairment,IncludingBlindness,theremustbeevidence thatthechildcannotreceivereasonableeducationalbenefitfromgeneraleducation withoutspeciallydesignedinstruction.

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ReasonableEducationalBenefit=REB ToqualifyasachildwithVisualImpairment,IncludingBlindness,theremustbeevidence thatthechildcannotreceivereasonableeducationalbenefitfromgeneraleducation withoutspeciallydesignedinstruction.Thespeciallydesignedinstructionmayinvolve trainingontheuseofspecializedequipment. TheExpandedCoreCurriculum TheExpandedCoreCurriculum(ECC)isthebodyofknowledgeandskillsthatareneeded bystudentswithvisualimpairmentsduetotheiruniquedisabilityspecificneeds.Students withvisualimpairmentsneedtheexpandedcorecurriculuminadditiontothecore academic d i curriculum i l of fgeneral leducation. d ti The Th ECCshould h ldb beused dasaf framework k f for assessingstudents,planningindividualgoalsandprovidinginstruction.Theareasofthe ECCinclude:(1)CompensatoryorFunctionalAcademicSkills,IncludingCommunication Modes;(2)OrientationandMobility;(3)SocialInteractionSkills;(4)IndependentLiving Skills;(5)RecreationandLeisureSkills;(6)CareerEducation;(7)AssistiveTechnology;(8) SensoryEfficiency;and(9)SelfDetermination OrientationandMobility(O&M)servicesareapartoftheExpandedCoreCurriculumanda relatedservice.Asarelatedservice,itisexclusivetochildrenwhoareblind/visually impaired.ChildrenwithVisualImpairment,includingBlindnessmayqualifyforO&M,as wellasotherrelatedservices.

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