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PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Key concepts

FUNN: Fundamental Understanding Not Needed (low org games tag) FUNDAMENTALS (basic movement skill development through games) FITNESS FRIENDSHIPS FOREVER

The five Fs that the physical and health education department at South Lincoln uses as the fundamental focus throughout its programs are:

If we accomplish the above then South Lincoln can say they offer a program that exemplify QUALITY DAILY PHYSICAL & HEALTH EDUCATION We want you to PLAY hard and participate to the best of YOUR ability, everyday, but with safety in mind. The two types of safety are Physical and Emotional

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Goal Setting


S.M.A.R.T. goals are goals that are: SPECIFIC: clearly stated MEASURABLE: clearly stated with a benchmark to know when you have attained your goal (a passing grade of 75% or greater on a test) ACTION ORIENTED: A roadmap of the steps you will take to achieve your goal REALISTIC: You must be physically and psychologically able to accomplish the goal TIMELY: Give yourself enough time (A Timeline) to complete the goal but not too much which may cause you to procrastinate and not reach goal

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Communication


Communication is defined as: The active of sending and receiving information clearly and effectively. The most common way of communicating is VERBALLY In todays society methods of communication are NON-VERBAL such as texting, FACEBOOKand in person our body language speaks volumes. KINESICS is the science of body language. We sometimes dont realize that our body language says a lot. Our body language and what we say VERBALLY needs to MATCH, be in SYNC, so that mixed messages arent sent causing confusion for the person receiving the message.

PPL2O Grade 9 Health Education Attitude (Jerrys Lessons)


Jerrys story and responses to situations and with respect to life in general points out to us that: LIFE is all about CHOICES We always have two CHOICES in every situation POSITIVE Choices We can choose to be happy We can choose to help others We can choose to learn from our mistakes We can choose to live our life POSITIVELY ATTITUDE, after all, is EVERYTHING Attitude is a state of mind influenced by the experiences that shape our thoughts.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Class (is an attitude)


Some key qualities that define a person with class according to the article. A person with CLASS: Never runs scared. Has a sense of humor (ability to see the humor in situations and can laugh at self) Never makes excuses (accept responsibility for their ACTIONS) Knows good manners is a small sacrifice and that money doesnt mean class Never tries to build self up by tearing others down (bullying) One with class can run (hang out) in any circle (with royalty or the common folk) Is real and thus makes others feel comfortable around them

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Just Like Class, Fitness as an Attitude


2
Jhoon Rhee the Grand Master in Korean martial arts is an excellent example of the power of positive attitude. From reading the article what are some statements that convey practices that lead to the adoption of a positive attitude? Music and meditation reduces stress by reducing pulse rate (heart rate) and blood pressure (hypertension). Maintenance of a balanced diet is a key to optimum health.

Fitness is a mental attitude. Too often we use the


excuses (age, tiredness, not understanding) to rationalize not doing something that would benefit us. Setting positive goals (live until he is 136) and just doing things that make a difference (1000 pushups every day). Lead positively by example. The reason I am doing 1000pushups per day is to lead by example, to improve myself, my children and my students.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Key Definitions


Active living is a way of life in which physical activity is valued and incorporated into daily living. It is based on the belief that physical activity improves individual well-being and the quality of life in a community. Community is a group of individuals working toward a common goal.

Total fitness is the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure time activities and to meet unforeseen circumstances.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Starting a Fitness Program (F.I.T.T.)
AEROBIC Activity Frequency 3 5x per (How Often) week Intensity (How hard) Time (How long) 60-80% 15 minutes to 1 hour ANAEROBIC Activity 2 3x per week 80-100% Up to an hour but broken down into intervals up to 2minutes in length ANAEROBIC activities (weights, intervals on bike or track)

Type of Activity (examples)

AEROBIC activities (jogging, step classes, biking)

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Importance of Warm Up


1. To get the oxygen and nutrients that muscles need to work fully. 3. Proper warm up allows the body to work efficiently and to maximum potential.

2. Lubricates joints and increases temperature and elasticity of the muscles so the risk of injury is decreased.

4. The stretching stage of warm up give you time to get focused on the activity/competition ahead (get your game face on).

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Warm Up Steps


Before beginning any activity or competition one should consider a proper warm-up. STEP1: General Warm up Activity A general warm up activity (GWA) should be used to warm up the muscles and joints, and to get blood flowing to provide oxygen and nutrients. GWA should be completed at a low to moderate level (40-60% intensity level) GWA should last between 5 and 10 minutes GWA is complete when one shows a light sweat on their forehead (brow)

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Warm Up


Step 2: Dynamic Stretching (after the GWA is complete)

Regal Bow

Jumbo Jet

Lunge Back

Ninja

Lunge with a Twist

Inch Worm

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Stretching for Flexibility

The best time to stretch for flexibility is: after your activity is completed (muscles are warmed to the max). The type of stretching used is called STATIC stretching where one stretches as far as possible and holds that stretch until the muscle relaxes at that length. Time is between 30 and 60 seconds. Your age, gender, body temperature and amount of subcutaneous body fat may INHIBIT ones flexibility.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Benefits of Fitness and Health


Recall the definition of Total Fitness: Total fitness is the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure time pursuits and to meet unforeseen circumstances. Total fitness involves the balance of Nutritional Fitness-Cardiovascular FitnessMusculoskeletal fitness and Psychological fitness Question: From the definition above what does fitness allow an individual to do?

Fitness allows us to:


1. 2. 3. Carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness Enjoy leisure time pursuits Have energy to meet unforeseen circumstances

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Benefits of Fitness and Health


Being fit helps decrease the risks of the following health problems: Low back pain Joint problems Heart disease Obesity High blood pressure (Hypertension)

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Components of Fitness


The basic components of PHYSICAL fitness are: AGILITY is the ability to change directions quickly. Muscular STRENGTH is the ability to exert maximum force. Muscular ENDURANCE is the ability to do repeated muscular contractions. SPEED is the ability to cover a given distance in the shortest time. POWER is the ability to release maximum force at maximum speed COORDINATION is the ability to synchronize body parts into specific movement patterns. FLEXIBILITY is the ability to move body part unobstructed, around joints.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Tips


To start and stick to a fitness program: You must set S.M.A.R.T. fitness goals The activity must be one you like It (the fitness activity) must be scheduled as part of your daily routine Do it (your fitness) activity with a friend or group of friends that love the same activity as you.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Sexuality


Sexuality is defined as:

An individuals awareness of their RIGHTS, ROLES and RESPONSBILITIES in society and the REALIZATION and ACCEPTANCE of the CONSEQUENCES of their actions It is knowing who were are as males or females, knowing our bodies (parts and systems) and respecting it through proper nutrition, exercise, sleep and hygiene.

It is also knowing what the laws of society demands of us and that with every choice we make there are CONSEQUENCES. There are three Es that influence the development of our sexuality:
EXPERIENCES of the past EXAMPLES set for us by others (parents, coaches, peers) EMOTIONAL STATE (our mind set) Concurrently PARENTS MEDIA- ATTITUDE contribute to the three Es by providing a base of information for us to draw on when making decisions and choices. The more comfortable we are with our sexuality (who we are and what we stand for) the more tolerant we are towards we are toward those who are different from us in thought, race, religion. Intelligence etc.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Body Types (Somatotypes)

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Body Types Characteristics


Endomorphs are pear shaped, round in the middle, have flabby arms and legs and large round faces. Endomorphs enjoy activities that do not demand speed and agility (bowling, archery, billiards, darts, archery). Mesomorphs are muscular, large sturdy frames-legs-bones, narrow waist. Mesomorphs enjoy body contact sports (football, wrestling, hockey). Ectomorphs are thin, have long thin bones, small muscles Ectomorphs are good in track and field (distance running, high jump).

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Body Image Disorders

As we age we are bombarded by the MEDIA (TV-magazinesbillboards)and what is shown can really skew our image of our own bodies. You must understand that the media is trying to sell an image and in turn product. This can lead to poor body image which in turn can lead to Eating disorders. Eating disorder are usually brought on by poor body image. Those afflicted usually see themselves as overweight and nothing anyone can say can change their mind. Eating disorders are psychological in nature.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Body Image Disorders Anorexia Nervosa
Psychological disorder where the individual starves themselves resulting in excessive weight loss.

Bulimia Nervosa
Psychological disorder where the individual binge eats (large consumption of food even when they are not hungry) and then purge by use of laxatives or by forcing themselves to throw up.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Reproductive Systems

Reproductive systems are the organ systems in both males and females that perform the function of sexual reproduction (procreation). The union of gametes and the growth and development of a new individual takes place internally within specialized organs (Uterus) of the female reproductive system. Gametes are the sex cells which which are found in organs called GONADS Tail on the sperm is called a FLAGELLUM which allows sperm cells to swim toward the female egg cell. nucleus with a heredity material (DNA) and a large amount of food material called YOLK

Male gametes are known as SPERM

Female gametes are known as EGGS which are generally round and contain a

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Reproductive Systems

Fertilization:
During the process of fertilization a sperm cell unites with an egg cell to form a single cell called a ZYGOTE which will eventually divide multiple times and grow into an individual. The organ of males and females that produce and store gametes is called the GONADS. Female gonads are called OVARIES, and male gonads are called TESTES. Both male and female are born with pairs of gonads which are non-functional until PUBERTY.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Male Reproductive Systems
1. URETER 2. BLADDER

3. SEMINAL VESICLE

4. PROSTATE GLAND 7. URETHRA 5. BULBOURETHRAL GLAND (COWPERs gland) 6. VAS DEFERENS

9. PENIS (ORGAN)

8. EPIDIDYMIS

10. TESTiS 11. SCROTUM

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Reproductive Systems
The TESTES (singular testis) of males are outside the body contained in a sac called the SCROTUM that ensures the testes are held away from the body and kept at a temperature slightly below normal of 37 degrees Celsius as sperm are most efficiently produced at this temperature. Sperm are produced in long highly coiled SEMINIFEROUS tubules of the testes. Mature sperm are stored in the EPIDIDYMIS TESTOSTERONE is a male sex hormone produced by cells in the TESTES. Testosterone helps in the secondary sex characteristic such as FACIAL and body hair, DEEPER voice and a MUSCULAR build.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Male Reproductive Systems
Sperm gets to the outside of the body when a male gets sexually aroused and sperm travels from the epididymis through the VAS DEFERENS where nutrient rich SEMINAL fluid is is added after being secreted from the SEMINAL VESICLE and the PROSTATE gland. Seminal fluid contains FRUCTOSE, a sugar that provides energy for sperm cell locomotion and other secretions from the COWPERs (bulbourethral) gland that protect the sperm from acids in the male urethra and the female reproductive system. The mixture of sperm and seminal fluid is called SEMEN. This mixture exits the body through the URETER, the same tube through the penis that urine is passed out of.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Female Reproductive System
4. FALLOPIAN TUBES

3. UTERUS 2. CERVIX 1. VAGINA 5. OVARY

6. MONS PUBIS 9. INNER LABIA

7. CLITORIS 8. OUTER LABIA 10. URETHRAL OPENING

1. VAGINA 11. PERINEUM

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Female Reproductive System
The main organs of the female reproductive system are the: 1. VAGINA 2. UTERUS 3. FALLOPIAN TUBES 4. OVARIES The VAGINA (birth canal) is a smooth, muscle-walled tube that connects the UTERUS to the external environment, accepts the males semen and is the canal that the baby passes through during natural childbirth. The FALLOPIAN tubes are long, tube like structures connected to the uterus that receives the egg cells that are released by the OVARIES. The fallopian tubes are the location where fertilization usually takes place. The UTERUS is a muscular chamber where the divided and fertilized egg (embryo) embeds and grows. During puberty the ovaries secrete a group of Female sex hormones called ESTROGEN and its secretion stimulates secondary sex characteristics including enlargement of BREAST, growth of PUBIC hair, deposition of extra FAT under the skin, and development of broader HIPS to allow for childbirth. A number of hormones, including estrogen, stimulate egg production in the ovaries.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Female Reproductive System The Menstrual Cycle:
FOLICLE STIMULATING HORMONES (FSH) secreted from the PITUITARY gland and the LUETENZING hormone (LH) secreted by anterior pituitary glands are hormones that are responsible for stimulating the maturing of underdeveloped egg cells and the release of mature eggs from the ovaries (ovulation) respectively. Ovulation occurs approximately once per month. After ovulation, CILIA lining the nearby opening of the fallopian tubes create a CURRENT flow that carries the egg into the fallopian tube and toward the uterus. In the meantime the luteinizing hormone stimulate the remaining follicle cells in the ovary to become a yellowish mass called the CORPUS LUTEUM.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Female Reproductive System
Cells of the corpus luteum secrete a hormone called PROGESTERONE which acts on the lining of the the uterus called the ENDOMETRIUM. Progesterone causes the cells of the endometrium to multiply rapidly, glands in the lining to become ENLARGED and become more active, and new BLOOD vessels to form in preparation for the possible embedding of the embryo into the uterine lining (PREGNANCY). If the cell is not fertilized it will not embed and it will DISINTERGRATE and the endometrium will breakdown and sluff off and shed through the vagina resulting in a flow of blood called MENTRUATION. The menstrual cycle has 3 phases: FLOW PHASE (day 1-5) when menstruation occurs FOLLICULAR PHASE (day 6-13) Follicle develops in the ovaries. LUTEAL PHASE (day 14-28) Period when endometrium prepares for receiving fertilized eggs.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education

Sexual Intercourse: Choice/Concerns, Diseases, Birth Control


Your CHOICES about every aspect of your life is YOURS to make and LIVE with, so make informed choices. As teenagers you will face many concerns (sexual) and temptations (drugs/alcohol) and whether to engage in those behaviours or not. What are some MALE sexual concerns? 1. Erectile dysfunctions (prominence of Cialis and Viagra, why?) 2. Nocturnal Emissions Wet Dreams 3. Penis size 4. Circumcision 5. Sexual prowess

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Sexual Intercourse: Choices/Concerns, Diseases, Birth Control
What are some FEMALE sexual concerns? 1. Breast Size (body image) 2. Virginity To have premarital sex or not. Is there guilt?

The District School Board of Niagara promotes Abstinence- waiting until you are married. It is YOUR choice ultimately but consider whether you are doing it for the

correct reasons.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Sexual Intercourse: Choices/Concerns, Diseases, Birth Control
As teenagers the question is always why. This is a good stance to take as it opens up great conversation. So why not engage in unprotected, premarital sexual intercourse? 1. 2. 3. 4. Unwanted Pregnancy (babies having babies teen moms) Emotional stresses of having to raise a child alone. Financial difficulties. STDs sexually transmitted diseases

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Sexual Intercourse: Choices/Concerns, Diseases, Birth Control
It is YOUR choice ultimately but consider whether you are engaging in premarital sexual intercourse for the correct reasons. If you do decide to engage, both partners in agreement, then do so SAFELY. Methods of Birth Control and their Effectiveness: 1. ABSTINENCE is 100% effective 2. Barrier method: Male condom with spermicide (Nonoxynol 9) 99% effective. 3. Chemical method: pill, spermicide, Norplant, Depo-Provera 99% effective 4. Surgical method: vasectomy, tubal ligation (99% effective)

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


The 4 Basic Nutritional Concepts

1. NUTRITION is the food we eat and how our bodies use the food to create energy. 2. Food is made up of six nutrients, MACRONUTRIENTS (carbohydrates-fatsprotein) and MICRONUTRIENTS (minerals-vitamins-water). The Canadas Food Guide suggests the minimum daily requirements from the 4 food groups that an individual should consume. For your age group, 13 years, the consumption should be: MALES Food Groups FEMALES 7 GRAIN PRODUCTS 6 8 FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 7 3-4 MILK AND ALTERNATIVES 3-4 3 MEATS AND ALTERNATIVES 2 0 FAT C.A.T.S.S.S 0 FAT C.A.T.S.S.S. includes caffeine, alcohol, tobacco, salts, saturated fats and sugars that are refined.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education The 4 Basic Nutritional Concepts


3. Every individual needs different amount of food/nutrients depending on a) BODY SIZE: The larger the body, the more body tissue to feed, the more nutrients needed. b) GENDER: In general males are larger and have more body tissue to feed. c) ACTIVITY Level: The more active an individual the more fuel is used and needs to be replaced. d) AGE: Babies, pre-pubescent adolescent and pregnant women need to feed the rapid growth. 4. How food is handled INFLUENCES its a) LOOKS: we eat with our eyes first b) TASTE: proper cooking brings out foods full flavour c) NUTRITIONAL VALUE after cooking: Boiling vegetables removes nutrients d) SAFETY

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Bones (skeletal system)


1. CRANIUM 2. MANDIBLE (JAW BONE) 3. CLAVICLE 5. STERNUM 4. RIBCAGE 8. HUMERUS 10. HIP GIRDLE 12. CARPALS 9. RADIUS 13. ULNA
14. PHALANGES

6. VERTEBRAL COLUMN 7. SCAPULA

11. SACRUM 15. METACARPALS

16. FEMUR 18. FIBULA (outside) 17. PATELLA (knee cap) 19. TIBIA

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Musculoskeletal Fitness


Functions of the Skeletal System:
1. Bones SUPPORT body tissues and provide a FRAMEWORK for the body. 2. Bone structures PROTECT vital organs 3. Bones STORE phosphorus and calcium for the body to draw on in times of need. 4. Bone marrow is the site of red blood cell production 5. Bones provide attachment points for muscle tendons to attach to, across joints, so when muscles contract movement can occur.

Functions of the Muscular System:


1. Muscle tendons attach to points on bones, across joints, and when muscles contract movement can occur. 2. Muscles act as SHOCK ABSORBERS to the forces created on the body through movement.

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education Muscles


1. TRAPEZIUS 2. DELTOIDEUS 3. PECTORALIS MAJOR 4. BICEPS 5. RECTUS ABDOMINIS 9. GLUTEUS MAXIMUS 6. QUADRICEPS 10. HAMSTRINGS 11. GASTROCNEMIUS 12. ACHILLES TENDON 8. LATISSIMUS DORSI 7. TRICEPS

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Anatomical TERMINOLOGY

10

The following terms represent body AREAS and MOVEMENTS 1. Anterior means toward the front 2. Posterior means toward the back 3. Extension means opening of a skeletal joint 4. Flexion means closing of a skeletal joint 5. Eversion means turning the soles of the feet out 6. Inversion means turning the soles of the feet in towards each other 7. Superior means toward the head 8. Inferior means toward the feet 9. Pronation means turning the palms downwards 10. Supination means turning the palms of the hand upwards 11. Adduction means moving limbs towards the midline of body 12. Abduction means moving the limbs away from the midline of the body

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education )


Red blood is oxygen rich (OXYGENATED)

Circulatory System (Heart-Lungs-Arteries-Veins-Capillaries


Blue blood is oxygen poor (DEOXYGENATED)
1. SUPERIOR VENA CAVA 2. AORTA 4. PULMONARY ARTERIES 3. PULMONARY VEINS 5. RIGHT ATRIUM 7. TRICUSPID VALVE 9. RIGHT VENTRICLE 11. INFERIOR VENA CAVA 13. SEPTUM 14. MYOCARDIUM 10. BICUSPID VALVE
12. LEFT VENTRICLE

6. PULMONARY VEINS 8. LEFT ATRIUM

PPL1O Grade 9 Health Education


Circulatory System (Heart-Lungs-Arteries-Veins-Capillaries

TRACHEA

BRONCHUS BRONCHIOLES

ALVEOLAR SACS