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Task Force on Fault Current Limiter Testing

Frank C. Lambert Georgia Tech - NEETRAC

& Michael Mischa Steurer Center for Advanced Power Systems, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL

Presented at the 8th EPRI Superconductivity Conference Oak Ridge, TN, Nov 12, 2008

New IEEE Task Force


Goal
Develop a guide for testing novel FCL technologies (SC and non-SC) Complements activities by CIGRE WG-A3.23

Scope
Identify FCL testing requirements from a utility point of view Identify specific testing needs regarding the different FCL technologies (e.g. superconducting vs. power electronics) Identify applicability of existing power equipment testing standards Recommend additional tests and testing procedures as needed Identify gaps in availability of testing capabilities and recommend power requirements for upgrading

11/12/2008

FCL_Testing_TF_EPRI-SC_Lambert_Steurer_12nov2008

New IEEE Task Force


Approach
Study and review novel fault current limiter (FCL) technologies for medium and high voltage systems. Map testing requirements against the needs by different FCL technologies Map testing requirements against existing power equipment testing standards Map testing requirements against available laboratory capabilities Coordinate with other technical committees, groups, societies and associations as required

Status
New IEEE task force was approved by the IEEE Switchgear Committee in October 2008 We still need participants!
First meeting possible during the Joint Technical Committee Meetings in Atlanta (http://www.pestechnical.com) January 12 15, 2009 Next regular meeting of the IEEE Switchgear Committee will be in Asheville, NC, May 3 7, 2009
11/12/2008 FCL_Testing_TF_EPRI-SC_Lambert_Steurer_12nov2008 3

NEETRAC Fault Current Limiter Needs Assessment Survey Goal


Help target and direct FCL development towards applications with the maximum potential benefit for utilities

Approach
NETRAC customer sponsored 10-page survey
Planning, Substation Engineering/Design Operations/Maintenance Protection & Control

Individual utility responses will be collected and aggregated by NEETRAC Only composite results will be distributed to sponsoring NEETRAC members, survey participants, and CIGRE WG A3.23

Status
Revisions of the survey questions are possible until mid of January 2009 Interested parties please contact Frank Lambert
Email Phone Fax
11/12/2008

frank.lambert@neetrac.gatech.edu 404-675-1855 404-675-1820


FCL_Testing_TF_EPRI-SC_Lambert_Steurer_12nov2008 4

Eighth Annual Superconductivity Conference Cigre WG A3.23 Update


Ashok Sundaram Senior Project Manager EPRI asundara@epri.com (650) 855-2304 November 12th-13th, 2008 Doubletree, OakRidge, TN Hosted by DOE and ORNL

New Cigre WG A3.23 on Application and feasibility of fault current limiters in power systems
Met in Erlangen, Germany (near Nuremberg) hosted by Mr. Heino Schmitt of Siemens on Sept 3rd & 4th , 2008 Twenty members selected worldwide to serve on this WG picked on a competitive basis from a large number of applicants Scope of the WG A3.23 is as follows: Build on WG A3.10 and A3.16 and draw to a close A3s investigation into FCLs Location of FCL installation Different type of FCLs Experience from former and new pilot projects Feasibility of application of conventional and novel FCLs Acceptance issues and how to overcome them Customer system requirements (fault level, insulation coordination, power quality and stability) Interactions with protection and other control and power devices Potential economical savings (examples from utility experiences)
2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

New Cigre WG A3.23 on Application and feasibility of fault current limiters in power systems
Time Schedule 3 years Deliverables: Technical brochure and report in Electra Sessions symposium papers as appropriate Tutorial material (enhancing that available from previous WGs) Next Meeting Early March 2009 sponsored by Zenergy (formerly SCPower) in South San Francisco for a 2 days followed by a field visit to SCE to observe testing of Zenergy Superconducting FCL at the Avanti circuit of the future. Non members of the WG are welcome to attend and provide input but cannot participate in voting on motions passed.

2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Reports from Cigre on Fault Current Limiters


Cigre Technical Brochure No 239 (WG A3.10) December 2003. Fault current limiters in electrical medium and high voltage systems Cigre Technical Brochure No 339 (WG A3.16) February 2008 Guideline on the impacts of fault current limiting devices on protection systems

2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

HTS Cables Status of Standards Work


David Lindsay Southwire Company EPRI HTS Conference Oak Ridge, TN 12 Nov 2008

IEEE (www.ieee.org)

IEEE

PES Power & Energy Society

ICC Insulated Conductor Committee


C22D

C22D Superconducting Cables


Inactive past ~5 years Re-activated in Oct 2008 Discussion Group = no formal task for standard development at this time. Chair = David Lindsay

Cigre (www.cigre.org)

Cigre International Council on Large Electric Systems

Study Committee B1 Insulated Cables

TF B1.31 Testing of Superconducting Cable Systems


Created August 2008 1 year duration Provide terms of reference of future WG Convenor = David Lindsay

Cigre guides for HV/EHV cable are typically used as base for new IEC standards.

Proposal for US Sub-Committee on HTS Standards


From Lance Cooley IEEE-CSC Standards Chair And Bill Hassenzahl Past IEEE-CSC Standards Chair

IEEE-CSC Standards
IEEE Council on Superconductivity recognizes and supports standards activities
Hosted discussions 2004-2007 that led to new IECTC90 working group on HTS current leads Acts as liaison between individuals, organizations (EPRI, IEEE, NEMA, Labs, Companies), and countries (IEC, VAMAS, CIGRE) Request to IEEE-CSC from Japanese National Committee for US participation in further work

Proposal: IEEE-CSC will continue support as a liaison until a more formal organization is formed and funding can be secured

JNC-IEC Proposal
At the Berlin IEC TC-90 meeting the JNC proposed the creation of an ad hoc group to discuss the validity of the general requirements of HTS (document available). The result of voting was 3 agreements(Japan, Korea and Poland) and 2 abstention (Germany and China). So the ad hoc group became possible to start. Professor Osamura was nominated as the Rapporteur. His comments to LD Cooley of the IEEE-CSC were:
1) The group should be organized by the experts from USA, Germany, Poland, China, Korea Japan and possibly others. 2) I feel this is very tough job for getting any reasonable conclusion whether its creation is valid or not. 3) So I would like to collect comprehensively opinions from the experts and also from people relating to SC science and technology. Please give me your opinion on this matter. And I would like to ask you to recommend the experts from USA.

Cooley replied that we need to have general discussions in the USA and that we would provide a formal response in December 2008.

New IEC Ad-Hoc Group


October 9, 2008 Secretary IEC/TC90 Ad-hoc Group 3: Standardization of Superconducting Wires Task: To study standardization issues on Superconducting wires and to report a result at the next TC90 meeting Member Kozo Osamura (Japan) Rapporteur Koichi Nakao (Japan) Jeonwook CHO (Korea) Jacek Sosnowski (Poland) TBD (USA) Cooley (as of 11/7/08) TBD (China) e-mail address kozo_osamura@rias.or.jp nakao@istec.or.jp jwcho@keri.re.kr sosnow@iel.waw.pl

Motivation
Groundwork by EPRI, IEEE-CSC, AEA DOE and others is working towards defining an effective organization Activity in, and request from, Japan requires a response at some level HTS conductors are becoming defined; end uses are developing; products are not yet there --- ripe for groundwork.

Potential US Committee Members approached by Cooley


DOE: Haught IEEE-CSC: Cooley, Levy EPRI: Eckroad NIST: Goodrich NEMA: Liebowitz AFRL: Barnes NRL: Gubser NHMFL: Larbalestier ORNL: Lee LANL: Marken GE: Bray AmSC: Maguire, Fleshler SuPwr: Xie, Martchevskii AEA: Hassenzahl

Action items for coming year


Hold a workshop Define an organizational structure Prepare a Formal US response to JNC-IEC Seek support Assess landscape and needs
Current leads already in progress WG1 begin work on terminology WG2 some characterizations need standards Activities by CIGRE, EPRI, NEMA

USA Formal Response to JNC


Details TBD Suggest forming an ad hoc committee (following the IEC plan) within the US with some or all of the individuals listed above. Suggest that the chair be from the IEEE-CSC and that this organization act as a coordinator for activities. During a workshop early in 2009 determine areas where standards are needed, both now and in the future. Address national and international issues in the standards area and how to establish a level playing field.

An Assessment of Fault Current Limiter Testing Requirements


Brian Marchionini & Ndeye K. Fall
Energetics Incorporated

Dr. Michael Mischa Steurer


Florida State University EPRI Superconductivity Conference, November 12-13, 2008

What is a FCL and How Does it Work?

Very Low Impedance

Fault

Project Purpose and Scope

Identify testing requirements for advanced electricitydelivery devices such as fault current limiters Make an assessment of the existing capabilities of testing facilities in the U.S. and internationally Perform a gap analysis to determine where existing testing capabilities and facilities fall short The scope of the project includes solid-state and superconducting-based fault current limiters Focuses on projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy

Methodology
Subject SubjectMatter MatterExpert ExpertInterviews Interviews Testing TestingFacility Facility Capabilities Capabilities

Testing TestingNeeds Needs

Gap GapAnalysis Analysis

Organizations Contacted

Electrivation

Types of Testing
Category Research and Development Tests Type Tests Description Electrical and mechanical tests performed in a laboratory and conducted during development. Performed to demonstrate the adequacy of designs and materials of a system. Generally required when there is a significant change in materials or the manufacturing process. Tests performed to detect shipping or installation damage. Also reveals defects in workmanship. Verify that the device meets specifications before leaving the factory. IEC definition A test made before supplying of a general commercial basis of a system in order to satisfactory long term performance of the complete system. Field tests during the lifetime of a system to detect deterioration. Specialized tests designed to obtain specific information. Immediately needed x

Commissioning Tests Factory Production Tests Long-Term Prequalification Tests Maintenance Tests Special-Purpose Tests

Based on Table 3-2, on test categories for underground cable in EPRI Specifying and Testing HTS Power Equipment (Report number TBD)

Specifications for DOEs FCL Projects


Specification AMSC Resistive FCL 3-phase, transmission voltage Low-inductance bifilar coil switching module technology using 2G wire 138 kV, 2000 A Class (115 kV, 1200 Amps at SCE site); 3-phase 2050% Reduction 37 % at SCE (63 kA to 40 kA) Cable, Transformer Silicon Power SuperPower Resistive FCL Matrix design has parallel, 2G HTS elements and conventional coils Zenergy Power DC-based iron core One DC first-generation HTS coil for a three-phase AC FCL Saturable reactor-type FCL Suitable for 2G materials, when available

Design

Uses high power semiconductors Super-gate turn-off thyristor (SGTO)

Ratings (final design) Fault Current Reduction Testing Protocol Basis

69 kV; 3,000 Amps; 3-phase 50% reduction of an 80 kA fault Transformer, Reactor, and Circuit Breaker

138 kV; 1200 Amps; 3-phase 20%50% reduction Transformer, Reactor, and Circuit Breaker

138 kV; 2,000 to 4,000 Amps steady-state; 3-phase 20% to 40% reduction of a 60 kA to 80 kA fault Transformer

Current Status and Future Requirements of FCLs


Zenergy 100
Line-Line Voltage / kV rms
Transmission Distribution

SuperPower AMSC Silicon Power

Full Scale

10

Zenergy AMSC Silicon Power Current Status

1 SuperPower 0.1 0.1

Resistive HTS Saturated Iron Core Solid State

1 Rated Current / kA rms

10

Examples of Test Facility Capabilities


Name Location Insulation Test (MV) at zero current AC 50/60 Hz Lightning Impulse 1/2/50s DC Current Test (kA) at zero voltage Fault No-load voltage (kV) High-Power Test Maximum (Surge) Power Rating (MVA) Continuous Power (MVA) @ nominal voltage (kV) Kind of Source(s) for the Lab

KEMA KEMA Power Tech ORNL LANL

Chalfont, PA 0.55 Arnhem, The 1.00 Netherlands Vancouver, 0.80 Canada Oak Ridge, 0.2 TN

0.80 2.60 3.00 0.8

0.10 1.00 1.00 0.3 0.025

50 for 1 s 13.8 63 for 0.5 s.

3250

N/A N/A N/A N/A 5 @ 13.4 400 for 1 s 1000 MVA at 18 kV N/A 7.5 @ 4.16 1.5 @ 0.48 6.2 @ 4.16 1.5 @ 0.48

15 @50Hz 8400 390 for 0.42 s. 17@60Hz 110 for 3 s. 13.6 1500 50 4 (100 for ~1 sec. with upgrade) 0.3 (0.6 with upgrade) N/A 1400

Short-circuit generators rated for 1,000 and 2,250 MVA parallel operation possible 4 short-circuit generators, 2,100 MVA each Power system grid (12,000 MVA) DC and AC power supplies 13.4-kV power grid; 1400 MVA generator Short-circuit generator rated 4800 MVA at 18 kV 2.2 MV, 220 kJ Impulse generator 1MV Cascade Transformer 60 Hz power system grid fed from 12.47 kV Variable frequency and voltage converter

Los Alamos, 0.138 (with N/A NM upgrade) Changwon, Korea Atlanta, GA 400 kV 1.00

KERI NEETRAC Florida State UniversityCAPS

4200 kV, 50 400 kV, 154 kA @ 24, 48, 72, 4800 MVA s 10 mA 50/60 Hz at 96 kV 18 kV 2.20 1.00 25 for 2 s .12 N/A 0.14 0.14 84 13 7 1.7 13 4.8 (DC) 0.385 0.48 4.16 4.16 0.48 1.15 (DC) 130 N/A

Tallahassee, 0.1 FL

Testing Facility Gaps


Source Capacity KEMA Holland Source Capacity PowerTech Source Capacity KEMA PA Source Capacity KEMA Holland with Ideal 4x Transformer

80
Voltage across FCL (kV)

Silicon Power 80 kA Prospective Fault with 25% reduction Silicon Power 80 kA Prospective Fault with 50% reduction Zenergy 80 kA Prospective Fault with 25% reduction Zenergy 80 kA Prospective Fault with 50% reduction SuperPower 90kA Prospective Fault with 25% reduction SuperPower 90kA Prospective Fault with 50% reduction

60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Limited Current (kA)

Major Findings Part 1


T&D equipment testing facilities can provide voltage and current to adequately test FCLs at the distribution level There is no place that has the capabilities to test FCLs at transmission-level current and voltage levels simultaneously While there is a need to conduct high voltage-current tests, synthetic tests, similar to the ones used for circuit breakers, may be sufficient for certain tests There are a number of experts who believe advanced modeling and simulation may possibly substitute for certain tests

Zenergys FCL Device

Major Findings Part 2

Commercial testing facilities are not always conducive for advanced design and prototype testing for R&D projects Commercial T&D equipment testing facilities tend to be costly, busy, and difficult to schedule There are approximately 100 testing facilities around the world and these are equipped and managed to conduct routine tests of existing or market-ready devices to meet known standards and protocols

AMSCs FCL module testing

Major Findings Part 3

Today there are no common guidelines for testing prototype high-temperature superconducting (HTS) and solid-state FCLs and for integrating these devices with the electric system Testing procedures have been and will continue to be developed by FCL device manufacturers and their utility R&D partners and will vary depending on the design of the equipment and the application This lack of standards complicates the testing process as each trip to the testing facility has unique requirements, protocols, and procedures The existence of standards could help expedite and accelerate the testing process

Conclusions

There is a need for testing facilities that have the flexibility to respond to the special requirements of R&D projects Given the unique capabilities of fault current limiters there is an expectation that utilities will allow prototype FCLs to be installed and tested on their own systems, before they have been simultaneously tested for high current and high voltage There is a need to continue the discussion on FCL testing recommendations

SuperPowers FCL module testing

Questions?

Brian Marchionini bmarchionini@energetics.com 202-406-4109 Michael Mischa Steurer steurer@caps.fsu.edu 850-644-1629

Calculating required voltage

System impedance w/o FCL (1)= Single phase voltage/Fault current Required FCL impedance (2)= Single phase voltage/Limited fault current Required voltage drop = (1-2) X Reduced fault current

Development of Test Protocol for 15kV Class Solid-State Fault Current Limiter

Ashok Sundaram EPRI asundara@epri.com (650) 855-2304

Mahesh Gandhi Silicon Power Corp. mahesh_gandhi@siliconpower.com (484) 913-1520

9:30AM 10:00AM
SSCL Program Overview SSCL Test Protocol
SSCL design SSCL field test circuits SSCL test protocol
Performance Verification testing at KEMA Pre-connection test (dielectric, partial discharge, etc.) Field operations testing (Steady-state test & Transient performance)

Ashok Sundaram Mahesh Gandhi

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

EPRIs Smart Grid Power-electronic based Technologies


SOLID-STATE BREAKER COMPENSATED VOLTAGE, POWER FACTOR HARMONICS,

SENSITIVE LOAD

DSTATCOM

SSCL
REDUCED SAGS, TRANSIENTS, HARMONICS

ENERGY STORAGE

DYNAMIC NON-LINEAR LOAD

DVR SENSITIVE LOAD UNINTERRUPTED SUPPLY

ENERGY STORAGE

SSTS
CRITICAL LOAD IUT
Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

RESIDENTIAL LOAD
2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Fault Current Management


Growth in the generation of electrical energy and an increased interconnection of the networks and distributed generation leads to higher fault currents Higher fault causes more stress on the system reducing the life of critical components such as transformers and has adverse impacts on grounding. The growth in capacity requires replacing existing circuit breakers with higher fault current ratings. Major cost impact and down time.

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pat Duggan - ConEdison


Fault Current Limiting functionality is a critical enabler for open access for new transmission and generation, and more cost effective infrastructure upgrades and replacements. In addition fault current limiters can mitigate recovery time of superconducting cables and give selected DGs an advanced option to serve peak loads after external faults.

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

FCL Technology Taxonomy


New terminology as defined in previous EPRI FCL study now adopted by CIGRE WGa3.16 Permanent impedance increase during nominal and fault conditions Old term: passive Splitting into sub grids Introducing a higher voltage range Splitting of bus bars High impedance transformers Current limiting reactors Condition based impedance increase Small impedance at nominal load fast increase of impedance at fault Old term: active Fuse based devices (< 36 kV) Stand alone HV fuse (< 1 kA) Sequential Commutating Current Limiters (< 5 kA) tripping novel concepts Superconductors Semiconductors Hybrid systems

Topological measures

Apparatus measures

Topological measures
6

Apparatus measures

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

69 kV SSCL EPRI / DOE


Outline of 69kV, 1000A, 1Ph Unit
SSFCL looks like a Transformer Tank Size - 12h x 12w x 12d OFAF Cooling System Size - 10h x 5w x 7d Total weight 80,000 lbs Local / Remote Control

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

15 kV 1200A SSCL CEC/SCE/EPRI Project


Voltage Class Number of phases Frequency Current rating Fault current Let-thru current Let-thru current duration BIL rating Size Weight 15 kV 3 60 HZ 1200 A 23 kA 9 kA 30 cycles 110 kV 12 H 11 W 12D 40 000 lbs

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

SSCL Program Team


DOE / Washington HQ DOE / Chicago EPRI Project manager Villanova University SSCL Developer SSCL Commercializer Technical Consultant Utility Advisors - Gil Bindewald - Stephen Waslo - Ashok Sundaram - Dr. Amy Fleischer - Silicon Power Corp. - Howard Industries - Dr. Laszlo Guygyi - Pat Duggan (ConEd) - Pat Dilillo (ConEd) - Sanjay Bose (ConEd) EPRI P37D Task Force on Advanced Solid-State Substations Techniques Chair: Jim Houston Alabama Power Company

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Current Limiting Effect

2007 R&D100 Award Winner SGTO Device - Performance Driver

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

10

SSCL Concept
Design Features: No cryogenics Immediate recovery Fail safe No current distortions SuperGTO Lower losses Reduced Overall size and weight Modular design expandable to desired Voltage & Current Ratings Operation:
iLINE Line reactance

Limiting Inductor Main SGTO switch

Circuit Breaker

Auxiliary SGTO switch Commutation Inductor

Commutation Capacitor

Varistor

Normally the continuous current flows thru the fast speed switch (Main SGTO). Once the fault is sensed by high-speed sensor and declared by FPGA board, the current is commutated to Limiting Inductor (CLR). Introduction of CLR will limit the current to the level below the rating of the downstream breaker. The downstream breaker will trip and open the ckt within 30 cycles.
Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary 2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

11

SSCL Architecture

VLC Voltage Level Controller

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

12

SSCL Design

SGTO Module 800A 5kV

Standard Building Block 44L x 13w x 15h, 100 lbs

Power Stack 90h x 66w x 46d 1800 lbs

15kV 1200A Final Assembly 11h x 12w x 12d, 40,000 lbs including Oil

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

13

SSCL Accessories

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

14

SSCL Ratings
Parameters Rated Maximum Voltage, kV rms Rated Continuous Current, Ampere rms Rated Power Frequency Available fault current, kA rms Rated Let-thru Current, kA rms Rated Let-thru Current Duration, cycles Rated Dielectric Power Frequency 1 min dry kV, rms Impulse, Full-wave Withstand, kV peak Impulse, Chopped-wave Withstand, kV peak Ambient Temp, Degree C Rated Control Power, V DC or AC, 60Hz, 1ph SSCL Power Efficiency Line Voltage drop Line Harmonic Distortion Partial discharge Audible sound test 69kV 72.5 1000 60 80 40 30 160 350 452 40 / 50 125 DC 99.75% 0.3% None TBD TBD 15kV 15.5 1200 60 23 9 30 50 110 142 120 AC 125 DC 4000 11 5.5

100 pC/19.5kV 55dBA/20 58dBA/6

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

15

SSCL Field Test Circuits

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

16

Inherently Fault Current Limiting Cable + Stand Alone Fault Current Limiter Demonstration
Substation
Hi

gh wa y

Fault Current Limiter

Refrigeration

et e r St

Generating Station

Substation (new)

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

17

SSCL Application In ConEd


East 75th Street Substation
CBT1SE CBT2SE CBT3SE

SSFCL in two locations


CBT4SE

To 74440

T1 CBT1E

To 74441

T2 CBT2E

To 74442

T3 CBT3E SSFCL CBT3W

To 74443

T4 CBT4E SSFCL CBT4W

CBT1W

CBT2W

CBT1SW

CBT2SW

CBT3SW

CBT4SW

York Substation
CBT1SE CBT2SE CBT3SE HTS Cable To 74416 T1 CBT1E To 74417 T2 CBT2E To 74485 T3 CBT3E

CBT1W

CBT2W

CBT3W

CBT1SW

CBT2SW F8

CBT3SW

ConEd 138 kV system equivalent from PSS/E data base

One fault location Most severe case


Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

HTS cable PI circuit equivalent from Southwire data sheet

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

18

SCEs Avanti circuit a.k.a circuit of the future


Shandin Substation
Fiber Optic Duct temp Monitoring System
SCADA System Gateway

Northpark

Solid State Fault Current Limiter


Comm. Fiber

12KV
Circuit Tie Switch Tie RCS

Typ. Load Transformer

RAR

G
Distributed Generation
USAT

SEL 2100 Logic Processor

Tie RCS

Sweetwater 12KV

Tie RCS Circuit Tie Switch

RCI 1 VFI/Remote Controlled Switch

Multi-Stage Capacitor Banks

Secondary Network
RCI 2
2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

RCI 3

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

19

15kV 1200A SSCL Test Protocol

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

20

Controlled Testing at KEMA Power Lab


Dielectric Test Power frequency Voltage Withstand Test Full-wave lightning impulse withstand voltage tests Chopped wave lightning impulse withstand voltage tests Insulation test by power factor measurement (Dobble test) Insulation test by resistance measurement (Megger test) Partial Discharge Test CLR resistance & impedance measurement Current Limiting Test Efficiency (power loss) Test (Steady state Operation test) Continuous Current Carrying Test/ Temperature Test (Steady state Operations test) Audible sound test
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21

Tests at Southern California Edison


Tests at SSID facility: Insulation test by power factor measurement (Dobble test) Insulation test by resistance measurement (Megger test) Partial Discharge test Tests at Shandin Sub-station: Pre-connection testing Visual Inspection Tank Pressure test Insulation/Dielectric tests Insulation test by power factor measurement (Dobble test) Insulation test by resistance measurement (Megger test) Field evaluation testing Steady-State and Transient (at fault) performances
Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary 2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

22

Power frequency Voltage withstand Test


Tests SSCL dielectric integrity against the continuous operating voltages. 60Hz sine-wave voltage of rated amplitude is applied for 60seconds from SSCL line terminals to ground. Leakage current is monitored Wet test procedure - The wet tests are made only on outdoor SSCL or on external components such as bushings, in accordance with the procedure described in IEEE Std C57.19.00-1991.
Note: For those bushings, where their voltage distribution is negligibly influenced by their surroundings, and which have been tested separately as individual bushings in accordance with IEEE Std C57.19.00-1991, the tests need not be repeated on the assembled SSCL.

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

23

Power Frequency Voltage Withstand Test schematic

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

24

Full-wave Impulse withstand Voltage Test


Tests to verify their ability to withstand their rated full-wave lightning impulse withstand voltages. Both positive and negative, lightning impulse voltages having a peak value equal or greater than the rated full-wave lightning impulse withstand voltage shall be applied between the terminals of the SSCL and the ground / case. Waveform for lightning impulse tests per IEEE Std 4

Positive Impulse

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Negative Impulse

25

Full Wave Impulse Test Schematic

AC Source

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

26

Chopped-wave impulse withstand voltage Test


To verify their ability to withstand their
assigned rated chopped wave lightning impulse withstand voltage. The voltage shall be applied to the terminals of the SSCL, without causing damage or producing a flashover, following the same procedure as for full-wave impulse test. The waveform and application of the chopped wave test voltage, and the type of rod gap and its location, shall be as described in IEEE Std 4-1978
Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary 2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

27

Schematic for Chopped Wave Impulse Test

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

28

Fault Current Limiting tests


Objective: The current-limiting test of the SSCL is to demonstrate the

current-limiting performance and the related capabilities. Test set up: Adjust the source impedance and voltage such that it provides Available fault current at power factor of not to exceed 5.9% lagging, equivalent to X/R = 17 at 60 Hz (11kA @ 600V for AMSC 15kV SSCL) Operating condition: Run SSCL at continuous current operation and limit current at fault Close SSCL on fault and limit the let-thru current Test Sequence Pilot shot at 25% of rated let-thru fault current Intermediate shot at 40-50% 25% of rated let-thru fault current Final shots at 100% of rated let-thru fault current
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29

Efficiency tests
Objective: The of the test is to evaluate the SSCL performance for power

losses at various current levels. Test conditions Input At the lower end of operating voltage range and higher end of input frequency. Output / load At 25%/50%/75% and rated load current, and 0.85 lagging power factor.

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

30

Continuous Current / Temp Rise tests


Test conditions Ambient Room temp. Output 3ph bolted short. Input Voltage Variable low voltage enough to provide 25% and gradual rise to 50%-75% and finally to rated load current. Temp. Monitoring Built in Heatsink temp. sensors Cooling liquid temp (Top, Mid, and lower level) Tank (top, bottom, middle on both sides)

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

31

Pre-installation test
Visual Inspection SSCL once received at site an external inspection of the SSCL tank and fittings will be done which will include the following points: 1. Is there any indication of external damage? 2. Is the paint finish damaged? 3. Are the attached fittings loose or damaged? 4. Is there evidence of fluid leakage on or around the tank coolers? 5. Are any of the bushings broken or damaged? 6. Is there any visible damage to the parts or packaging which shipped separately from the SSCL?
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32

Pre-installation test
Tank Pressure The tank pressure may be positive or negative when received, depending
on liquid temperature. In some cases, the vacuum pressure gauge may read zero, which could indicate a tank leak. In such cases, it is recommended to contact manufacturer before installation.

Dielectric tests Dielectric tests are the group of tests during which the SSCL will be
subjected to higher voltage levels and therefore higher voltage stresses than would normally be experienced in service. The purpose is to confirm that the design, manufacture and processing of the SSCL and insulation structure and materials are adequate to provide many years of satisfactory life. Recommended test is power frequency voltage withstand at reduced level to 75% of rating.
Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary 2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

33

Field Performance Evaluation


Steady-state and Transient Performance
Objective: The objective of this test is evaluate the SSCL

performance in the field under Steady-State and transient condition of the system in which the SSCL is connected. Test Monitoring: Steady state voltage and current sensors. High speed voltage and current sensors. Power Monitor and data recorder Temp. and Pressure Sensors

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

34

Field Performance Evaluation


BYPASS SWITCH

SCE 15kV LINE Line Breaker

SCE

SSCL

15kV No-load DISC. SWITCH LINE

Sequence of Operation: Turn-ON: Close Bypass Switch. Close Load Disc Switch. Close Line Breaker. Open Bypass switch. Turn-on SSCL. Turn-OFF: Turn-off SSCL. Close Bypass switch. Open Line Breaker. Open Load Disc Switch.
Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary 2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

35

Field Performance Evaluation

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

36

Real time monitoring and analysis


Temp. Alarm

Pressure alarm Power monitoring - V, I, kVA, KVAR Gas relay alarm Fault data records SITE REQUIREMENT: AC Aux Power Internet Access Working Space

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

37

Thank you

Silicon Power Corporation Proprietary

2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

38

Status of High Temperature Superconductor Cable and Fault Current Limiter Projects at American Superconductor
J. F. Maguire and J. Yuan

EPRI Superconductivity Conference Oak Ridge, TN November 12-13, 2008

Agenda

HTS Projects at AMSC HTS Project Objectives and Milestones Development Results of HTS Projects Conclusions

HTS Projects at AMSC

Cable Projects
- Transmission Voltage
LIPA 1 (BSCCO Wires) LIPA 2 (YBCO Wires)

- Distribution Voltage
Project Hydra Consolidated Edison

Fault Current Limiter Project


- Transmission Voltage
Southern California Edison

Projects Objectives
LIPA 1
Demonstrate a transmission voltage level HTS cable and outdoor terminations in an operational power transmission grid Demonstrate a 2G HTS transmission cable and a cable joint in an operational power transmission grid. Demonstrate an FCL cable technology and repairable cryostat. Demonstrate modular refrigeration system. Demonstrate HTS fault current limiting link between substations. Demonstrate feasibility of an underground installation of a fault current limiting HTS system in population condensed urban area Demonstrate standalone HTS fault current limiter based on 2G wires in an operational power transmission grid. Introduce HV into FCL

LIPA 2

Hydra Project FCL

Projects Specifications
LIPA 1
600m long using BSCCO wires
138kV/2400A, ~ 576 MVA Fault Current 51kA @ 12 line cycle (200ms) 600m long using YBCO wires 138kV/2400A, ~ 576 MVA Fault Current 51kA @ 12 line cycle (200ms)

LIPA 2

Hydra Project FCL

320m long using YBCO wires 13.8kV/4000A, ~ 96 MVA Fault Current 40kA @ 4 line cycle (67ms) 138kV/ 1200A Fault Current 63kA @ 4 line cycle (67ms) Fault Current reduction rate 36% (limit to 40kA)

Projects Timelines
Year LIPA 1
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

LIPA 2

HYDRA

FCL

Project Partners

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

Development Results of HTS Projects LIPA 1


Transmission Voltage Cable Project Long Island Power Authority New York

LIPA 1 Project Team

Installation Site
Port Jefferson Shoreham

Wading River

Miller Place Terryville

Centereach

Superconductor

Holbrook Substation

10

Major Challenges of LIPA 1 Project


System Design
138 kV, 2,400 amp operation Survive 51 kA @ 200 ms fault Manage Through-Faults Manage larger cold contraction

HTS Conductor Design


- Handle real-world cabling stress using standard manufacturing equipment

Termination Design
- Qualify to 138 kV operation, 650 kV BIL - Safely manage voltage breakdown - Manage results from loss of cryostat vacuum
Worlds First Installation of a Transmission Voltage HTS Cable

11

LIPA 1 HTS Cable System

Power

SCADA

Heat

HV Termination

Cold Termination
Return Redundant Cooling & Control

Supply

12

Bulk LN2 Storage

LIPA 1 HTS Cable Design


Outer Cable Sheath LN2 Coolant HTS Tape Former

High Voltage Dielectric HTS-Shield Outer Cryostat Wall Copper Shield Stabilization Inner Cryostat Wall

13

Prototype Testing
A test program has been
defined together with the DOE review team based on existing standards

Tests included
- High voltage dielectric tests - High current tests - Hydraulic tests - Load cycles - Loss measurements

Type test performed prior starting manufacturing

14

Pre-Construction

15

Installation - Terminations
Terminations were
installed with the cable phase in place

No issues identified
during termination work

16

Installation - Terminations
Terminations were
installed with the cable phase in place

No issues identified
during termination work

17

Installation - Cable Pulling


Cable pulling operation was tested using a 70
meter long test setup to verify method and estimate force

Cable puling on site was achieved without


issues

Vacuum level of cryostat was checked before


and after pull

Pulling force was recorded and compared to


estimated values
Cable Pulling Force
20000 18000 16000 14000
Force [N]

10000 9000

. theoritical curve total (coef f 0,24) therotical (rolls) theoritical (cable in PE pipe)

Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3

8000 7000

12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Distance [m]

Force (N)

6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 HTS cable distance in the PE pipe (m)

18

Refrigeration substation

19

Cable cool down


LIPA Cooldown Termination Temperature
PT 101 300 275 250 225 PT 601 model model

Predicted

Temperature (K)

200 175 150 125 100 75 50 0 48 96 Time (hours) 144 192 240

Actual

20

Cable Energization
AC-High Voltage test
completed successfully
- 1.5 Uo applied at each phase for one hour - PD measurement completed No partial discharge detected

24 hour dielectric soak test


completed successfully
- Cable connected to LIPA grid at one end

Cable connection at both ends


completed on April 22nd
- Operation with parallel overhead line for 24 hours - Operation without parallel path Cable Commissioning Successfully Completed afterwards

21

Cable Operation - Measurements


The cable system is monitored
regarding a variety of parameters to - Ensure safe operation - Gain measurement data to compare with design results Measurement data analyzed so far: - Cable cool down behavior - Cable cryostat thermal loss - Nitrogen pressure drop - Temperature increase due to dielectric loss - Temperature increase due to ACloss - Thermal behavior of termination (bushing) - Cable system time constants Cable System Measurements in very good Agreement with Design Results

22

Steady State Operation (I)


90 80 70
Phase Current (A) 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 Phase R Phase S Phase T

60 Total MVA 50 40 30 20 10 0 7/2/08 12:00 AM

50 0 7/2/08 12:00 AM 7/3/08 12:00 AM

7/2/08 12:00 PM

7/2/08 12:00 PM

7/3/08 12:00 AM

23

Steady State Operation (II)

73

15.0 Inlet Pressure

700

72 Return Temperature 71
LN2 Pressure (bara)

14.5

600 LN2 Mass Flow Rate (g/s)

Temperature (K)

14.0 Flow Rate 13.5

500

70

400

69

13.0 Return Pressure

300

68 Inlet Temperature 67
12.5 200

66 7/2/08 12:00 AM

7/2/08 12:00 PM

7/3/08 12:00 AM

12.0 7/2/08 12:00 AM

7/2/08 12:00 PM

100 7/3/08 12:00 AM

24

Sound Issues
Several questions regarding
noise at the site (during operation)

Conducted sound study


- 35 db at ambient - Source: refrigerator building - 50 db with refrigerator running

Acoustical Louvers
- Lowered sound signature during operation to 38 db (modeled)

25

Sound & Site Mitigation

26

Development Results of HTS Projects LIPA 2


Transmission Voltage Cable Project Long Island Power Authority New York

27

LIPA 2 Project Team

28

Major Challenges of LIPA II Project


System Design
- Integrate single phase fault current limiting phase into the existing system

2G HTS Conductor Design


- Address real-world cabling stress using standard manufacturing equipment

Cable Design
- Demonstrate field joint - Demonstrate field reparable cryostat

Develop a 20 KW modular high efficiency refrigerator

29

LIPA II HTS Cable System

Existing HV Termination Existing Cold Termination


Power SCADA

Heat

Replacement 2G Phase

Field Joint
Return Redundant Cooling & Control

Supply

30

Bulk LN2 Storage

LIPA 2 HTS Cable Concept


Inner Cryostat Wall LN2 Coolant Cable conductor has to be redesigned for thermal contraction (and current limiting)

HTS-Shield Copper Shield High Voltage Dielectric Stabilization to be removed

Outer Cryostat Wall

31

LIPA 2 Wire
YBCO Coated Tapes
- Lower Tc, higher resistance substrate: Can be made to be current-limiting - Different dimensions and physical properties:

YBCO coated onto one side of buffered Ni-W substrate Brass laminated onto both sides
~ 0.3 mm thick, splices even thicker

Splices are being developed

32

Cable design and manufacturing process


Dummy cable approach to develop the
cable design
- Develop cable design based on modified modeling tools - Manufacturing of short samples

Measurement of electrical characteristics (AC-loss)


- Manufacturing trials using industrial machine adapted to HTS tape stranding - Testing of samples in terms of mechanical and high voltage aspects

Status
- Two different design options considered - First manufacturing trials (dummy cables) focus on one of the two designs

33

Dummy cable 01 - Current Status


Hollow flexible former
- Dummy cable is being produced now - Superior concept

Only small force due to thermal contraction Small cross-section, stainless steel:
High resistance, good for current limitation - Requires some effort due to flexibility of former in the machine - Preferred design

34

High Voltage Termination


LIPA 1 terminations design is kept for this project but adapted for the new YBCO HTS cable:
- Removal of the cable termination shrinkage management (blocking of the cable) - Adaptation of the cable connection for 2G wires

Status:
- Updating of the cable connection is in progress with different new brazing alloys studied - Continuation of the development required now some LIPA 2 cable samples in order to achieved some connection and mechanical tests and improved the components

35

High Voltage Termination


LIPA 1 terminations design is kept for this project but adapted for the new YBCO HTS cable:
- Removal of the cable termination shrinkage management (blocking of the cable) - Adaptation of the cable connection for 2G wires

Status:
- Updating of the cable connection is in progress with different new brazing alloys studied - Continuation of the development required now some LIPA 2 cable samples in order to achieved some connection and mechanical tests and improved the components

36

Superconducting Cable Joint


HTS cable joint
- Develop and test a straight joint to connect superconducting cables

Design of conductor connection Design of joint dielectric insulation Design of screen connection Design of joint cryostat

Cryostat for subscale test Cryostat for on site installation - Full prototype test of cable joint in the laboratory - Installation of a single cable joint on site

37

Status: High Voltage Joint


A first joint design has been set up considering two main physical constraints
- Thermal: no overheating in the central cable connection with nominal current (not in direct contact with liquid nitrogen)

- Electrical: E field management in an optimum dimension of the joint

Prototypes for testing assembly procedures successfully prepared and tested with nominal current in LN2 (temperature measurement)

38

Status: High Voltage Joint


The first design of the joint has been assembled in NEXANS Hanover testing laboratory in June/July 2008 First results on this component achieved in September 2008 AC withstand test 190 kV / 30 min Lightning impulse test 650 kV (+/-) Partial discharge measurement

39

Joint in the Test Field


Inlet Termination (Connection to the Transformer) Outlet Termination with the Joint inside

25 m Coated Conductor Cable

40

Field Repairable Cryostat


Field repairable cryostat
- Perform optimization study to determine cryostat vacuum barrier distance based on - Develop and demonstrate vacuum barrier manufacturing techniques - Develop improved thermal insulation system to perform under repair vacuum conditions - Demonstrate field repair in laboratory

Status of work
- Vacuum barrier manufacturing techniques

Various designs developed


- Improved thermal insulation system

Investigation of vacuuming behavior of alternative thermal insulation materials

41

Modular Refrigeration System Objective


Develop a new Refrigeration technology dedicated to long-length HTS cable with the main characteristics below

- Low operation cost


High efficiency Low maintenance

- Low refrigerator cost


Simple design Modular design

- High reliability - Long lifetime

42

Refrigeration System Objective


Develop a new Refrigeration technology dedicated to long-length HTS cable with the main characteristics below
Liquid nitrogen delivered LN2 pressure drop Cold power Efficiency Cooling Manufacturing cost target 72 K 3 bars 120 kW total - 20 kW Modules > 20% Carnot Air cooling (-20 / 50C) <$100/cold W series production

43

Refrigerator Development Status (Phase 1)


Progress made thus far
- Thermodynamic analyses of reverse Turbo-Brayton cycle - Cooler configuration scenarios - Numeric modeling of cooler configuration and Refrigeration sub components - Model validation - Creation of a numerical model for each cooler configuration - Optimization of each cooler configuration Completed Completed Completed Underway Completed Identified

44

Development Results of HTS Projects


Project Hydra
Distribution Voltage Cable Project Consolidated Edison New York City

45

Team Roles and Responsibilities


DHS S&T Division

AMSC Prime Contractor


AMSC System Design Wire Development Wire Manufacturing Project Management Technical Oversight System Hardware Development Altran Solutions Air Liquide Con Edison Utility Requirements Project Oversight Cable Manufacturing HTS FCL Cable System Site Cable and Accessory Installation Southwire Cable and Accessory Design

ORNL

50m Prototype Cable Test Site Technical Support

46

Installation Site

Worlds First FCL Distribution Cable to be Installed in Operating Grid

47

Program Structure
Currently Executing Planning
DHS/ HYDRA

Phase 1 System Development

Phase 2 System Installation

ORNL 50 Meter Test and Technical Support

Phase 1A Fault Current Limiting Cable technology

Phase 1B Stand-Alone Fault Current Limiting Technology

48

HYDRA HTS Cable System


Heat Power

Supply

Return

Refrigerator

HTS Cable

Return Line

49

Secure Super Grids Technology


Substation #1
138kV Transmission Bus

Substation #2
138kV Transmission Bus

Fast Switch (Circuit Breaker)

HTS Fault-Current Limiting Cable

Reactor

Conventional Copper Cable

13.8kV Distribution Bus

13.8kV Distribution Bus

Note: Red breakers are Closed Green breaker is Open


To Loads To Loads

50

Cable Design- TriaxTM by Southwire


HTS Layers Hollow Former Cryostat

Dielectric

Shield

51

3 m Cable FCL Tests


The prospective fault current of 60 kA was reduced to 44 kA on the
first cycle to < 30 kA at the end of the 140 ms duration fault

A perspective 140 ms fault current of 44 kA was reduced to 29 kA The voltage developed due to the heating was 8-11 V/m over the 140
ms duration fault

This was comparable to the design fault of 300-m cable which results
in ~ 10 V/m

Measured temperature increase to 85-95 K Re-cooling time to 77 K is 9 min No change in temperature measured after a 9.1kA, 270ms through
fault test

No change in temperature or voltage after a 2000 ms, 7.2kA overload


test (1.8X)
52

3m Cable FCL Tests

53

3 m Cable FCL Tests

54

Refrigerator Requirements
Refrigeration Cycle chosen is the Reverse-Brayton
- Best suited technology for high power applications (> 6 kW) - Best return on specific efficiency (We/Wc) vs. capital cost

Flexibility Requirement:
- 80% of time at 50% heat load on HTS cable

Reliability
- Redundancy accomplished at component level: compressors, pumps, expanders, electronics, instrumentation - No 1st order single point of failure allowed

Capacity Margin
- Current design has 50% safety margin to the expected losses

55

Reverse Brayton-Cycle Hardware


- Estimated foot print size & weight 13 m x 7 m ( 42 x 25 ) + roof for cooling water exchanger ~ 24 000 kg ( 53 000 lbs ) empty Fits within available space

56

Development Results of HTS Projects


FCL Project
Transmission Voltage FCL Project Southern California Edison California

57

Team Roles and Responsibilities


DOE SPE - SCE AMSC Prime Contractor
Nexans HV Termination

AMSC System Design Wire Development Wire Manufacturing Project Management Technical Oversight System Hardware Development

SCE Utility Requirements Project Oversight HTS FCL System Site

Siemens FCL Module and Accessory Design FCL Manufacturing FCL Module and Accessory Installation

HV Consulting

Air Liquide

58

SuperLimiterTM Demonstration Site


Selection criteria
- Voltage - Transmission planning - Civil engineering
Riverside

Valley Substation selected Located near Riverside, CA in a


desert climate

Valley Substation

Analysis used to select bus tie


application

Significant load growth planned


over the next 10 years
- Tapped external reactor enables device to easily adapt The Valley Substation is selected

59

SCE Profile
50,000 Mile2 Service Territory 120 years of service $17 Billion T&D Assets

Distribution
85,000 Circuit Miles 690,000 Transformers

Customers
4.7 Million Meters 13 Million Customers 22,889 MW Load

Transmission
12,600 Circuit Miles 4,200 Transformers

SCE is one of the largest utilities in the United States

60

SuperLimiterTM Southern California Edison


SCE is investing in the future
- > $3 billion invested in T&D over the last five years - $11 billion planned infrastructure investments over the next decade.

SCE has considerable experience with


superconducting Fault Current Limiters
- Since 1993 in DOE-SPI, tested a 15kV FCL in 1999 - SCE role in this program is Specifying requirements Providing the prototype operation site

138 kV Transmission Voltage level FCL addresses


- Elimination of CB and other equip. replacement
- Enhanced reliability, shorter customer outages - More stable, higher-quality electricity supply - A self-healing grid
July 1999: FCL at a Southern California Edison substation

SCE has unique experience with HTS FCL technology and this program extends this to transmission voltage levels

61

SuperLimiterTM Major Elements


Cryostat sized for modular expansion

Valley Substation 138kV termination in operation at LIPA site


Insulation Stainless Strip HTS Film NiW Strip Solder

Cooling System Similar to Navy Motor Program N+1 Redundancy

Bifilar 2.2 MVA medium voltage module tested Jan. 2007

1.2 cm insulated HTS tape based on standard insert

Design based on validated components is designed for modular expansion

62

FCL Operating Principle


Supply Bus During fault conditions, superconductor becomes resistive and with reactor, limits current

Normal State Resistance

Virtual Switch
Superconductor

Under normal conditions, power flows through superconductor with virtually no impedance and system is Physical Switch electrically invisible Shortly after fault clears, power resumes flow through superconductor

Reactor Physical switch opens to protect FCL system; reactor maintains current Load Bus

FCL system operation is based on simple operating principles

63

Basic Specifications
Requirement
Nominal Voltage Insulation Class Nominal Current Maximum Site Unlimited Fault Current Site Limited Current Trip Current

Prototype System
115kV rms 138kV 1,200A 63kA

Production Units
115-138kV 138kV
Opening Switch

Reactor
Sized to Limiting Requirements

Load

>2,000A >80kA

Source

Switch Control

FCL Vessel Assembly

40kA

As required by customer
Protection and DAQ System Refrigeration System
Power Heat

1.6pu

As required by customer

Team has approved a working specification for system

64

SuperLimiterTM Operating Conditions


Constraints
- No bubbles around the bottom of bushing sub-cooled LN2 - Termination dielectric requirement P > 3bar - Fast recovery time saturated LN2

Solution
- Operate FCL in sub-cooled LN2 with nominal operating temperature lower than design point.
FCL design at temperature 74K@5bar(a), but operate at temperature 72K@5bara Power Temperature margin determines the number of faults the system can absorb before system is off-line to re-cool 2K margin allows LN2 to absorb 57MJ energy (~6 faults) 5 bar pressure will allow LN2 in coil vicinity absorb fault energy without bubbling
FCL operates at high pressure sub-cooled LN2 temperature

FCL Vessel Assembly

Refrigeration System

Heat

65

SuperLimiterTM Refrigeration System


Heat Load
Cryostat Other Refrig. System
Level

Value (W)
850 200 900 350 1950

Terminations
Pressure

Lines, Valves, Bayonets AC Losses

Level

Total Max. Predicted Planned Capacity

4250 6000

AMSC has operated HTS systems in utility/harsh industrial conditions


- LIPA and TVA/SuperVAR Project

DOE-FCL system based on lessons learned in those systems


- Phase 1b open cycle option shown above - Phase 2 - replace with closed cycle modification

Simplified, COTS based system Significant margin planned for prototype system
Refrigeration based on experience at LIPA and other AMSC utility HTS systems

66

SuperLimiterTM Test Site


Present Installation: 4-3Phase, 336/448/560 MVA 525-120 kV, OA/FOA/FOA Transformers. Sectionalized 115 kV bus each section fed by 2 transformers Max. single-phase-to-ground fault = 30 kA All 115 kV CBs rated 40 kA Planned Future Installation: Load growth in the area and interconnection of new generators will require additional transformers Fault current duty will rise above 40 kA
C 115 kV AB 115 kV Serrano 500 kV A B 500 kV Devers 500 kV Inland Empire

115 KV Outgoing 1000 MW Feeder Future Gen (Studied)

Bus Tie (Selected)

115 kV

A bus tie application at the Valley Substation is selected

67

Switching Module for the HV SFCL Project


Main design characteristics

The switching module comprises


3 parallel x 17 series = 51 bifilar pancake coils per phase

Alternating current directions between adjacent turns of bifilar coils cancel most magnetic fields Regions stressed by BIL tests, numbering see next slide

Two in hand winding with 12 mm


wide wire to increase the current

Improved electrical strength due to:


- Insulated wire - New contact design - Corona rings around the coils
(1) (2) (3)

Horizontal stack with radial supports


between module and cryostat wall

(1)

68

Performance Modeling and Testing


Switching

First tests on a 3 m sample of 12 mm wide HTS-wire:


Critical current 167 A @ 77 K, 258 A @ 72 K
77 K, sat., t: 100 ms

More than 60 switching test in saturated (77 K)


and sub-cooled (72 K, 1.2 bar) LN2
2000 Current (A) 1000 0 -1000 T: ~72 K -2000 0 10 20 30 Time (ms) 40 -400 50 400 Voltage (V) 200 0 -200

72 K, 1.2 bar, t: 500 ms

69

Performance Modeling and Testing


Recovery time About 12 - 15 sec measured on full size dummy coil in sub-cooled LN2 12 mm wide dummy wire insulated with wrapped Teflon tape Amount of LN2 available for cooling restricted by appropriate enclosure to simulate adjacent coils
Resistance ratio (%) 110 100 90 80 70 60 -0.05 0 Time (s)
70

T: 77 K, p: 1 bar T: 72 K, p: 1.2 bar

10

20

FCL Termination Design Validation


AC withstand test successfully completed according IEC 60840
- 190kV / 30 minutes

Partial Discharge measurement sucessfully completed (IEC 60840)


- Voltage increase up to 140 kV for few minutes - Decreasing to 114 kV and measurement - No PD measured (noise level < 3pC)

Lightning impulse test successfully completed (IEC 60840)


- 650 kVp (10 shots in both polarity)

Switching impulse successfully completed based on IEEE C57.12.00:


- Success of the test (540 kVp 250/2500s both polarity)

FCL termination high voltage design successfully validated

71

Summary
AMSC is currently advancing the state of the art in
HTS power products
- Worlds First Transmission Voltage HTS Cable in Operation - Worlds First Fault Current Limiting Cable for use in a distribution grid under development - Transmission Voltage Fault Current Limiter under development

72

superior performance. powerful technology.

Transmission Level HTS Fault Current Limiter


Chuck Weber
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Oak Ridge, TN November 12, 2008
SuperPower, Inc. is a subsidiary of Royal Philips Electronics N.V.

SFCL program overview


Partners
138 kV, 650 kV BIL Bushings

Pressure Vessel Vacuum Vessel

" 2 6 3 . 7

" 8 4 2 . 5 1

" 2 6 3 . 7

" 8 4 2 . 5 1

Specifications
YBCO based, resistive type FCL 138 kV class device Fault Current 13.8 kA Load Current 1,200 Arms Design fault current 37 kA Design device response Recover to superconducting state after a fault carrying full load current
Matrix Assembly

Inner Height
HTS Assembly Height

Assembly diameter Inner diameter

8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Generalized SFCL Specification Development


Baseline Design for Program was the AEP SPORN substation site This is a niche application site, operating at 400Arms, 138 kV Prospective fault current 26 kArms (~90 kA peak) and 13.8 kArms (~ 37 kA peak) Working with AEP, we have identified a site with broader general application TIDD substation 1,200 Arms, 138 kV Prospective fault current is 13.8 kArms (~37 kApeak)

8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

TIDD Substation (Partial) One-Line Diagram

Proposed SFCL Installation Location

8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Prior accomplishments
Proof-of-Concept demonstrated MCP 2212 (2004) 2G YBCO (2006) Beta device testing specifications established Completed design and testing of HV bushings (SEI) Investigated several engineered 2G architectures for improved RUL Design and laboratory testing of shunt coils to withstand high fault transient loads Thermal simulation of RUL process Weibull plots of standard 2G failures Conceptual CRS & vessel design Investigated LN2 dielectric properties
Probability of failure [%]

2G FCL - Probability of failure for 2G tapes as function of energy input 100 10 1 0.1 0.01 20 25 30 35 Energy [J/cm/tape] Probability of Failure - Test data Probability of Failure Calculated using Weibull Distributuon 40 45 50

8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Improvements to shunt coil and contact design


Shunt coil improvements: Manufacturing improvements (easier assembly, more robust coil) Mechanical strength Multi-Layer winding (size reduction) Connector improvements: Shape optimization to avoid contact hotspots Improvement in RUL Time Improvement in RUL Current Improvement in consistency of contact resistance
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Tape heating near contact during fault impacts RUL

8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Correlation between different contact geometries


Total Current (80A peak)
Straight Thick Contacts (M3-460 Tape): I load = 80 A RUL = 82 sec.

Total Current (80A peak) Superconductors Current

Superconductors Current

Recovery Voltage Recovery Voltage

Total Current (80A peak) Superconductors Current Recovery Voltage


Straight -Tapered Contacts (M3-460 Tape): I load = 80 A RUL = 2.8 sec.

Straight -Tapered Contacts (M3-460 Tape): I load = 80 A RUL = 3.5 sec.

8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Recent KEMA tests


Recent rounds of KEMA testing focused on critical AEP reclosure sequence on an HTS element
5 Cycles Fault 13kA/7kA 5 Cycles Fault 13kA/7kA 5 Cycles Fault 13kA/7kA 5 Cycles Fault 13kA/7kA 5 Cycles Fault 13kA/7kA Breaker opens and locks-out

18 Cycles Load Current

15 sec Load Current

135 sec Load Current

160 sec Load Current

Recovery under NO Load Current

Straight elements were used Improved connector designs were used Standard, pre-qualified tapes were used Test Dates: May 2008, July 2008
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

2G RUL capabilities tested at KEMA


Standard SF12100 2G wire used Test conditions
- 37 kA fault - follows AEP sequence
Loa d P ow e r (VA)

Total R ecovered Pow er, 2x5 cycles Faults at 37kA w ith 10 mOhm

250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 16 Tapes 300V

Test variables
- Shunt impedance - Number of parallel tapes - System voltage (v/cm/tape) - Load Current

Para8 Tapes lle Tape l s

100V 4 Tapes

8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Vo lta ge
200V

250V

Achieving RUL is a difficult task


Without load current recovery is very fast

w/o Load

w/ Load

3 x load Base-Line Voltage Adding current makes recovery much more difficult
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Electrical stress on the tapes can limit RUL


RUL

RUL time can affected by increasing the V/cm on the tape Limits of the design optimization are understood

Base-Line Voltage

RUL

RUL

1.5 x Base-Line Voltage

3 x Base-Line Voltage

8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Factors impacting RUL defined by test results


Total Recovered Power, 2x5 cycles Faults at 37kA with 4 Tapes

80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 Load Power (VA)) 30000 1.67 S m-Ohm hu nt Im pe 5 m-Ohm da nc e 100 V 20000 10000 0 300 V

tageV 250 ol 200 VV

Sample surface plot of RUL conditions


8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Ability to predict RUL over wide design space


Maximum Load Current as a function of shunt impedance, operating voltage & number of tapes

1000 900 800 700 Maxim un Recovered Load Current 600 500 400 300 200 0
4Tapes, 100V 4Tapes, 250V 5 m-Ohm 16Tapes, 100V

Imp

eda nce

Recovered Current with 2 Asymmetrical 37kA Faults, 5 cycles each

8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

8Tapes, 100V

1.67 m-Ohm

e ltag o V

8Tapes, 250V

pes a T ,#

16Tapes, 250V

100

Worst case conditions at Tidd can achieve RUL

RUL with 90% of the Power recovered within the 2nd and the 3rd 37 kA Faults

Full recovery expected with optimal bath conditions

8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Bath Conditions Impact on Ability to Recover


During the fault transient, tape heats up to film boiling region. Bath conditions (pressure, subcooling) shift boiling heat transfer curve Bath conditions have an impact on the dielectric strength of LN2
Boiling Heat Transfer for LN2
100.0
No Recovery Due to Film Boiling
600

Heat Out Heat In


500

400

Lower Zshunt, Higher Ztape

q/A (W/cm )

Power (W)

10.0

300

1.0

200

100

0.1 1.0 10.0 100.0 1000.0 T wall - T sat (K)

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

Temperature (K)

Lowering the shunt coil value or increasing the resistance of the stabilizer layer will help with film boiling.

8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Bath Conditions Impact on Ability to Recover


Once film boiling threshold is crossed, nucleate boiling ensues Bath conditions (pressure, subcooling) shift boiling heat transfer curve Bath pressure shifts saturated boiling temperature, limiting nucleate boiling recovery
No Recovery Due to Nucleate Boiling

Boiling Heat Transfer for LN2


100.0

600

Heat Out Heat In


500

Lower pressure

400

q/A (W/cm )

10.0

Power (W)

300

1.0

200

100

0.1 1.0 10.0 100.0 1000.0 T wall - T sat (K)

75

80

85

90

95

100

Temperature (K)

Lowering the operating pressure will help with nucleate boiling, but decreases dielectric properties
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Modeling indicates where operating conditions for successful RUL exist


Recovery Under Load vs Number of Tapes
1300

Baseline
1200 1100 1000

Pressure = 0.5 atm Tbulk = 71.922 K

Recovery Load Current (arms)

900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Number of Tapes per Element
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Pressure = 0.5 atm Tbulk = 71.922 K Stabilizer = 1% AgAu Pressure = 0.75 atm Stabilizer = 1% AgAu

Baseline Substrate = 4 mil Stabilizer = Ag Shunt Coil = 10 m /m No dielectric coating Ic @ 77 K = 250 amps n-value = 20 Pressure = 1 atm Tbulk = 72 K

Pressure = 0.75 atm Stabilizer = 2.2% AgAu

Baseline Shunt = 5 m/m

Baseline Shunt = 7.5 m/m

Introducing bubbles in LN lowers breakdown strength: FCL recovery


Bubbles form thermally or electrically and can affect the breakdown strength

Two experiments Open bath LN Pressurized cryostat Nitrogen gas provided by fused silica capillary tube Varied flow rates Parallel plane profiled SS electrodes
2 mm gap 0.5 mm capillary tube

19 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

BD strength of LN is ~5x the gas at 1 bar Important for FCL Recovery under Load
DOE Peer Review 2008

Effect of externally provided bubbles on LN Breakdown: AC breakdown


18 Average Electric Field (kVrms/mm) 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
without bubbles with bubbles

Effect of Bubbles
Cumulative Failure Probability (%) 99.9 99.0 95.0 90.0 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 5.0

all data w and w/o bubbles

1.0 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 Presence of bubbles Breakdown Field (kVrms/mm)

Liquid nitrogen at 1 bar

Bubbles in LN lowers breakdown strength Change in slope at lower probability indicates change in BD mechanism
20 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy
DOE Peer Review 2008

Summary
Significant progress in understanding and impacts of: RUL
Variables impacting RUL studied and understood Worst case conditions at TIDD can be met Impact of device design and cost under evaluation

LN2 Dielectrics
Impact of bubbles on breakdown mechanism and dielectric strength

Loss of cryogenic partner a setback, but not fatal Next step: Alpha detailed design

8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Thank You for your attention!


For more information:

www.superpower-inc.com
or cweber@superpower-inc.com

8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

superior performance. powerful technology.

Status Update for the Albany HTS Cable Project


C.S. Weber (SuperPower)

8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Oak Ridge, TN November 12, 2008
SuperPower, Inc. is a subsidiary of Royal Philips Electronics N.V.

Program Overview
350m long - 34.5kV - 800Arms - 48MVA Cold dielectric, 3 phases-in-1 cryostat, stranded copper core design Two Phases Phase I - 320m + 30m BSCCO Phase II - 30m BSCCO replaced by 30m YBCO cable
Project Manager; Site infrastructure, Manufacture of 2G HTS wire Host utility, conventional cable & system protection, system impact studies Design, build, install, and test the HTS cable, terminations, & joint Design, construct and operate the Cryogenic Refrigeration System, and provide overall cable remote monitoring and utility interface Supported by Federal (DOE) and NY State (NYSERDA) Funds

9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Site Location

Phase I: BSCCO

Phase II: 30m YBCO

9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

System Protection Philosophy

Worst case fault conditions 23 kA rms (33 kA peak) Multiple levels of relay & breaker protection Primary - RFL-9300 charge comparison relays (87L) 8 cycle clearing time Secondary - SEL-311B relay packages 8 38 cycle clearing time Breaker failure protection Will initiate fault clearing by tripping breakers on associated Menands or Riverside 34.5kV bus cleared in 20 to 50 cycles (0.33 to 0.83 sec) System monitoring @ BOC Remote Operating Center NM Eastern Regional Control Center

9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Albany HTS Cable Design


Electrical Insulation PPLP +Liquid Nitrigen Stainless Steel Double Corrugated Cryostat

Advantages of the 3-in-One Cable Design Compact size (O.D. = 135mm) (5.3) Nearly perfect magnetic shielding > 95% cancellation of field Significant reduction of contraction forces due to slack winding Excellent fault current protection Cable remains superconducting at worst case fault condition, survives extended duration (2nd contingency) fault without damage

Cu Stranded Former

35 mm

135 mm

Cu Shield HTS Conductor 2-layer HTS Shield 1-layer

Tension Member

9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Cryogenic Refrigeration System: Approach


Hybrid arrangement permits transparent use of bulk liquid nitrogen for back-up
Liquid Nitrogen Storage/buffer

Cryocooler

Thermosyphon provides common heat exchange interface between cable and open or closed refrigeration sources Advantages: - excellent reliability/cost ratio - compact footprint - flexible plug & play design - good efficiency
Subcooled liquid nitrogen loop

Thermosyphon

HTS cable

9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Minimum CRS Requirements & Cold Box Arrangement


Item
Coolant supply temperature Temperature stability Refrigeration capacity
(excluding CRS)

Specification 67 to 77 K +-0.1 K - normal operation +-1.0 K - backup operation 5 kW at 77 K 3.7 kW at 70 K 1 to 5 barg +-0.2 50 liter/min +-1

Minimum coolant pressure Maximum coolant flow rate

BOC

1.4 m

1.6 m
9 Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008
th

Post-Cable Testing: Cryogenic System Step Response 80 30


78 76 74

Coolant return North Termination South Termination Coolant Supply Refrigeration power
20 25

72 70 68 66 64 62 60 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

+ - 0.05K

15

Hybrid operation

+ - 0.10K

10

8 Kw peak 3 Kw nominal

Time (hours)

Pre-energization: 3 Kw nominal. Post-energization: 3.1-3.3 kW nominal overall heat load


9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Cooling Power (Kw)

Temperature (K)

Summary of Phase I Operation


Supply Issue was checked for damageChiller The HTSVoltage cable system after the fault event System Shutdown Energized No Issues Re-connected to Power Grid Completed
71
on July 20,2006 on May 1, 2007

7kA
Cable Outlet Temperature

20 Transmitted Electricity [MVA]

70 Temperature [K]

16

69

Cable Inlet Temperature

8 cycle

12

68

More Than 6,700 Hrs of Reliable Power Transmission


67
Transmitted Electricity

66
7/20 8/17 9/14 10/12 11/9 12/7 1/4 2/1 3/1 3/29 4/26

Fault Current Event

Date (2006-2007)

9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Commencement of Phase II
Before warming-up,
Megger Test Ic Measurements Warm-up Process,
(1) LN2 pumped into the CRS bulk storage tank (2) Remaining LN2 in system allowed to evaporate naturally
50
South Term
30m HTS Cable 320m HTS Cable 21D

No Change

North Term

350m Return Pipe

0 Temperature []

14D 11D

-50
7D

9D

1D

-100
5D

-150

3D

12H

Vacuum level No leakage Cable Tension Returned to the original value (approx. 200kg compressive force)

-200 0 100 200 300


th

400 Position [m]

500

600

700

800

9 Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

1 Meter Cable Characterization (after removal)


Contact was made to 12 strands with single strand Ic(B=sf, 75K) ~ 92 amperes Contact resistance measurements were performed in the superconducting state T=75.5K
40000 30000 V(uV) 20000 10000 0 0 500 I(Amperes) 1000 Contact #2 R=32 uohms

The critical current of the inner layer with 12 strands of superconductor was measured at 75.5K in self field. Distance between voltage taps = ~75cm Ic = 965Amperes @ 1V/m 1100A @ 1V/cm
200 150 100
V(uVolts)

Contact #1 R = 6 uOhms

50 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

-50

I(Amperes)
*Data courtesy of Yates Coulter, LANL

9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

In 2007, 30 m cable was manufactured by Sumitomo Electric with ~10,000 m of SuperPower 2G HTS wire
2G wire cable winding

3 core stranding

Electric Insulation (PPLP + Liquid Nitrogen) Cu Stranded Wire Former

Stainless Steel Double Corrugated Cryostat

135 mm

2G HTS wire (3 conductor Layers)

2G HTS wire (2 shield Layers)

Cu Shield

9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Summary of 30 meter YBCO Cable Shipping Tests


Manufacture of 30m YBCO cable completed in March 2007
The following shipping tests were conducted successfully on samples from long cable: Critical Current Conductor : 2660 2820A (DC) at 77K Shield : 2400 2500A (DC) at 77K AC Loss 0.34W/m/phase at 0.8kArms, 60Hz Bending Test (18D: Bending Dia. = 2.4 m) No Ic degradation No defect was found at dismantling Inspection Voltage tests (Based on AEIC) AC 69kV for 10 minute, Imp 200kV, 10 shots/each DC 100kV for 5 minutes
9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

YBCO Cable - Critical Current Measurement


Sample: 3 meter 3-Core

Ic (Conductor) = Approx. 2660 2820A (DC, 77K, 1uV/cm) Ic (Shield) = Approx. 2400 2500A (DC, 77K, 1uV/cm)
2

Conductor
Electrical Field(uV/cm)

2 Core-1 Core-2 Core-3

Shield

Electrical Field(uV/cm)

1.5

Core-1 Core-2 Core-3 Ic Criterion (1uV/cm)

1.5

Ic Criterion (1uV/cm)

0.5

0.5

-0.5 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Current (A, DC)

-0.5 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Current (A, DC)

Very good match between test results and design values


9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

AC Loss Measurement
Sample : 2.5 meter single core Current loading : go & return through conductor and shield Measuring : Lock-in amplifier with electrical 4 terminals 1
AC loss (W/m/phase)

0.1

Measured value

0.01

0.34 W/m/ph @ 800 Arms


Slightly better result than the 1 meter test sample core

0.001 100 1000 10000 Loading Current (Arms, 60Hz)


9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Fault Current Testing

Fault Current Test with 1 m 2G Sample Cable Test Site : Nissin Electric (Kyoto)
L1 L2 L0 Transformer (6600V/550V) Generator (5000V) Lg SW

Sample: BSCCO Core YBCO Core (Compare YBCO core with BSCCO one) Current: 23kA Duration: 8 38cycles Cooling: Open Bath (77K)

Test Samples

100 Maximum Temperature Rise [K] 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 Duration [cycles, 60Hz] 40 50 Conductor BSCCO Conductor BSCCO Shield YBCO Conductor YBCO Shield Shield

Temperature Rise During Fault nearly identical to BSCCO core


9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Replacement of 30 meter section with new YBCO cable


[ 30m cable Installation ] [ Joint Re-assemble BSCCO-YBCO] [ Termination Re-assemble ]

World firsts HTS cable replacement is completed!

9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Summary of Various Commissioning Tests at Phase-II


HTS cable system successfully passed following commissioning tests:
Test Items System withstand pressure Test Initial cooling test Test Results z 0.61 MPaG (based on ASME code): good z Maximum core tension: approx. 1000kg Tension minimized by loosely stranded 3-core structure z Vacuum level at each part: good (no leakage) z Core behavior inside the joint: within the scope of Design z 2.3kA (at 73K), 2.8kA (at 69K): Same Ic as Phase-I z 350 m cable section (including joint): 1.0kW z Entire cable system (not including CRS: 3.4kW z 100 kV, 5 minutes, each phase (based on AEIC) : good
North Termination

Ic measurement (dc, defined at 1uV/cm) Heat loss measurement (under no-load condition) DC withstand voltage test
50 South Termination
0H

2.5
Core-1 Cable Mean Temp : 73K 69K

Electric Field [uV/cm]

0
6H 10H

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 0

Core-2 Core-3

Temperature []

-50

18H 1D 1.5D 3D

Ic c ritrion (1 V/ cm)

-100

9D

-150
10.7D 10.5D 10.8D 10.9D 11.5D

-200
0 50 0 100 50 150 100 200 250 150 200 Length [m] 300 250

500

1000

300350

350 400

1500 Current [A, DC]

2000

2500

3000

9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Demonstration of the worlds first device with 2G HTS wire in a live power grid
1.2
Temperature Deference between Outlet and Inlet of Cable

20
Transmitted Electricity [MVA]

Temperature Deference [K]

1 0.8

16

Jan 8 2008 0.6


0.4 0.2
Transmitted Electricity

12

0
1/7 1/21 2/4 2/18 3/3 3/17 3/31

0
Date (2008)

Cable made with 2G HTS wire was energized in the grid in January 2008 & performed without any issues
9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Variation of Critical Current from Phase-I through Phase-II


3500 3500 3000 3000 2500 2500 2000 2000 1500 1500 1000 1000 500 500 0 0 65 65
2500

Critical Current [A, 1uV/cm] Critical Current [A, atat 1uV/cm]

Electrical Field [uV/cm]

Ic-T characteristics Ic-T characteristics of DI-BSCCO of DI-BSCCO

2.5

Short Sample Ic Short Sample Ic (1800A at 77.3K) (1800A at 77.3K)

2 1.5 1 0.5 0

Core-1 Core-2 Core-3

69K 73K

Ic criterion 1 V/cm

Commissiong Test (320m+30m Cable)

-0.5

70 75 70 Temperature [K]75 Temperature [K]

80 80

500

1000

1500 2000 Current [A]

2500

3000

Critical Current [Adc, at 73K]

2000 Core-1 Core-2 Core-3

1500

The Ic of long cable are very good match with expected value from short sample testing at 77K. The Ic values had no change through Phase-I and Phase-II including heat- cycles.

1000

500

0
Sample Test Phase-I Phase-I Phase-II Phase-II (after cooldown) (after long-term (after cooldown) (after long-term operation) opearion)

9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Variation of Temperature Difference on the Cable during Phases I & II


[ Phase-I ]
1.2
Temperature Deference between Cable Outlet and Inlet

[ Phase-II ]
20
Transmitted Electricity [MVA]

1.2
Temperature Deference between Outlet and Inlet of Cable

20
Transmitted Electricity [MVA]

Temperature Deference [K]

Temperature Deference [K]

1 0.8

16

1 0.8

16

12 0.6 8 0.4 0.2


Transmitted Electricity

12 0.6 8 0.4 0.2


Transmitted Electricity

0
7/20 8/17 9/14 10/12 11/9 12/7 1/4 2/1 3/1 3/29 4/26 Date (2006-2007)

0
1/7 1/21 2/4 2/18 3/3 3/17 3/31

0
Date (2008)

Temperature difference between outlet and inlet of the HTS cable was 0.9 +/- 0.1K Temperature deference was very stable during the long-term In-grid operation in Phase I and Phase II Maintained good CRS operation and No change of cable heat loss during longterm in-grid operation
9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Presentation Summary
World class team has successfully executed on all phases of the program Met or exceeded all goals and objectives Cable ran flawlessly for >12 months with ZERO instances of downtime due to the HTS system Efficient, reliable and robust design capable of handling real-world utility operating environment
ALL equipment/systems responded as designed without any adverse effects

Biggest reliability concern (CRS) addressed & proven to meet commercial requirements Achieved Worlds first in-grid demonstration of a YBCO device Technology transfer & education achieved by numerous tours/events (>20) and articles/presentations(>50) given throughout the program

9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

The Bottom Line


Of importance to National Grid is that this project has demonstrated the reliability of the technology. We encountered no difficulties in integrating the project into our grid and the entire installation was totally transparent to our customers. The system has stood up to very exacting utility standards and we look forward to further developments in HTS technology.
- William Flaherty, Energy Solutions Regional Director of National Grid
9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

Thank you!
For more information:

www.superpower-inc.com
or cweber@superpower-inc.com
9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12, 2008

2008 12 13

Power PowerSystem SystemNetwork Network (345kV (345kVand andabove) above)


Legend 765kV System 345kV Overhead System 345kV Underground System DC180kV Cable Link 765kV Substation 345kV Substation Generating Plant

Peak Demand [MW]


Classification 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Peak Demand 37,293 41,007 43,125 45,773 47,385 51,263 54,631 58,994 62,285 62,794 Increase Rate 13.0 10.0 5.2 6.1 3.5 8.2 6.6 8.0 5.6 0.8

Transition of Fault Current [kA]


Voltage 765kV 345kV 154kV 2008 21.7 50.0 49.4 2010 24.4 57.2 49.2 2014 23.6 56.6 50.0 2020 25.3 57.9 54.0

The rate of underground transmission line


Seoul 51.3%
Kyunggi 18.3% Kangwon 5.3%

Total 12.68%
Daejun 45.2%

Incheon 29.5% Chungnam 5.0% Chungbuk 6.2%

Kyungbuk 4.1% Daegu 21.9%

Junbuk 6.1% Jeju 11.9% Gwhangju 26.5% Kyungnam 7.4%

Ulsan 18.7%

Busan 31.5%

(As of 2007)

High cost for civil work and construction Difficulty of excavating roads for construction of conduit or culvert NIMBY for the construction of new substations in urban area Needs for environmental friendly power apparatus Need to decide how to renewal the aged power cables Electric power demand is increasing every year Continuous increase of fault current

High Capacitance & Low loss + Eco-friendly HTS Cable & SFCL

power system by applied Superconductivity technology)


Project period : 2004~2011 Total budget : $146million

The name of Project : DAPAS (Development of Advanced

(Government : $100million / Industry : $46million) Participants

22.9kV HTS Cable has been developed and 154kV HTS power cable is under development till 2010
Year
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 3 rd Phase 2010 1 st Phase 2 nd Phase

Fundamental Design Single Core 30m Fab. Evaluation. 50MVA/30m 22.9kV 3-Core Evaluation

DAPAS

50MVA/100m 3-Core Type test

Real-grid application

Long term Demonstration Operation on Real grid

154kV Basic study Design

1,000MVA Fab. Evaluation Type test

Seamless Aluminum Cryostat for HTS Cable was developed

Fundamental Studies

Fabrication
350

HTS Cable
Inner layer
M LI
Temperature (K)

Temperature Vacuum rate


300

0.1

0.01 200

Thot= 300K

1E-3

150

1E-4

Tcold= 77K

Vaccum 1. MLI Spacer

Displacement Simulation

100

1E-5

50 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

1E-6

Time (hr)

Cryostat

Experimental result

Vacuum rate (Torr)

Outer layer

250

Design & Fabrication of HTS Cable

Optimal Design for Conductor/Shield Stranding & Fabrication

EM field calculation
HTS Shield

HTS Conductor

Pitch determination for each layer

Impedance matching

Fabrication

HTS Cable

HTS Cable System


22.9kV (Nominal), 13.2kV (Phase) 1,260A (50MVA) 9 Fault Current : 25kA, 15cycle (Cu Stabilizer) 9 Closed loop cryo-coolers incorporated in CRS

HTS Cable
Cold Dielectric Diameter : 145mm Seamless Aluminum Cryostat PVC Sheath ~ 35kV Insulation level 3 - phases in one cryostat FC Stabilizer incorporated

Design of Accessories

Termination
Compact Design

Insulator

(800mm , 3.5m L 2.1m h) ~ 35kV Insulation level 3 - phases in one cryostat Pressure withstand : Min. 15bar Pre-fabricated components Polymer composite Bushing

Approx. 2100

Cryostat

Bellows

Approx. 3500

Joint Box
Compact Design

(500mm 3.5m ~ 35kV Insulation level Pre-fabricated components Pressure withstand : Min. 15bar

L)

Cable

Cable core

Cryostat

Bellows

Approx. 3500

Installtion Installation & handling of HTS cable are same as ordinary cable

Tunnel

Pipe duct (175mm) Snake and cleats (for TM behavior)

Jointing Works
Minimum jointing work at site (14 days for termination, 21 days for joint box) Pre-fabricated Pre-fabricated

Jointing at site

Termination

Joint Box

CRS
Configuration of CRS - Closed loop ( no evaporation of LN2 ) - Total heat loss covered by packaged cryo-cooler
LN2 Tank (5 ton)

Stirling Cryocooler (640W @65K) Evaporator

Vacuum Pump Ambient

Separator
Coldbox1 Pulse Tube 320W@65K GM 840W@65K, 2EA Sub-cooler
F

Coldbox2

Heat Exchanger

Circulation Pump

Bypass line

HTS Cable & Acc.

Evaluation
Configuration of system installation ( Fully simulating real grid conditions )
Pipe Duct [15 m]

Termination (Load)

Tunnel (55 m) Joint box

Termination (Power source)

U-bend
On the ground [30 m] 100 m Joint box Ground level Termination (Load) Termination (Power source)

Evaluation

Test program - Reference tests for confirmation of sound installation - Main dielectric tests were executed after 2nd cool down
1st Cool down Reference Tests
Dielectric Loss Partial Discharge Dielectric security DC Ic

Load Cycle Test


Applied Voltage

- 1.5Uo for 30days Load current - 1,260 A (8hrs On, 16hrs off) Cooling Circuit Pressure Control

Warm-up & 2nd Cool down Shrinkage (Ref.)

Residual Performance Tests


DC Ic PD (@Uo,1.5Uo, 2.5Uo) Dielectric Loss (@Uo, 1.5Uo, 2.5Uo) Dielectric Security (@2.5Uo for 24h) Thermal/Electrical loss (Ref.) Impulse (BIL)

Test Results
Temperature profile during the whole type test procedure

Reference test

Residual test

Test Results Load Cycle Test at 1.5Uo for 30 days was successfully finished
Voltage & Current
8h (1260A) 1 cycle

Voltage (20kV ; 1.5U0)

16h (No load)

Current

Time (h)

Test Results
PD, dielectric loss were tested successfully

* High Frequency Antenna


Applied Voltage (kV) 5 10 13.2 (Uo) 20.1 (1.5Uo) 33 (2.5Uo) PD (pC) < 10 < 10 < 10 < 10 < 10 Tan 0.00002 0.000027 0.000039 0.00004 0.000041

* Background noise : 5~10 pC

Test Results
AC Dielectric Security Test @2.5Uo for 24hours was passed

Test Results
DC Ic showed no degradation after all electrical & thermal cycle tests
2 0 1 x 6 . 1

Operating range Phase (Cable) R S T Design @ 75 K 3 kA 3 kA 3 kA Result 75 K 3.01 kA 3.06 kA 3.03 kA 72 K 3.34 kA 3.43 kA 3.34 kA

2 0 1 x 4 . 1 2 0 1 x 2 . 1 2 0 1 x 0 . 1 3 0 1 x 0 . 8 3 0 1 x 0 . 6 3 0 1 x 0 . 4 3 0 1 x 0 . 2 0 . 0 3 -

Ic criterion (1uV/cm)

Voltage (V)

Phase R @ 75K Phase S @ 75K Phase T @ 75K Phase R @ 72K Phase S @ 72K Phase T @ 72K

* Operating temperature : 72 ~ 75 K * Operating current range : ~ 1.8 kA

0 1 x 0 . 2 -

0 0 5

0 0 0 , 1

0 0 5 , 1

Current (A)

0 0 0 , 2

0 0 5 , 2

0 0 0 , 3

0 0 5 , 3

The 22.9kV 50MVA HTS cable system was developed

and successfully passed 3 rd party inspected type test


The proposed type test specification fully considers

the real-grid operational conditions


Long term verification in end users real-grid has been

planned for commercialization of HTS cable system

HTS Cable Updated In 2008, the main topic of R&D on the HTS cable system is operation and maintenance skills regarding to the real grid operation

History
2001 ~ 2003 : Fundamental studies 2004 ~ 2005 : Application technologies 2006 ~ 2007.6 : Type test for 22.9kV products HTS Cable, Joint, Terminations, CRS

Updated
2007.6 ~ 2008 : O&M Skills & 6 Times Thermal Cycles Unmanned operation Technology, Live line maintenance

Planning
22.9kV 50MVA : Real grid application in KEPCOs substation Longer than the length which needs joint box with network study

3phase 22.9kV/630A hybrid SFCL(2006) Developed jointly by KEPRI and LS Industrial Systems. Combined Superconductor and normal-conductor devices. A 3 22.9 kV/630 A SFCL was built and tested for 3-phase faults Limited fault current 29 kA to 17 kA (and to 8 kA after 5 cycles)

A hybrid SFCL under test

Last version of 3phase 22.9kV/630A hybrid SFCL(2008)


Control & Monitoring Parts

Cryostat

Fast Switch

Current Limiting Resistor

Reliability Test Plan Field test of 22.9 kV Hybrid SFCL is planned in Gochang Testing Yard. Now, processing the network engineering

Automatic Fault generator Superconducting power machine testing building

Korea Government
KETEP (Korea Institute of Energy and Resources Technology Evaluation and Planning)

Project period : Nov. 2008 ~ Oct. 2013 Total budget : $17million

(Government : $8.5million/ Industry : $8.5million)

KEPCO
Head Quarter Prime Contractor

KEPCO(KEPRI) KERI University


Detailed Feasibility Study Operating & Maintenance

KEPCO(KEPRI) LS Cable KERI, KBSi University


Manufacture and Installation in HTS Cable Systems

KEPCO(KEPRI) LS IS University
Manufacture and Installation in SFCL Systems

154/22.9kV MTR

3kA SFCL 150MVA HTS Cables

HTS Cable 500m

[ 22.9kV HTS Cable, Termination, and Splice]

[ 22.9 kV SFCL System-Trial Product ]

Supplying the huge buildings with electric power by HTS cables Replacing 22.9kV conventional cables(2~3lines) with the superconducting cables using the existing conduit or culverts without additional civil works
22.9 kV Superconducting Cables to replace 154 kV conventional cables 154 kV S/S in the suburbs
SFCL

Downtown Area 22.9 kV SW/S Circuit Breaker (Normal open) 22.9 kV SW/S 22.9 kV Superconducting Cables to replace 22.9kV conventional cables

SFCL SFCL

Superconducting Transformers

22.9 kV SW/S

Superconducting Power System (SPS) applying distributed switching stations for metropolitan areas
z Apply superconducting power devices (cables, transformers, FCLs) to real power system z 154kV transmission power system 22.9kV superconducting power system
Replace 154kV substations in downtown with 22.9kV underground switching stations Replace 154kV conventional cables with 22.9kV superconducting cables Bulk power transfer by superconducting cables and transformers & Fault current reduction by SFCL
154kV conventional cables Suburb Downtow n 154kV conventional cables
Skip substations Reduce construction costs Environmentfriendly Avoid civil petitions
154kV S/S 22.9kV SW/S 22.9kV SW/S 22.9kV SW/S

Suburb

Downtow n

22.9kV SW/S 22.9kV SW/S 22.9kV SW/S 154kV S/S

154kV S/S

154kV S/S

154kV S/S

154kV S/S

22.9 kV Superconducting cables

One of solutions for the site problem


z No substations & Compact size Easy to find a site for power facilities in downtown z Underground switching stations Make a park on the switching stations

Economic benefits
z Reduction of cost for buying land
The site for 22.9kV switching stations is less than 30%, compared to 154kV substations.

z No additional construction cost


We can use established underground facilities such as existing electric power conduit pipes.

Environmental and social benefits


z Environment-friendly Avoid the trend of NIMBY
No oil for cooling the system Free of the explosion danger (Superconducting transformer)

z No additional construction Reduce the construction cost and ease traffic congestion z High efficiency and loss of superconductor Save energy and reduce CO2 emission

In Korean power system, increase of electric power demand have been accompanied with increase of power plants, substations, transmission lines and distribution lines. So that development of high capacitance power facility to accept increase demand was required and during a past decade, superconducting cable and SFCL have been developed. Currently, developments and tests of 22.9kV superconducting cable and SFCL are finished, and development of 154kV superconducting system is under development till 2010. From Nov.2008, to affirm stability and reliability of developed superconducting cable and SFCL by gathering and analysis of operating and maintenance data, 22.9kV HTS system real grid project is started for 5 years. If stability of HTS system including superconducting cable and SFCL is affirmed, it will be expended from urban.

2008 12 13

39

Southwire Entergy HTS Cable Project


Eigth Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Oak Ridge, TN November 12-13, 2008

Erik Guillot
Project Manager Transmission EMCC

David Knoll
Project Manager HTS Cable Systems

Project Partners

Project Specs
Cable Design Length Voltage Load Cooling Splices In-Service Date HTS TriaxTM - Superconducting 1760 meters (1.1 miles) 13.8 kV 48 MVA Single Point, Closed Cycle 2 (Cable Sections = 3) 1Q2011

13.8 kV, 2.0 kA (48 MVA) Triax HTS Cable Cooling Plant

Project Location

Cable Route

Project Overview:
Replace Copper HV Transmission with HTS MV Distribution
Problem: Saturated 13 kV distribution anticipate high load growth 230/13 subs to north & south of area - Need new sub at mid-point Challenges: OH RoW for 230 or 13 kV very difficult or impossible Small footprint available for new substation 230 kV solution: placing transformer in dense residential area. 13 kV conventional: Voltage drop, power quality Solution: 13 kV HTS cable to transmit 48 MVA into small footprint station. 1.1 mile HTS cable that meets load growth needs. Leverage existing transformer capacity No new transformers needed Single point cooling station. 13 kV HTS replaces 230 kV underground. Cost effective with DOE support.

Southwire - HTS TriaxTM 2000A Cable


Phase 3 HTS Phase 2 HTS Former Phase 1 HTS

LN
Cryostat

LN

Dielectric

Copper Neutral

1. 2. 3.

HTS TriaxTM Advantage vs Competition: HTS tape usage = substantially cheaper Single Cable = simplified mfg & installation Smaller cold surface area = lower cooling & operating cost

Southwire Triax Cable Termination


3 Phase Connections - Provides transition from superconducting materials to copper materials. - Thermal transition from 200 C to ambient temperature - Controls electrical stresses. - Provides input and/or output location for LN coolant. - Provisions made for temperature and pressure measurements and monitoring. - Electrical connections to utility made by means of industry standard NEMA pad.

Neutral Connection

Cable Installation

On Going Effort - HTS Tape Options


1G BSCCO vs 2G YBCO
Mechanical testing Compatibility with cabling process Electrical Properties Ic, n-Value, AC Loss Magnetic Properties Piece Lengths Wire availability Per meter costs

On Going Effort Cable Configuration


Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3 Spare

Composite 1 Composite 2 All 1G All 2G

1G 1G 1G 2G

1G 2G 1G 2G

2G 2G 1G 2G

1G 1G 1G 2G

On Going Thermal / Hydraulic Analysis


CABLE ASSEMBLY THERMAL MODEL
Cryostat Wall
74 73 72 71 T [K] 70 69 68 67 66 0 500 1000 L [m] 1500 2000
Annulus Former Tmax Ph1 Ph2 Ph3 Neutral

LN2 LN2

Insulation RT
HTS Heater AC - Loss, QknownRT Insulation RT HTS Heater AC - Loss, QknownRT Insulation RT HTS Heater AC - Loss, QknownRT

Temp Sensors

Former, RT
LN2 LN2

On Going Effort Cryogenic System Design

~ 10kW cooling required Closed loop cooling system Cryocooler Options Pulse Tube Sterling Cycle Brayton Cycle RFPs out after AC Loss study System supplier will perform detailed system design Back-up Open Cycle Heat Exchanger Closed Cycle
Sub-Cooled LN2

LN2 Tank

HTS Cable
Counter Flow Cooling Out = thru former In = thru annulus

Cryocooler Bank

Previous Experience AEP, Columbus, OH

AEP-Bixby 200 meters 8/2006 to present 13.2 kV, 3.0 kA, Triax Cable

5 DAY Bixby Peak Load August 2007


3000

Peak Load = 2,715 A


2500

2000 Current (Amps)

1500

Phase 1 1000 Phase 2 Phase 3 Neutral 500

0 0:00:00

0:00:00

0:00:00

0:00:00

0:00:00

AEP Data Fault Currents


Transient event: I 3.0 kA (2,121 A-rms) 74 total events 39 events with >4,242 A-pk (3,000 A-rms) 19 events with >5,657 A-pk (4,000 A-rms) 13 events with >7,071 A-pk (5,000 A-rms) 7 events with >14,142 A-pk (10,000 A-rms) Highest current = 17,765 Apk (222 milliseconds) Longest duration = 1.785 seconds (5209 Apk, 3683 Arms)

07/11/2008 01:24:20.500

07/11/2008 01:24:27.425
HTS cable never taken out of service.

No measurable thermal response in HTS cable or terminations.

Development status up to 154kV EPRI Superconductivity HTS Cable Systems in Korea Conference
Evaluation of 100m long 12 Nov.HTS 2008 22.9kV 50MVA Cable System

KEPRI (KEPCO) -Mo Yang S. K.Byeong LEE Principal Research Engineer Electric Power R&D Center LS Cable Ltd
1 /31

Contents About DAPAS program

R&D Results of HTS cable in 1st & 2nd Phase Plan of 3


rd

Phase

Conclusion

2 /31

DAPAS program
DAPAS program Development of Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity tech. Name of the superconductivity frontier program in Korea Selected on May. 2001 by MOST Funded about 100 million US dollars for ten years from government.

The primary target R & D and commercialization of the developed HTS products Budget
z z

10 years(2001~2010) 2007. 04 - 2008. 03

148 million $ ( Gov. : 100 & Ind. : 48 ) 14 million $ ( Gov. : 10 & Ind. : 4 )

3 /31

Development targets for each phase


Phase FY Target 1st Phase 2001 2002 2003 2nd Phase 2004 2005 2006 2007 3rd Phase 2008 2009 2010 Commercialization

Core technology
(to develop the HTS wire and system technology)

Pre-commercial pilot
(to improve the 1st phase technology and develop the prototype devices)

(Field test and development of the industrial technology for commercialization)

Power cables Transformers Fault-current limiters Motors

50MVA, 22.9kV cable 1MVA, 22.9kV Single phase 6.6kV, 200Arms SFCL 100~ hp motor

50MVA, 22.9kV, 100m system core technologies 22.9kV, 630Arms SFCL 1MVA~ motor

1GVA, 154kV, 3 phase 33MVA, 154kV Single phase 22.9kV, 3kA & 154kV, 4kArms 5MVA motor
4 /31

Highest voltage class


50m 120m 250m Succeeded Failed 1 core 3 ph DAPAS Warm Dielectric Cold Dielectric 1G wire 2G wire 3 phase, 1 cryo, CD 3 phase, 3 core, CD 3 phase, 3 core, WD 1 phase, CD

225kV

154kV DAPAS (~11)

LIPA 2

AMSC&Nexans LIPA (~07) (~11) LIPA SPE 138kV

SEI&TEPCO (~11) 77kV 66kV SEI (~99)


AEP

Furukawa (~04)
SPE project

36kV 24kV 12.5kV

SEI & TEPCO (~01) Swire & NKT (~07) NKT (~02) AMSC (~07) Pirelli, AMSC, Swire & IGC (~00) DTE (~01) 30m 100m 200m DAPAS (~04) IGC & SEI (~07)
Albany

Swire & NKT(~11)

34.5kV 22.9kV 13.8kV

350m

500m 620m

1,780m 5 /31

History of HTS power cable in DAPAS


2001 2003 2005
Aug., 2005 Long Term Test

5m Cable core + 10m Cooling System

30m Single Phase HTS Cable System 22.9kV, 50MVA

30m Three Phase HTS Cable System 22.9kV, 50MVA


6 /31

HTS Cable in KEPCO Testing Center in 2006


Fully simulating real grid conditions
Pipe Duct [15 m]

Termination (Load)

Tunnel (55 m) Joint box

Termination (Power source)

U-bend
On the ground [30 m]

Joint box Ground level Termination (Load) Termination (Power source)

7 /31

Specification
Voltage : 22.9kV (Nominal), 13.2kV(Phase) Current : 1,260A (50MVA) Fault Current : 25kA, 15cycle Cryogenic system : Closed loop cryo-coolers Cable length : 100m

Insulator

Approx. 2100

Cryostat

Bellows

Cable

Cable core

Cryostat

Bellows

Approx. 3500

Approx. 3500

Cable

Termination

Joint Box
8 /31

Installation
Installation & handling of HTS cable are same as ordinary cable

Tunnel

Pipe duct (175mm)

Snake and cleats

9 /31

Evaluation
Specification of type-test - Optimal test items & conditions - Suitable to real grid application Proposed to IEC SB1 by LS Cable ( under discussing ) Certification by 3rd party test institute - Kinetrics, Canada Confirmation by end user - KEPCO/KEPRI - Gochang power testing center
10 /31

Test Results (I)


Load Cycle Test at 1.5Uo for 30 days was successfully finished
Voltage & Current
8h (1260A) 1 cycle

Voltage (20kV ; 1.5U0)

16h (No load)

Current

Time (h)

PD and dielectric loss were tested successfully


* High Frequency Antenna
Applied Voltage (kV) 5 10 13.2 (Uo) 20.1 (1.5Uo) 33 (2.5Uo) PD (pC) < 10 < 10 < 10 < 10 < 10 Tan 0.00002 0.000027 0.000039 0.00004 0.000041

* Background noise : 5~10 pC

11 /31

Test Results (II)


AC Dielectric Security Test @2.5Uo for 24hours was passed

No degradation after all electrical & thermal cycle tests


2 0 1 x 6 . 1

Operating range
I c c rite rio n (1 u V /c m )

Phase (Cable) R S T

Design @ 75 K 3 kA 3 kA 3 kA

Result 75 K 3.01 kA 3.06 kA 3.03 kA 72 K 3.34 kA 3.43 kA 3.34 kA

2 0 1 x 4 . 1 2 0 1 x 2 . 1 2 0 1 x 0 . 1

Voltage (V)

3 0 1 x 0 . 8 3 0 1 x 0 . 6 3 0 1 x 0 . 4 3 0 1 x 0 . 2 0 . 0 3 -

P hase P hase P hase P hase P hase P hase

R S T R S T

@ @ @ @ @ @

75K 75K 75K 72K 72K 72K

C u rre n t (A )

* Operating temperature : 72 ~ 75 K * Operating current range : ~ 1.8 kA

0 1 x 0 . 2 -

0 0 5

0 0 0 , 1

0 0 5 , 1

0 0 0 , 2

0 0 5 , 2

0 0 0 , 3

0 0 5 , 3

12 /31

AC Loss
AC Loss was measured by calorimetric method on site
Loss (W) Design Heat Loss AC loss 70m Cable 30m (U-band) Termination 105.0 90.0 195.0 102.9 113.2 216.1 AC loss : 1.25 W/mphase 165.0 210.0 Total 375.0 Measured Heat Loss AC loss 164.8 255.2 Total 420.0 AC loss : 1.21 W/mphase W/m.phase @ 1260Arms

165.0

135.0

300.0

180.0

157.6

337.6

0.8W/mphase @ 1260Arms in the Lab

13 /31

Plan (the 3rd phase)

14 /31

Target of 3rd phase (2007 ~ 2011)


R&D of 154kV, 1 GVA HTS Cable - Specification : 154kV, 1GVA, 3phase, 100m - Install the Power Grid in KEPCO Testing Center
154kV Over Head Line (Youngkwang Nuclear Plant))

300m

154kV 2000SQ XLPE 2 LIne

Tunn el
0m HTS C able w ill be instal led 10

154kV

in 201 0

Substation at Gochang 15 /31

Peak and average load for a year


70000

After 1997 financial crisis in Korea

Peak load
60000

Average load
54631 51246 47385 45773 43125 41007

58994

Last year 2007, over 60GW

50000

Capacita (MW)

40000

37293 35851 32996

30000

20000
25621 24577 27320 30327 32559

34985

36809

39057

41625

43513

10000

0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Year

16 /31

Necessity of Transmission HTS Cable in KEPCO


Status and Analysis of KEPCO Grid
1) Regional Load : Highest Seoul Region (42%) 2) Underground Cable among T/L : Highest Seoul Region (73.9%) 3) Increasing Underground T/L : about 12.68% (the rate of Underground T/L in Korea)
Kyunggi 18.3%

South-East Region 30% South-West Region 8% Middle Region 13%

Seoul Region 42%

Seoul 51.3%

Kangwon 5.3%

East Region 7%

12.68%
Daejun 45.2%

Total

Incheon 29.5% Chungnam 5.0% Chungbuk 6.2%

Kyungbuk 4.1% Daegu 21.9%

:C-Km

Voltage
Junbuk 6.1% Ulsan 18.7%

T/L Length 93 1,143 13

Rate(%) 7 92 1

345kV 154kV 66kV

Jeju 11.9 %

Gwhangju 26.5%

Kyungnam 7.4%

Busan 31.5%

(As of 2007) 17
17 /31

Necessity of Transmission HTS Cable in KEPCO


Cu Conductor 150mm HTS Superconductor LN2

800 mm OF Cable (345kV, 840A, 2cct)

150 mm HTS SC Cable (154kV, 3.75kA, 1cct)

18

18 /31

Applying Concept of Transmission HTS Cable in KEPCO


Applying Scenario of Transmission HTS Cable
345kV Substation 154kV Overhead Line :Suburbs Large City 154kV Conventional Cable 154kV HTS Cable : Center of Large City, high load density Considerable Places for Applying HTS Cable to KEPCO Grid from Old Conventional Cable

Replacement

Construction of New T/L in Large City Enlargement of T/L due to increasing load in Large City

19

19 /31

Modeling of Transmission HTS Cable in KEPCO


Fault Analysis of 154kV HTS Cable by Using EMTDC
Ia

ISb

ISc

A
3kA 6kA 9kA 12kA 15kA

Ic

Ib

ISa

20 /31

Design of 154kV/1GVA HTS Cable


Electrical Characteristics - Rated Voltage : 154 kV (U0, Um = 89, 170 kV) - Rated Current : 3.75 kA - BIL : 750 kV - Design Fault Current : 50 kA, 1.7s Physical Characteristics - Cold Dielectric Design (Single Phase in One Cryostat)
Inner Cryostat Thermal Insulation (MLI + Vacuum) Outer Cryostat LN2 Former/Stabilizer HTS Phase Conductor Insulation HTS Shield

154 kV, 1GVA HTS Cable Cross Section


21 /31

Core Design for 154kV/1GVA HTS Cable


154kV/1GVA Stabilizer Design
-Fault Condition : 50 KA/ 1.7s

15.5 cycle 10.5 cycle 5.5 cycle

Temp. Limit : 94 K (5 bar) Initial Temp. : 77 K

Stabilizer Size Min. 610 mm2

22 /31

HTS Wire Evaluation for Cable Application


The Mechanical & Thermal Properties of multi-kinds of HTS wires evaluated

Multi-Bending

Tential Stress

Thermal Cycling & Twisting

23 /31

Insulation Design of 154kV HTS Cable


99

99

Br e a kdown w e ibu ll pr oba bility [ % ]

100 125 170

Br e a kdown we ibu ll pr oba bility [ % ]

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 5 3 2 1

Variable

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 5 3 2 1

Variable
100 125 170

Shape 25.18 26.39 20.19 0.1

Scale N AD P 68.39 15 0.633 0.088 61.65 15 0.310 >0.250 55.76 15 0.431 >0.250

Shape 16.10 17.47 17.64 0.1

Scale N AD P 120.6 15 0.540 0.164 110.8 15 0.543 0.160 100.9 15 1.092 <0.010

35

40

45 50 55 60 65 Br e a kdown s tr e n gth [ kV/ mm]

70

75

65

70

80 90 100 110 Br e a kdown s tr e n gth [ kV/ mm]

120

130

AC Weibull Test
50 45
11

Impulse Weibull Test


y = 51.097x y = 40.175x y = 40.043x
-0.0336

40 35

B r eak d o wn vo l tag e [ k V ]

-0.0235

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1.E+00

PPLP for EHV application Insulation Thickness < 15mmt Overall Diameter < 145mm
24 /31

-0.0514

100
1.E+01 1.E+02 1.E+03 T i me [s e c ]

125
1.E+04

170
1.E+05 1.E+06

AC V-t Test

Cryogenic Characteristic Test of 154kV/1GVA HTS Cable


[ Cryogenic Vessel for Variable Temp.]
66K~77K, 5bar

[ DC power supply ]
DC 15,000 Amp / 5V

25 /31

Termination of 154kV/1GVA HTS Cable

26 /31

Cryogenic System of 154kV/1GVA HTS Cable


LN2 Storage CryoCryo-Cooler Phase A LN2 Flow

Phase B

Phase C

5600W @ 65K

27 /31

Testing Facility for HTS Cable by KEPCO


Place : Gochang Testing Center Design : 2007.11 Start : 2008.3 Finish : 2009.9

154kV Superconducting Cable Test will be start 2009.6


28 /31

Testing Facility Design

PQ

OF

HTS Cable Test Field (Tunnel)

GIL

29 /31

Status of Standard for HTS cable


2008. 6. 9 Berlin Germany 11th IEC TC90 Meeting, Proposed the Test Procedure the HTS Cable, like as Ic Measurement Procedure. Suggest the round robin test the HTS cable for standard 2008. 8. 27, Paris France CIGRE SCD1 Working Group Meeting WG.15 (Superconducting and Insulating Materials for HTS Power Applications) Proposal the Specification of HTS Application Proposals for test procedures of HTS power equipment and electrical insulation. CIGRE SC B1 (Insulated Cable) Decide to make TF for studying the specification of HTS cable Korea The KS (Korean Standard) is in progress for Ic Measurement Procedure of HTS Cable

30 /31

Conclusion
The 22.9kV 50MVA HTS cable system was developed and evaluated 154 kV , 1GVA HTS cable system is being developed in the 3rd Phase of DAPAS program HTS Cable R&D is moving from Grid Test to Grid Use in the world Suggestion on the Collaboration for studying Standard of HTS Cable Testing Procedures

< 21/21 >

31 /31

< 21/21 >

32 /31

superior performance. powerful technology.

Status of 2G HTS Wire Technology Development and Manufacturing at SuperPower


Chuck Weber Y.-Y. Xie, Y. Chen, X. Xiong, K. Lenseth, M. Marchevsky, A. Rar, Y. Qiao, B. Gogia, A. Knoll, R. Schmidt, D. Hazelton, and V. Selvamanickam
Funded by Title III Program, DOE and AFRL Supported by CRADAs with Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, & Argonne National Laboratories EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN
SuperPower, Inc. is a subsidiary of Royal Philips Electronics N.V.

SuperPowers 2G wire is based on high throughput processes & superior substrate


High throughput is critical for low cost 2G wire and to minimize capital investment SuperPowers 2G wire is based on high throughput IBAD MgO and MOCVD processes Use of IBAD as buffer template provides the choice of any substrate Advantages of IBAD are high strength, low ac loss (non-magnetic, high resistive substrates) and high engineering current density (ultra-thin substrates)
2 m Ag 1 m YBCO - HTS (epitaxial) ~ 30 nm LMO (epitaxial) ~ 30 nm Homo-epi MgO (epitaxial) ~ 10 nm IBAD MgO
100 nm

< 0.1 mm

20m Cu

50m Hastelloy substrate 20m Cu

YBCO LaMnO3 MgO (IBAD + Epi layer) Y2O3 Al2O3

EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

Hastelloy C-276

SuperPowers 2G pilot manufacturing facility has been operational since 2006


Majority of investment already made for 1000 km/year capability

Pilot Substrate Electropolishing

Pilot MOCVD

Pilot IBAD

Pilot buffer Sputtering


3

EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

Our main objective in 2008 was to meet market requirements for 2G wire
Replace 1G wire in large HTS device demonstration projects in the U.S. and around the world Key requirements: Long length, availability, Ic, price Supply large volumes of 2G wire to customers who have been waiting to take advantage of the superior performance of 2G Key requirements: Long length, Ic, additional performance metrics such as in-field Ic, ac losses, joints, insulation, FCL metrics Advance towards medium-term goal of replacing copper wire in commercial HTS projects and challenge LTS wire in high-field applications Key requirements: Long length, availability, Ic, price, in-field performance and other additional performance metrics
EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

High current metric: Capability of ~ 1000 A in 12 mm widths achieved!


Critical current (A/cm-width)
900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0
7
2008 (GdY)BCO

6
2007 GdYBCO 2006 Sm YBCO 2005 Sm YBCO

2008 (GdY)BCO

Jc (MA/cm )

5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1
2005 Sm YBCO 2007 GdYBCO 2006 Sm YBCO

1 2 3 Thickness ( m)

2 Thickness ( m)

Over 1+ m length, Ic = 976 A = 813 A/cm

Ic measurement using continuous dc current (no pulsed current) across entire tape width of 12 mm. No patterning

3.3 m film made in 10 passes: Ic = 976 A = 833 A/cm (Jc = 2.44 MA/cm2) 2.1 m film made in 6 passes: Ic = 929 A = 774 A/cm (Jc = 3.68 MA/cm2) All achievements using production buffer tapes
EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

High current technology is being transferred to pilot MOCVD


500 Minimum Ic > 400 A/cm-w over 55 m length 400

5.0E-07 4.0E-07 Voltage (V/cm) 3.0E-07 2.0E-07 1.0E-07 0.0E+00 -1.0E-07 Ic = 450 A/cm-w at 0.1 V/cm voltage criterion

Ic (A/cm-w)

300

200

100

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Position (m)

100

200

300

400

500

Current (A/cm-w)

Over 55 m length, Minimum Ic = 481 A = 401 A/cm At 0.2 V/cm voltage criterion

Over 10 m length, Ic = 481 A = 401 A/cm At 0.1 V/cm voltage criterion


6

All achievements using production buffer tapes. EPRI 8 Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN MOCVD process speed 90 m/h (4mm equivalent)
th

In-field performance metric: dramatic improvements achieved by Zr doping


BZO additions have been very effective in improving in-field performance of PLD films, but was yet to be demonstrated with MOCVD.
180 160 140 0.7 micron SmYBCO 0.7 micron GdYBCO 0.7 micron Zr:GdYBCO
450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 3.5 micron SmYBCO 2.8 micron GdYBCO 3.3 micron Zr:GdYBCO

Ic (A/cm)

Ic (A/cm)

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

229 A/cm 186 A/cm

77K, 1T

77K, 1 T -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Angle between field and tape (deg)


Data from Y. Zhang, M. Paranthaman, A. Goyal, ORNL

Angle between field and tape (degrees)

Gd substitution results in strong pinning parallel to the tape. Zr doping strongly enhances pinning perpendicular to tape & in intermediate fields 2 to 2.5x improvement IcSuperconductivity by Zr doping . Thin films and EPRI 8in Annual Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN thick films
th

Excellent in-field performance at 65 K, 3 T


550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Title III Phase 3 program goal is Je without stabilizer of 15,000 A/cm2 at 65 K, 3 T


2008: 3.33 m Minimum Ic = 267 A/cm corresponds to Je of Zr:(Y,Gd)BCO 2008: 3.15 m Zr:(Y,Gd)BCO 2007: 2.8 m (Y,Gd)BCO

41,000 A/cm2 at 65 K, 3 T Ic perpendicular to tape = 340 A/cm corresponds to Je of 52,300 A/cm2


Data from Y. Zhang, M. Paranthaman, A. Goyal, ORNL

Angle (deg)

Ic (77 K, 1 T) B // c Minimum Ic

2008 Zr-doped (Gd,Y)BCO 340 A/cm 267 A/cm

2007 (Gd,Y)BCO 181 A/cm 160 A/cm

Improvement 88% 67%


8

EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

Zr-doped chemistry has been successfully transferred from Research system to Pilot MOCVD
160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

Crtical current (A)

(Y,Sm)BCO (Y,Gd)BCO (Y,Sm)BCO with Zr (Y,Gd)BCO with Zr

Data from Y. Zhang, M. Paranthaman, A. Goyal, ORNL

Angle between magnetic field & tape (degrees)

Long-length wires are now being produced with Zr-doped chemistry


EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

In 2007, we demonstrated world record high-field magnet


19T background self field

Central Field (T)

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 50 100 150 200 250

26.8 T @ 175 A

9.81 T @ 221 A

Coil ID Winding ID Winding OD # of Pancakes 2G wire used Average Ic of wires in coil

9.5 mm (clear) 19.1 mm ~ 87 mm 12 (6 x double) ~ 462 m 78 A in 4 mm width (77 K, self field)

Current (A)
SuperPower coil tested in NHMFLs unique, 19-tesla, 20-centimeter wide-bore, 20megawatt Bitter magnet

0.73 T generated by coil at 77 K


10

EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

Coil tested by H. Weijers, D. Markewicz, & D. Larbalestier, NHMFL, FSU

New coil in 2008 with Zr-doped (Gd,Y)BCO wire with better in-field performance
2007 coil Coil ID (mm) clear Winding ID (mm) Winding OD (mm) Coil Height (mm) # of double pancakes 2G tape used (m) # of turns Coil Je (A/mm2) per amp of operating current Coil constant (mT/A) 9.5 19.1 ~ 87 ~ 51.6 6 ~ 462 ~ 2772 ~1.569 2008 coil 21 28.6 ~ 87 ~ 56.7 6 ~ 480 ~ 2664 ~1.635 Wire Ic (A) 4 mm 2007 coil 72 82 2008 coil 72 to 97

~ 44.4
th

~ 41.9
11

EPRI 8 Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

30% higher field in 2008 coil made with wire with improved in-field performance
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Angle between field and wire (degrees)
75 K, 0.92 T (LANL)

Ic (A) for 4 mm wide wire

(Y,Sm)BCO wire 2007 coil (Y,Sm)BCO wire 2007 coil Zr:(Gd,Y)BCO wire for 2008 coil Zr:(Gd,Y)BCO wire for 2008 coil
77 K, 1 T (ORNL)

Temperature (K) 77.4 70.25 65.8 64.5 63.8

Coil Max Central current Field (A) (T) 0.95 22.7 44 1.84 54 2.26 2.39 57 58 2.43

Temperature 77 K 65 K

2008 coil with Zr-doped (Gd,Y)BCO 0.95 T 2.39 T

2007 coil with (Y,Sm)BCO 0.73 T

Improvement 30%
12

EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

This improvement remains effective at low T


1.50 [Ic/Ic@ 77K 0T- 2008]/[Ic/Ic@77K 0T-2007]

20-35% improvement in magnetic field range up to 4T T=


1.25

60 K 50 K 40 K 30 K 20 K

1.00

0.75 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 B[Tesla] at 30o w.r.t. the tape surface

EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

Measurement done by M. Ogata and K. Nagashima at Railway Technical Research Institute

13

Continued routine manufacturing of kilometer lengths of fully buffered tape in CY 2008


8
In-plane texture (degrees)

7 6 5 4 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Tape position (m) 1200 1400 1600

12 tapes with complete 5-layer buffer stack, by ISS2007, and now over 40 tapes have been produced in lengths of 1,300 m to 1,500 with in-plane texture of 5 7 degrees and excellent uniformity of ~2%
Manufacture of kilometer-lengths of high quality, fully-buffered tape was routine throughout 1 year
EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

14

Challenges in fabrication of complete, kilometer long 2G wire


250
Ic (A/cm)

250

150 100 50 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Position (m)

Ic (A/cm)

200

200 150 100 50 0 0 200 400 600 Position (m) 800 1000

400

Ic (A/cm)

300 200 100 0

200

400

600
th

800

1000

Kilometer lengths limited by a few bad regions in an otherwise uniform wire; Major sources of the problems identified: MOCVD instability; Mechanical damage; Substrate defects
15

EPRI 8 (m) Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN Position

Aug. 2008: Yet another world record!


450 400 350 300
Ic (A/cm)

250 200 150 100 50 0 0

200 m Ic > 350 A/cm 4 mm: 140 A

320 m Ic > 350 A/cm 4 mm: 140 A

310 m Ic > 350 A/cm 4 mm: 140 A Except for three spots, Ic of rest of 1,030 m > 300 A/cm 4mm: 120 A
600 800 1000

77 K, Ic measured every 5 m using continuous dc currents over entire tape width of 12 mm (not slit) Voltage criterion = 0.2 microvolt/cm

200

400

Position (m)

Length (m) 1030 630 540

Minimum Ic (A/cm) @ 0.2 V/cm 227 302


EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

Ic Length (A-m) 233,810 190,260 181,980


16

337

Aug. 2008: Ic > 300 A/cm achieved over 600 m


450 400 350 300
Ic (A/cm)

250 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 300 Position (m) 400 500 600
77 K, Ic measured every 5 m using continuous dc currents over entire tape width of 12 mm (not slit) Voltage criterion = 0.2 microvolt/cm

Except for four spots, Ic of rest of 630 m > 350 A/cm

Length (m)

Minimum Ic (A/cm) (0.2 V/cm)

Ic Length (A-m)

630 540

302 337

190,260 181,980
17

EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

Remarkable progress in 2G HTS wire scale-up over the last 6 years


240,000
Critical Current * Length (A-m)

200,000 160,000 120,000 80,000 40,000 0

1,311 m 935 m 790 m

Critical Current * Length (A-m)

Growth in last year

1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10


May-02 Oct-02 Mar-03 Aug-03 Jan-04 Jun-04 Nov-04 Apr-05 Sep-05 Feb-06 Jul-06 Nov-06 Apr-07 Sep-07 Feb-08 Jul-08
18

1 m to 1,300 m in 6 years 206 m 62 m 158 m 1 m18 m 97 m


Mar-03 Aug-04 Apr-05 Aug-06 Nov-01 Nov-03 Dec-05 Jul-02

595 m 427 m 322 m

World Records

Apr-07

EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

Sep-08

Jan-08

Great strides made in 2008 in all key metrics


Metric Ic (A/cm) over 1 m Ic (A/cm) at 77 K, 1 T Ic (A/cm) at 65 K, 3 T Ic over 200 m (A/cm) Length with Ic > 200 A/cm (m) Ic over 500 m (A/cm) Length with Ic > 300 A/cm (m) Completed 2G wire Piece Length (m) Ic L (A-m) Coil: Field at 77 K (T) 2G Wire Price ($/m) 100 103 322 70,520 246 322 ISS 2006 470 ISS 2007 595 116 181 227* 322 170 202 595 102,935 0.73 65 ISS 2008 813 229 340 378* 1030 337 630 1,311 233,810 0.95 40 Improvement in past year 37% 97% 88% 67% 220% 98% 212% 120% 127% 30% 39%

*atRidge, 100 TN to EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak

200% higher speed than in 200619

Development of Practical Conductors - Joints


Location of joints 180 160 140 120

Ic (A)

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Position (m) 800 900 1000 1100 1200

Per customers requirement, 1200 m long wire was produced with 11 splices in a production operation. Arrangement of the 12 segments along the length was decided based on communication with customer so that the Ic profile would fit the coil winding requirements
EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

20

Excellent resistance measured in all joints and mechanical robustness also demonstrated
6.00E-05

4.00E-05
Joint#1: 70-75m 5.00E-05 Joint#2: 175-180m Joint#3: 250-255 m Joint#4: 350-355m Joint#5: 440-445m Joint#7: 670-675m Joint#8: 760-765m Joint#9: 890-895m Joint#10: 980-985m Joint#11: 1120-1125m 1.00E-05

1st test After running thru 4" roller 3 times

3.50E-05

4.00E-05

After running thru 2" rollers 6 times


Voltage (Volt)
60 Current (A) 80 100 120 140

Joint#6: 560-565m
Voltage (Volt)

3.00E-05 2.50E-05 2.00E-05 1.50E-05 1.00E-05

3.00E-05

2.00E-05

0.00E+00

-1.00E-05 0 20 40

20

40 Current (A)

60

80

All but one of the joints showed resistance around 33 n, One joint showed a resistance of 100 n, still within limit

Wires with joints have to run through the reel-to-reel Ic test rig with 4 and 2 roller. No trace of degradation was shown in I-V curves

EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

21

Continuous multifilamentary 2G wire is now scaled to 15m lengths with new industrial process

4 mm
2

100 Hz ac loss (W/m)

unstriated

5.1 x

multifilamentary
0 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

Good Ic and reasonable ac loss reduction achieved; Coils were made with long length multifilamentary wires, showed lowered ac loss in magnetic field and with transport ac current as reported at DOE Peer Review (July 2008)
22

Bac rms (T)

EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

Customer-driven development of insulated wire


Several customers, primarily for coil applications, required insulated 2G wire After evaluating a number of vendors, we procured a system for in-house fabrication of insulated wire System in place and being used for both 12 and 4 mm wide wire

Preliminary test showed no breakdown at 1000 V with 0.0025 mm polyimide film Deliveries of insulated wire already being made.
EPRI 8th Annual Superconductivity Workshop, November 12-13, 2008, Oak Ridge, TN

23

1. AC Loss Characterization of HTS Coils 2. Proposed Integrated Cryo-cooled Test Bed for High Power Density Power System Components Sastry Pamidi
Florida State University Center for Advanced Power Systems Tallahassee

AC Losses With Liquid Nitrogen Boil-off Measurements

Useful for Total AC loss measurements on coils up to 140 mm in diameter and 250 mm tall. Wide measurement range: fraction of a watt to 100 W Coils can be arranged in any orientation with respect to magnetic field Magnetic field amplitude: up to 200 mT Transport current amplitude: up to 650 A

AC Losses in YBCO Coils with Nitrogen Boil-off Technique


Diameter - 145 mm Length - 250 mm

Calibration Heater

Calibration Highly Reproducible

Sample Coil System has been tested and calibrated up to 60 W, 150 mT, 200 Hz

AC Losses in YBCO Coils with Nitrogen Boil-off Technique


Losses are < 0.1 W in parallel and perpendicular field 150 mT, 55 Hz & 60 mT, 200 Hz

YBCO Coils, 29 turns, of wire ~4.5 m conductor 45 mm diameter, Ic = 32-34 A

Super Power Coil Losses < 0.1 W @ 150 mT, 55 Hz & 60 mT, 200 Hz

Two coils were tested Coil made of normal YBCO tape and Coil made of Striated YBCO ( five filaments). Both have < 0.1 W losses. 0.1 W is minimum detectable limit of the measurement system

Objectives of the Proposed Integrated Cryogenic System for Multiple High Density Power System Components

Address system issues arising from the complex interrelationships between the electrical, thermal and material performance characteristic to achieve high power density systems through cryo-cooling. Design and manufacture a 400 kVA, 13,8 kV HTS transformer for application in Test loop Design and manufacture a +/- 5 kV MVDC HTS cable

A Schematic of the Proposed Integrated Cryogenic System for Multiple High Density Power System Components

Main Cryo station

Capacitor Bank

HTS Transformer

AC/DC Converter

HTS fault Current limiter

Load Bank

Flow sensors Cryo booster Temp sensors Valves Blowers Electrical bushing HTS AC/DC Cable

Proposed Applications of Cryo-cooled Test Bed Understanding of cryogenic system integration issues For external users to test high density power devices Comprehensive test environment with PHIL testing and heat loads and thermal gradients under test conditions Demonstrate integrated high power density electrical network

Proposal of 9th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference In Korea

Outline
Date From 9th Nov.(Monday) to 11th Nov.(Wednesday) EPRI, KEPCO(KEPRI), and KIASC * KIASC : Korea Institute of Applied Superconductivity and Cryogenics z International Program Committee ; Program Committee EPRI, KEPRI, KIASC z Local Program Committee ; KERPI, KIASC, KERI, LSC, KIMM, etc. z KEPRI in Daejeon Korea (2 days) Conference Site Accommodation : Yusung Hotel, Rivera Hotel etc z Technical Tour : Gochang Test Field (1 day) z LS Cable Factory Tour (1day) : option

Host

Schedule (Tentative)

Nov. 2008

First Announcement (9th Annul EPRI Superconductivity Conference) Website Opens On-Line Submission of Abstracts Abstract Acceptance & On-line Registration Last Announcement with Final Program Conference

Feb. 2009 Aug. 2009 Sept. 2009 Oct. 2009 Nov. 2009

Conference Schedule (Tentative)


z First day ( KEPRI in Daejeon) Registration Presentation Welcome Party and Dinner z Second day Presentation KEPRI Superconducting Lab Tour in KEPRI z Third day (Technical Tour : Gochang Test Field) Move : Daejeon -> Gochang (by Bus) Test Field Tour including 22.9kV and 154kV superconducting cable Excursion : Sunwonsa Temple z 4th Day (Option) : LS Cable Factory Tour

What benefit will you get ?


You can contact with many experts from oversea You can get the current information on Superconductivity System more broadly including Asia You can see the overall of the Superconductivity System. For Example, HTS Cable, SFCL, Flywheel developed by Korea You can look around Gochang Test Center, specially new underground test lab that is the biggest one in the world through technical tour Lastly, you can enjoy beautiful sightseeing that may be great mountain covered with colorful tree at Autumn
5

Technical Tour

Seoul

Daejeon Gochang Busan

Seoul

Daejeon

Busan

Testing Facility for HTS Cable by KEPCO


Place : Gochang Testing Center Start : 2008.3 Finish : 2009.9

154kV Superconducting Cable Test will start 2009.6

KEPRI in Autumn Conference site

Naejangsan national Park

10

SunWonSa Temple

11

High Opportunity Commercial Applications for HTS Cables


Eighth Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Oak Ridge, TN ~ November 12 13, 2008

Introduction
The scope and successful operation of recent HTS cable projects has led to:
Increased interest in HTS cables Increased interest in their characteristics Increased interest in possible applications

Superconductor Cables are an Exciting New Tool for Utility Planning Departments, but requires:
Education on their benefits and applications Education on what is involved to install and operate

Agenda
Review of HTS cable applications which appear to be of greatest interest during educational presentations Issues moving forward

Key HTS Cable ELECTRICAL Characteristics


Very high power transfer capability compared to conventional cables solves many siting problems Very low impedance reduces loading on parallel lines and equipment Minimal magnetic field and elimination of heat simplifies placement concerns and is easy on the environment Optional HTS cables with fault current management capabilities eliminate need to upgrade existing equipment
HTS Cables offer unique capabilities

Power Transfer Equivalency of HTS Cables

345kV 230kV 138kV 69kV 34.5KV 13.8 kV 0


XLPE Cable HTS XLPE Cable HTS XLPE Cable HTS 100 XLPE Cable XLPE Cable HTS XLPE Cable

Same Voltage, More Power Greatly increased power transfer capacity at any voltage level

MVA at 13.8 kV

200

400

600

800

1000

Power Transfer Capability - 3 MVA

HTS Cables provide much greater power transfer than conventional cable
* No XLPE cable de-rating factors applied. HTS rating based on conventional 4000A breaker rating

Power Transfer Equivalency of HTS Cables

345kV 230kV 138kV 69kV 34.5KV 13.8 kV 0


XLPE Cable HTS XLPE Cable HTS XLPE Cable HTS XLPE Cable XLPE Cable HTS XLPE Cable

Same Voltage, More Power Greatly increased power transfer capacity at any voltage level Same Power, Lower Voltage New MV versus HV Siting Opportunity
1000
MV Transmission Ideal for NIMBY & ROW sparse environments

200

400

600

800

Power Transfer Capability - 3 MVA

HTS Cables provides transmission-level power transfer at medium voltage


* No XLPE cable de-rating factors applied. HTS rating based on conventional 4000A breaker rating

Project HYDRA Overview


ConEds System of the Future: Interconnected Distribution Substations Integral Fault Current Limiting

Current ConEd System Configuration

Copper power cables

HTS power cables

DHS Project supports development of a more resilient grid with increased reliability and reduced power outages

Paralleling Urban Buses Building on Project HYDRA

Typical 2-transformer urban substations

VIRTUAL BUS Connection

Virtual Bus must Handle high power flow between the substations Conventional interconnection techniques not practical Normal impedance during steady state operation would limit power transfer Multiple cable circuits would be required

Paralleling low-side buses with conventional technology is not practical

Paralleling Urban Buses: HTS Solution

Typical 2-transformer urban substations

4000A
Load Current

HTS Cable Advantages Low impedance allows for efficient power transfer Ampacity of HTS cable capacity requires only one circuit e.g. 100MVA at 15kV Reduced external EMF and heat generation simplifies placement

HTS Cable Enables Low Side Interconnection

Paralleling Urban Buses: Addressing Fault Currents

Typical 2-transformer urban substations

Fault Current Contribution With Fault Current Limiting HTS Cable Reduced Fault Current Contribution

60,000A 30,000A

Fault Current Limiting HTS Cable provides many benefits: Reduces the fault current that flows through the HTS cable Reduces fault current contribution to faults on either substation bus Eliminates need to replace or upgrade station equipment Fault Current Limiting HTS Cable makes low side networking practical

Paralleling Urban Buses: The Appeal

Typical 2-transformer urban substations

Typical Loading Practice

Total Load 60% total transformer MVA

Total Load 60% total transformer MVA

Advantages of Paralleled Substations Simple Case Connect additional load without additional transformers or new substations Increases transformer asset utilization Reduces cost of N-1 contingency planning; Only 1 transformer required versus 2 Increased interconnectivity protects vulnerable, critical loads in the event of a catastrophic failure Paralleling Dense Urban Load Centers Leads to Operational Efficiencies

Paralleling Urban Buses Increased Asset Utilization

Transformer Asset Utilization TS Inteconnected Substations; n-1 Criteria


100%

Transformer Asset Utilization TS Inteconnected Substations; n-2 Criteria


100%

Transformer Asset Utilization

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% None 2 3 4 5


2 XFRMR 3 XFRMR 4 XFRMR 5 XFRMR

Transformer Asset Utilization

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% None 2 3 4 5


3 XFRMR 4 XFRMR 5 XFRMR

Number of Interconnected Substations

Number of Interconnected Substations

Interconnecting Substations increases transformer asset utilization* Improves financial performance measures Reduces the number of transformers required to serve load
* Theoretical limits

Paralleling Urban Buses Serving Additional Load

HTS Interconnected Substation Loading Increase Capability; n-1 Criteria


100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2 3 4 5

HTS Interconnected Substation Loading Increase Capability; n-2 Criteria


180% 160%

% Increased Load Capability

% Increased Load Capability

140% 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 2 3 4 5


3 XFRMR 4 XFRMR 5 XFRMR

2 XFRMR 3 XFRMR 4 XFRMR 5 XFRMR

Number of Interconnected Substations

Number of Interconnected Substations

Interconnecting Substations significantly increases load serving capability* Significantly reduces need to expand or build new substations
* Theoretical limits

Segregated (Remote) Substation

Larger, HV station components located where space is available

HTS CABLE

MV HTS cable acts as low impedance, high capacity, virtual bus between transformer and switching stations Reuse existing ROW Simplified placement due to lower voltage level FCL HTS cable may reduce MV breaker requirements

Smaller, remotely located, lower voltage switching station in space or real-estate constrained location

Permits new substation construction in spite of severe real estate constraints

Segregated (Remote) Substation

Multiple HV stations located where space is available to provide for contingency planning

MV HTS cables provide links and fault current control


HTS CABLE HTS CABLE

HTS Cables can be consistent with tradition reliability design practices

Overcoming Transmission Line Siting Dilemmas


Underground construction Preferred by the public Better storm performance HTS offers simplified burial requirements Space efficient Lower voltage option simplifies siting Environmental benefits No EMF emissions Environmentally friendly insulation system Positive public relations

Power system reliability and load growth requires new interconnections to strengthen the grid and supply new load

G G G G
Substation A Substation B

HTS Cables Very Attractive to Address Transmission Siting Issues

Simplifying Transmission Siting


One OneMV MVHTS HTSCable Cablecan canreplace: replace: Many Manyconventional conventionalunderground underground circuits circuits Overhead Overheadtransmission transmissionline line

Photo courtesy Consolidated Edison

HTS Cables Offer New Options to Siting Power Lines

Connecting Generating Stations to Grid or Any Short, High Power Link


G G G G
Generation Station HTS Section for sensitive or ROW restricted areas Conventional construction for balance of link Grid PCC

Advantageous for short, high power transfer situations Permits use of more compact, easier to site, lower voltages Environmentally and politically preferable underground construction Lower losses Ideal for routes including sensitive or ROW restricted areas HTS Cables Can Ease or Eliminate or Simplify Short Link Issues

Grid Congestion
Load Current Load Current

Generation

G G
Undesired Loop Flow

Load

Grid Congestion has many causes Insufficient line ampacity Overloaded critical assets and circuits Undesired loop flows Stability issues

Line loading, equipment & operational limitations can lead to grid congestion

HTS Cable Can Alleviate Grid Congestion


During normal operating conditions, the HTS cable is a low impedance path and allows for the transfer of large amounts of power. Reduced
line losses

Load Current Load Current

Increased line loading Reduced loading on assets

Generation

G G

HTS Cable
High Normal Current Low Fault Current

Load

Load Current

Numerous benefits accrue: Increased corridor transfer capability of the corridor Reduced loading on parallel circuits Improved efficiency from lower I2R losses on all lines

During Faults HTS Cable Limits Fault Currents


When an HTS cable with resistive FCL capability becomes resistive during a fault, the fault current must use relatively lower impedance paths
Fault Current

Generation

G G

HTS Cable
High Normal Current Low Fault Current

Fault

Fault Current

Increased Fault impedance increases total circuit fault impedance

The HTS cable results in higher system impedance during faulted conditions lowering overall fault current magnitudes

Conventional Vs. Project Hydra Style HTS Cable

Fault Current Level Change (kA) Scenario Base Case 2nd Conventional Cable Replacement HTS Cable MVA Transfer Capacity Increase 230 MVA Base +230 +248 Sub#1 42 kA +5 -12 Sub #2 56 kA +2 -3

Installing HTS Cable in the grid simultaneously can increase power transfer capability and manages fault current levels

Summary

HTS Cable Systems offer solutions unavailable or impractical until now As utilities are exposed to HTS cable concepts, applications become apparent Most utility personnel have had little exposure to HTS cables and their characteristics This exposure is for the most part limited to a utilitys advanced technology or R&D functions i.e., those that are exposed to normal planning issues are not considering HTS solutions The industry must undertake an Educational Awareness program to ensure HTS cables become part of the engineers toolset

HTS cable applications are nascent Education is required to spur demand

Technology & Engineering Division

Development of HTS Cables for DC Power Transmission and Distribution


Joseph V. Minervini Leslie Bromberg Makoto Takayasu Christopher Miles and Nicholas R. LaBounty

MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center


Eighth Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Doubletree, Oak Ridge, TN ~ November 12 13, 2008

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

Technology & Engineering Division

Outline

HTS DC Advantages Cable Design Concepts Chubu-MIT HTS DC Cable Collaboration Long Length Cooling Current Lead Cooling Potential Near Term Application Conclusions

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

DC Superconducting Transmission Line


Technology & Engineering Division

Advantages: No DC resistive losses No AC inductive storage Low or no AC losses Long range transmission of high currents, including undersea Very high power ratings including transmission of several GVA Fault currents limited by fast acting inverters at AC/DC and DC/AC ends of the line Low voltage transmission, if desired, limiting the need for high voltage transformers Simplified cable design, more amenable to using HTS tape geometry Cable coolant also used to cool solid state inverters increasing capacity and reducing high temperature aging degradation Disadvantages: Invertors can add substantially to cost
Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

Technology & Engineering Division

HTS DC Applications

HTS DC increases efficiency for long distance transmission Opens other advanced technology opportunities:
Direct connection of alternative low-carbon or carbon-free power sources:
Wind Solar PV Fuel Cell Microturbine other

Grid independence

Connection of advanced energy storage devices


Flywheel Battery Supercapacitor Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) other

System Stability and Power Quality

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

Technology & Engineering Division

Off-Shore Wind Farm Power Transmission Using HTS DC Cable


DC-to-AC Power Conversion HTS DC Transmission Cables

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

Technology & Engineering Division

Solar Photovolatic or Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Transmission Using HTS DC Cable Solar PV CSP

Solar and Wind

Transmit DC before conversion?

DC Power

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

DC Superconducting Power Transmission Line Experiment in Chubu University & Collaboration with MIT Prof. Satarou Yamaguchi Dept. of Electrical Engineering
yamax@isc.chubu.ac.jp

Center of Applied Superconductivity and Sustainable Energy Research (CASER)

Experimental Device in Chubu University


Parameters current > 2.5 kA voltage > 20 kV length ~ 20 m Sumitomo Bi-2223 cable coolant; LN2 equipped with pump and cryogenic cooler 72 K - 77 K

SC Cable
former copper wires HTS Tape x 39 insulation 30kVDC

Photo of cross-section
insulation layer HTS Tape center hole for coolant path inner spring former copper wires

earth layer

40

1st layer; 19 Tape conductor 2nd layer; 20 Insulation Volt.

Bi-2223/ 100A grade Insulator, PPPL Center hole 14

Side View
made by Sumitomo

DC20kV 40

Outer radius

Technology & Engineering Division

MIT High Current HTS DC Cable Designs Carpet Stack Twisted Triplets

Multiple Layers Triplet

Wedge Stack Twisted Triplets

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

Technology & Engineering Division

Use Basic Carpet Stack


tapes can be insulated or soldered

Square or rectangular stack Base element former can be


conducting non-conducting Structural

Tape shape requires relatively long twist pitches


AC losses not an issue for DC applications

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

Technology & Engineering Division

25 kA at T = 65 K - 77 K Carpet Stack triplets have highest Je Allows for smaller cryostat and lower heat leak Carpet Stack and wedge base conductors allow many variations on cable patterns and total tape number

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

Technology & Engineering Division

Potential Opportunity
Data Server Centers

In 2006, electricity consumed by servers in U.S. data Google datacenter near The Dalles Dam centers (including cooling and auxiliary infrastructure) represented about 1.5 percent of national electricity use*.

Internet data center consumes ~ 12 kW/m2.


10 MW-50 MW+ total capacity in new centers

DC may be preferred
Minimizes conversion losses
~7-10% energy savings migrating to DC

No reactive power Power multiplier: for 1 W dissipation saved, 1.5 - 2 W cooling eliminated
*Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Aug. 2, 2007
Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

Technology & Engineering Division

Expected Data Server Center Power Growth

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

G. Lawton, Powering Down the Computing Infrastructure, Computer, IEEE, 40, issue 2, p 16-19, Feb. 2007.

DC Distribution Demonstration Developed by LBNL and Industry Partners

Measured Best in Class AC System Loss Compared to DC


~9-12% efficiency improvement measured by elimination of transformer and second AC/DC conversion William Tschudi, LBNL

Benefits of 400Vdc

PV

AC Distribution
DC 300- DC/AC 400V
DC/AC AC/DC

Lighting loads

Ballast FC 60 Hz AC 480V
AC/DC DC/AC AC/DC DC/DC
VR

Electronic loads

PSU
Motor loads
AC/DC DC/AC AC/DC DC/AC

ASD

Slides courtesy of Annabelle Pratt-Intel

Benefits of 400Vdc

PV

Facility Level
DC 300- DC/AC 400V

X
AC/DC DC/AC

X XX

X
AC/DC

Lighting loads
DC/AC

Ballast
Electronic loads
DC/DC
VR

FC 60 Hz AC 480V

X
AC/DC

PSU
Motor loads

AC/DC

X
DC/AC

X
AC/DC

DC/AC

ASD

Slides courtesy of Annabelle Pratt-Intel

Benefits of 400Vdc

400V DC facility with DG


DC 300- DC/DC 400V
DC/AC

Lighting loads

Ballast 60 Hz AC 480V
Electronic loads
DC/DC DC/DC
VR

AC/DC

PSU
Motor loads
AC/DC DC/AC

ASD

Slides courtesy of Annabelle Pratt-Intel

Benefits of 400Vdc

400V DC facility with SC Bus


DC 300- DC/DC 400V
DC/AC

Lighting loads

Ballast 60 Hz AC 480V
Electronic loads
DC/DC DC/DC
VR

AC/DC

PSU
Motor loads
AC/DC DC/AC

ASD

Slides courtesy of Annabelle Pratt-Intel

Technology & Engineering Division

4400 Ampere Cable Sizes

Copper - Air cooled

Copper - Water cooled

HTS- LN2 Cooled

1.75 Diameter cable 325 A per cable 14 Cables 35 lbs/ft

0.605 Diameter cable 133 A per cable 33 Cables 8 lbs/ft

1.75 Diameter up to 30 Conductors up to 200 Amps per Conductor 1 Cable 2.0 lbs/ft

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

Very High Power Density is Achievable with Superconductors

x 10 = 4000 A @ 0 Voltage

Technology & Engineering Division

Schematic 10MW, 400V, 25 kA Data Center Layout

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

Technology & Engineering Division

Technology Needed to Implement SC Distribution As opposed to transmission, there are a large number of secondary spurs, with relatively high density (depending on application) Refrigeration losses dominated by leads, not by distributed cryostat or AC losses Need to address the problem of
Electrical connections through low-loss leads Cooling manifolding

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

Technology & Engineering Division

Summary of Preliminary System Analysis


MIT Energy Initiative Seed Fund - 2008

Power Dissipation with Standard Leads (kW)


Power Loss HTS + Cu
(2007)

Power Loss HTS + Cu


(2008-2011)

Power Loss HTS + Cu (2012-2016) 10 0.225 10.225 118 16 134

Power Loss All Cu

HTS Leads HTS Cryostat HTS Cold Power Total Refrigerator Wall Power Copper Bus Total Electrical System Power

10 0.45 10.450 300 16 316

10 0.225 10.225 177 16 193

250 250

Current lead loss is 0.05 W/A-lead


Navigant Consulting costing predictions of SC components in 2008-2012:
http://www.energetics.com/meetings/supercon06/pdfs/Plenary/07_Navigant_HTS_Market_Readiness_Study.pdf
Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

Technology & Engineering Division

MITEI Seed Fund Study (contd)

Power Dissipation with Optimized Leads (kW)


Power Loss HTS + Cu
(2007)

Power Loss HTS + Cu


(2008-2011)

Power Loss HTS + Cu


(2012-2016)

Power Loss All Cu System

HTS Leads HTS Cryostat HTS Cold Power Total Refrigerator Wall Power Copper Bus Total Electrical System Power

5 0.450 5.450 157 16 173

5 0.225 5.225 90 16 106

5 0.225 5.225 60 16 76 250 250

Current lead loss is 0.025 W/A-lead achieved by intermediate cooling stage


Navigant Consulting costing predictions of SC components in 2008-2012:
http://www.energetics.com/meetings/supercon06/pdfs/Plenary/07_Navigant_HTS_Market_Readiness_Study.pdf
Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

Technology & Engineering Division

MITEI Seed Fund Study (contd)

Capital Costs (k$)


Capital Costs HTS + Cu 2007 HTS Tape HTS Cryostat HTS Refrigerator HTS Total Copper Bus Total Capital Cost 2,800 200 1,050 Capital Costs HTS + Cu 2008-2011 560 130 640 Capital Costs HTS + Cu 2012-2016 112 44 260 Capital Costs All Cu

4,050 11 4,061

1,330 11 1,341

416 11 427 160 160

Navigant Consulting costing predictions of SC components in 2008-2012:


http://www.energetics.com/meetings/supercon06/pdfs/Plenary/07_Navigant_HTS_Market_Readiness_Study.pdf

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

Technology & Engineering Division

MITEI Seed Fund Study (contd)

Operating Costs of Power ($/Hr)


Operating Costs 2007 HTS (standard leads) HTS (optimized leads) All Copper HTS Payback Period (standard leads) HTS Payback Period (optimized leads) 31.69 17.26 25.07 Never 57 Years Operating Costs 2008-2011 19.27 10.62 25.07 23 Years 9.2 Years Operating Costs 2012-2016 13.38 7.61 25.07 2.6 Years 1.75 Years

Electricity cost = $0.10/kW-Hr

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

Technology & Engineering Division

Summary

Use of HTS could open innovative opportunities in datacenters for decreased power consumption, flexibility and easy of construction Application to data server centers is a near term application with potential large efficiency gains Short time scale implementation allows further development for other MicroGrid applications with similar technology Establishes technology for:
Bringing large-scale power to land from offshore wind farms Combining large-scale solar PV or solar thermal systems to the grid Long distance power transmission and/or grid interconnects

Optimized DC cable, cryostat and current leads require development program

Portions reprinted, with permission, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Joseph Minervini.

A High-Power Superconducting DC Cable


W. V. Hassenzahl Eighth Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference 11/13/2008

Outline
The team Visions Past and Present Why a superconducting DC cable Program goals Design concept Design process

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

The team

Steve Eckroad Bill Hassenzahl Paul Grant Brian Gregory Stig Nilsson

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

Why a SC DC Cable
High Power Capacity pluses and minuses Negligible losses resistive and AC Physical Dimensions Small vs. Power Lines Security High Current and Relatively Low Voltage Reliability Versatility Efficiency Lower Life Cycle Cost

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

Why operate near 77 K?


To answer this question we need to explore conductor costs and the life cycle energy demands of an installed cable

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

Why operate near 77 K?


To answer this question we need to explore conductor costs and the life cycle energy demands of an installed cable

Caution Comparisons are model specific.

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

Why A DC Cable near 77K?


77 K a real sweet spot

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

Program Goals
Design a Superconducting DC Cable System that meets future utility needs and requirements.
Recognize high power limitations of local AC system Assess power levels and cable lengths Note power independent costs of proposed design

Use existing engineering capability for materials and fabrication processes.


Structural Materials Cryogenics and vacuum Power Converters Superconductors Not the driver!

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

2 SC DC Cable Systems
Assessed power levels and cable lengths
Regional 2 GW <300 km Inter regional 10 GW >500 km multiple power feeds and loads redundant cables in each circuit redundant converters

Selected two cable systems for Reference Designs Established a simple set of design requirements

Iterative Process

Power Levels, Ranges, and Limits I and V Conductors, other materials, standard practices Metal Sheath OD and Vacuum shell piece length Metal Sheath OD and Spool Sizes Cable section lengths, i.e., Unit length between joints Heat loads Cryogenic Requirements Fluid Flow Area Cryogenic Diameter and stop joint Vacuum requirement Outer Shell ID
An SC-DC Cable 9

11/13/08

Power Ranges - I and V


Regional 2 GW 1 GW per SCDC Cable Each cable has full capacity for redundancy ~33.3 kA and ~60 kV* Inter Regional up to 10 GW E.g., power farm to major loads 5 GW per HVDC Cable Each cable has full capacity for redundancy ~100 kA and ~100 kV
* May choose 100 kV

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

10

Design Concept
Details of cross section depend on operational conditions Figure includes recent changes to accommodate ground issues raised by AC/DC Integration team Approximate diameter 12 cm

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

11

Cable Section Length


V, I, and material properties determine
Metal Sheath OD Cable weight per meter of length Note mechanical properties of insulation require a larger minimum thickness than does voltage standoff

Metal Sheath OD, spool dimensions, and required pulling force determine
cable section length from spreadsheet

Manhole or other access capability required at end of each section for joint preparation Experience with conventional cables is applicable
11/13/08 An SC-DC Cable 12

Heat Loads
Heat sources
Conduction Convection Radiation AC losses = hysteresis from current changes and ripple Cable ends / joints Cryogen flow losses

Use nominal heat load of 1 W/m for initial calculations.

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

13

AC Losses
Two types of heat input in the superconductor
Current ramping and faults Harmonic currents

Several methods for calculating heat input.


Abrupt current decrease can only deliver energy associated with inductance per unit length L/l Energy goes into enthalpy of nitrogen T<0.01K Harmonic currents set limits on converter design and operation

P ( W / m ) 4 10

2 I n n all _ n

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

14

Vacuum
Conduction and convection heat load must be < 0.5 W/m depends on use of mli and quality of vacuum Required vacuum about 2x10-4 Torr
First approach permanently sealed system with getters
Not feasible to guarantee >500 km without leaks.

Second approach vacuum pumps at fixed spacing


Issue is pressure increase from pump to furthest point requires large open cross section Calculation of spacing is based on gas flow from largest leak, conductance of the cable vacuum space, and vacuum pump capacity. Determine that a 0.7 m pipe, 50 liter/s, 10-4 Torr vacuum pumps with every km will meet vacuum needs even if some pumps fail. Pumps need not work full time after operation begins Also, pumps must be able to pump down the cable prior to use
An SC-DC Cable 15

Pump spacing is intimately connected with maximum cable piece length


11/13/08

Cryogenics
Superconductivity requires a low temperature
65 to 70 K for liquid nitrogen Over distances of a 1000 km Small temperature variations
Normal operation ~ 1 K Upset/fault conditions > +5 K

Requires pressurized flow of liquid nitrogen


Pressure of several atm required to limit bubble formation and to maintain consistent dielectric strength This low pressure allows the use of thin walled pipes Which, in turn, limits the allowable pressure rise caused by flow resistance

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

16

Cryogenics
Refrigerator loads and separation
Choice of capacity of each refrigerator depends on
Total heat inflow between refrigerators Need for on line maintenance Operation during and after upset/fault conditions The grid should not know Cool down about refrigerators Cost vs. capacity factors (Optimization for the future) Iterative process among heat load, refrigerator spacing, reliability, etc.

A pressure rise of 2.5 atm. is allowable for an operating pressure of 5 to 10 atm. A flow rate of 5 liters/s can remove 10 kW The associated pressure rise in 10 km is ~3 atm, 45 psi. Choose 5 to 10 km refrigeration spacing.
Pumping/friction power is about 0.2 W/m
11/13/08 An SC-DC Cable 17

Cryogenics Summary
Heat load, allowable temperature rise determine
Minimum cryogen mass flow

Cryogen mass flow and allowable pressure drop determine


total refrigerator capacity and refrigerator spacing.

Refrigerator spacing is an optimization issue.


5 to 10 km is adequate with a 3 to 5 atmosphere pressure drop for liquid nitrogen.

Part of iterative design, but not a driver

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

18

Design Concept

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

19

Factory Assembly
Outer pipe
Standard high pressure gas pipe Special welding and cleaning Reflecting surface on inner diameter Environmental protective outer coating Piece length determined by shipping constraints (?~20 m)

Cryogenic pipe and cryogen return pipe


Corrugated stainless steel Special weld requirements Supported at each end from outer pipe

Superinsulation
Most important 30 to 50 layers between outer pipe and cryogenic components A few layers between the two cold pipes.
11/13/08 An SC-DC Cable 20

Pipe Section and Transport

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

21

On Site Assembly

This procedure is followed for some 50 sections

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

22

Vault and Cable Pulling

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

23

Joints

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

24

Joints
Cable joint Issues
Large number of superconductor tapes/wires Field procedures especially repairs End connections and terminations

Pipe joint characteristics determined by


Manufacturability Cleanliness Superinsulation protection Accommodation of cable pulling loads Thermal contraction associated with cooldown

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

25

Cable Installed

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

26

Cryogenic Vault

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

27

Outer Pipe Summary


Outer pipe diameter >70 cm determined by
Cryogen pipe diameter Vacuum pressure drop Vacuum pumping requirements with redundancy

Outer pipe piece length determined by transportability ~ 20 m maybe 30 m max


Fabricate in plant with mli and cryogen tube
Includes supports for axial and radial motion of cold components Seal in factory for cleanliness

Assemble (weld) pipes and cryogen tubes on site and pull cable from ends.
11/13/08 An SC-DC Cable 28

Gas Pipeline

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

29

SC-DC Cable Program Status


Critical issues for future evaluation
Cable piece length Power converter and grid interface Other existing and new superconductors 100 kA joints Temperature optimization Allowable heat loads Vacuum requirements Details of refrigerator mechanical interface to cable Overall cost evaluation

11/13/08

An SC-DC Cable

30

Power Flow and Transient Stability Impacts of Superconducting DC Cables


Tom Overbye University of Illinois and PowerWorld Corporation Eighth EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12-13, 2008
This presentation is based on work is being performed under contract with EPRI
1

Overview
Goal of this work is to consider the power flow and transient stability impacts of integrating a multi-tap, superconducting DC (SCDC) cable system within the Eastern Interconnect and within the WECC system.
Power levels are up to 10 GW

A dual SCDC cable system is assumed, with the ability to failover with full power in the event of a fault on one of the cables.
Analysis compared different failover scenarios with remaining cable ramping to full power over a few seconds After failover full power is assumed on the remaining cable

Eastern Interconnect Study System


The system studied was the NERC/MMWG 2008 summer peak case from the 2006 series. Case has 48,370 buses, 7397 generators, a total load of 660 GW and total generation of 676 GW. 2006 series dynamic models. Power flow and transient stability runs were done using PowerWorld Simulator version 14. As is common with the MMWG cases, there were many initial line violations (330 lines at >= 100% of A limit MVA, 95 lines >= 120% of A limit MVA)

Eastern Interconnect Route for 10 GW Cable System with Six Stations


2000 MW 2500 MW

2000 MW 1500 MW

10,000 MW of A sy nchronous Generation

2000 MW

System Modifications
System was modified to include the SCDC cable system by adding five new buses (100001 to 100005) with their generation set to match SCDC cable injections. Buses were then connected to existing buses by short lines:
Bus 100001 to 36260 (2.5 GW) Chicago South Bus 100002 to 36421 (2.0 GW) Chicago North Bus 100003 to 31230 (2.0 GW) St. Louis Bus 100004 to 57968 (1.5 GW) Kansas City Bus 100005 to 54901 (2.0 GW) Oklahoma City

The remote source generator(s) was assumed to be operating asynchronous with the rest of the grid.

System Modifications, cont.


Existing generation in areas with SCDC cable injections was reduced to satisfy area ACE requirements. Once the SCDC cable injections were modeled, two new 345 kV lines needed to be added to reduce line loadings.
Between buses 57977 57968 (South of Kansas City) Between buses 57968 59200 (South of Kansas City)

System with SCDC cable was not augmented to make it n-1 secure, but there were no significant base case violations.

Example: Original Kansas City Area Flows and Voltages

Kansas City Area Flows and Voltages with SCDC Cable

Power Flow Conclusions


Integration of the SCDC cable within the existing system will require modifications to the transmission grid similar to those needed to accommodate a new power plant of similar size or a new high voltage transmission line with similar capacity. Any new voltage problems can be corrected by new reactive control devices, such as capacitors or SVCs. Flow changes caused by cable failure would be rapidly corrected by power transfer to the unfaulted cable. Conclusion: From a power flow perspective the integration of the SCDC system is straightforward.

Transient Stability Analysis


Transient stability analysis, the study of whether all the system generators will retain synchronism following a system disturbance, is a critical question. The assumed fault scenario was to apply a balanced, three phase, solid fault at each of the five SCDC cable terminals. The fault was then cleared after three cycles (0.05 seconds). Different scenarios were then considered for the pick in the SCDC injections:
None (both cables failed) Half (no transfer of power from the faulted cable) Half, then ramp to full over either 1 second or 5 seconds

Frequencies for All Generators; Complete Loss of Both Cables

Values are generator frequencies in Hz Minimum Frequency is about 59.58 Hz

Frequencies for Selected Generators; Complete Loss of Both Cables

Example of Governor Response for Loss of 10 GW


Gen 1GASTON5 #5 Mech Input 860 859 858 857 856 Gen 1GASTON5 #5 Mech Input 855 854 853 852 851 850 849 848 847 846 845 844 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Time in Seconds 10 11 12 13 14 15

Gen 1GASTON5 #5 Mech Input

Given a loss of 10 GW for a 676 GW system, a proportional generation increase for this generator would be 0.844/676*10 GW = 12.4 MW. Actual is slightly different because of differing governor characteristics

Frequencies for All Generators; Loss of One Cable; No MW Transfer

Minimum Frequency is about 59.70 Hz

Frequencies for Selected Generators; Loss of One Cable; No MW Transfer

Frequencies for All Generators; Loss of One Cable; 5 Sec MW Ramp

Minimum Frequency is about 59.70 Hz

Frequencies for Selected Generators; Loss of One Cable; 5 Sec MW Ramp

Example of Governor Response for 5 Second Ramp Recovery


Gen 1GASTON5 #5 Mech Input 849

848 Gen 1GASTON5 #5 Mech Input

847

846

845

In previous plot for this governor (for the complete loss of both cables case) the output went up to 860 MW. Now in recovers quite quickly to its precontingency value
10 11 12 13 14 15

844 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Time in Seconds

Gen 1GASTON5 #5 Mech Input

Frequencies for All Generators; Loss of One Cable; 1 Sec MW Ramp

Minimum Frequency is about 59.72 Hz

Frequencies for Selected Generators; Loss of One Cable; 1 Sec MW Ramp

Frequency Response Discussion


With no (or slow) power recovery the maximum frequency drop was about 0.3 Hz (done to 59.7) when only one cable failed (5 GW loss)
Well above highest load shed frequency of 59.3 Hz.

Likely drop could be more because


Study considered peak summer load condition, which has more generators spinning Transient stability cases tend to under-estimate frequency decline since not all governors are available

But the modeled frequency decline tends to match actual results (see next slide)

April 23, 2002 Frequency Response Following Loss of 2600 MW


Decline for 2600 MW was about 0.1 Hz, so 0.3 Hz for 5000 MW is actually slightly high. But chart at left 1) only shows the frequency at one location, not the lowest frequency and 2) measurement delay may have missed the lowest value.

Historical Eastern Interconnect Frequency Response


Our values were about 1700 MW/0.1 Hz for the 5 GW loss case (one cable) and 2500 for the 10 GW Loss case (both cables)
Source: Interconnected Power System Response to Generation Governing: Present Practice and Outstanding Concerns, IEEE Task Force on Large Interconnected Power System Response, IEEE Publication 07TP180, May 2007 (Figure 2-22)

23

Frequency Propagation Animation


The accompanying slide set shows an animation of the frequency for the first four seconds for the 5 second ramp recovery case.

Eastern Interconnect Transient Stability Conclusions


From a transient stability point of view, a 10 GW SCDC cable could be integrated into the existing Eastern Interconnect. Frequency response is fairly insensitive to how quickly the power is transferred from faulted cable to the unfaulted cable (one versus five seconds)
Transfer time does affect how much power needs to be picked up by the generator governors, and for how long.

WECC System
The system studied was the WECC 2010 LA1-SA Approved Base Case. Case has 15,795 buses, 3100 generators, a total load of 106 GW and total generation of 111 GW. 2006 series dynamic models. Power flow and transient stability runs were done using PowerWorld Simulator version 14. Case had several minor initial flow violations. Power flow and contingency limits were not considered
26

WECC SCDC Cable Route: Six Stations, 8.5 GW


Denver: 1500.0 MW

8500 MW Asynchronous Generation

Alburquerque: 1000.0 MW Los Angles: 2500.0 MW

Phoenix2000.0 MW

SanDiego: 1500.0 MW

27

Freq. Deviation for All Generators; Loss of One Cable: Worst Case

28

Freq. Deviation for All Generators; Loss of One Cable; 8 Sec MW Ramp

29

Freq. Deviation for All Generators; Loss of One Cable; 4 Sec MW Ramp

30

Freq. Deviation for All Generators; Loss of One Cable; 2 Sec MW Ramp

31

Freq. Deviation for All Generators; Loss of One Cable; 1 Sec MW Ramp

32

Comparison with Actual WECC Frequency Results


WECC Frequency Responses Tends to be Around 800 or 900 MW/ 0.1 Hz. So a 4.25 GW sustained loss would result in an anticipated frequency decline of close about 0.5 Hz, slightly above the 59.3 load shed threshold.
Source: L. Pereira, et. al., New Thermal Governor Model Selection and Validation in the WECC, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, February 2004, pp. 517-523 (Figure 1).

33

WECC Transient Stability Conclusions


From a transient stability point of view, an 8.5 GW SCDC cable could be integrated into the existing WECC Interconnect provided following a fault the power can be quickly transferred to the unfaulted cable. Quick power transfer (several seconds maximum) can reduce the point of maximum frequency dip, which occurs at about five seconds in both the simulations and with actual system results.

34

Slides Show Locational Variation in Bus Frequency for the 5 Second Ramp Eastern Case
Tom Overbye University of Illinois and PowerWorld Corporation Eighth EPRI Superconductivity Conference November 12-13, 2008
This presentation is based on work is being performed under contract with EPRI
1

Transient Stability Frequency Animation: Time = 0.0 Seconds

Time: 0.1 Seconds

Time: 0.2 Seconds

Time: 0.3 Seconds

Time: 0.4 Seconds

Time: 0.5 Seconds

Time: 0.6 Seconds

Time: 0.7 Seconds

Time: 0.8 Seconds

Time: 0.9 Seconds

Time: 1.0 Seconds

Time: 1.1 Seconds

Time: 1.2 Seconds

Time: 1.3 Seconds

Time: 1.4 Seconds

Time: 1.5 Seconds

Time: 1.6 Seconds

Time: 1.7 Seconds

Time: 1.8 Seconds

Time: 1.9 Seconds

Time: 2.0 Seconds

Time: 2.1 Seconds

Time: 2.2 Seconds

Time: 2.3 Seconds

Time: 2.4 Seconds

Time: 2.5 Seconds

Time: 2.6 Seconds

Time: 2.7 Seconds

Time: 2.8 Seconds

Time: 2.9 Seconds

Time: 3.0 Seconds

Time: 3.1 Seconds

Time: 3.2 Seconds

Time: 3.3 Seconds

Time: 3.4 Seconds

Time: 3.5 Seconds

Time: 3.6 Seconds

Time: 3.7 Seconds

Time: 3.8 Seconds

Time: 3.9 Seconds

Time: 4.0 Seconds

IssuesAssociatedwitha SuperconductingDCLine FedbyaMultiTerminalVSCSystem


TomBaldwin,FloridaStateUniv. PauloRibeiro,CalvinCollege,and BrianJohnson,Univ.ofIdaho
November12&13,2008

EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference

Outline
EnablingTechnologies:
HighPowerVoltageSourceConverters DCSuperconductingCables

Topologies
MultiTapVSCs Issues

DCPowerControl
Rectifiers/Inverters DealingwithTransientCurrent/PowerVariations PracticalPowerandCurrentLimitations

Discussions

November12&13,2008

EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference

SCDCControlAnalysisandSimulations

SystemParameter SCDCcablelength,l cablepropagationdelay,tDelay ControlVariables maximumvoltageramprate

Value 2000miles 18.6ms Value 40kV/s

Cablemodelfrom Systemmodelfrom

SCDCcableelectricalcharacteristics Parameter Value outerradiusofinnerconductor 17.5mm innerradiusofouterconductor 29.5mm CalculatedQuantities Value inductance,L 104.4nH/m capacitance,C 319.6pF/m characteristicimpedance,Z0 18.08 propagationspeed, 173x106 m/s

W.Hassenzahl,Ahighpowersuperconductingdccable,anEPRIprogram SCDCProjectReviewMeeting,Charlotte,NC,10December2007 S.NilssonandA.Daneshpooy,SimulationofHTSCHVDCsystem, SCDCProjectReviewMeeting,PaloAlto,CA,25July2008


November12&13,2008 EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference 3

TransientOscillationsofDCCables
LongDCcablesystem(>1000km)
thebehavioroftheconvertersareaffectedbythe propagationdelaysintroducedbythecables
thepropagationtimeconstantissimilartoothercable systems withasmallfrequencydependentacresistance providedbySCDCcables,slowertransientsignals (<1kHz)havelittleattenuatedalongthecablelength normalmismatchesbetweentheconverterimpedance andthecablecharacteristicimpedancecausemostof thetransientsignalenergytoreflectbackintothe cable
November12&13,2008 EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference 4

Rectifier Terminal-Voltage Control

Rectifier Terminal-Voltage Level

Inverter Terminal-Voltage Level

voltagerampingtoprecharge thevoltageintheSCDCcable

voltagecontrolattherectifier maintainsthedcterminal voltageatnearlyconstantvalue forloadcurrentchanges

voltagelevelattheinverter terminalexhibitsavoltagesag duringtherampingupofthe loadcurrent

Inverter Terminal-Current Control

Rectifier Terminal-Current Injection

Inverter Terminal-Current Injection

ringingofthecurrent feedingthecable currentrampingto fullloadattherate of5kApersecond

complementary ringingofthecurrent attheinverter terminalofthecable

November12&13,2008

EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference

RampRateLimitsforLongCables
Apropervoltageprofileis Thepropagationdelayand maintainedattheconverter mismatchofthecables withvoltagecontrol characteristicimpedancewith theconvertersimpedance Thevoltageataconverter resultsinadecayingoscillation withcurrentcontrolsagsand swellsduetotheinductance Theramprateofthecurrent oftheSCDCcable affectthemagnitudesofthe voltagesags,swells,andringing
Sags for the 2000-mile SCDC cable Case Peak Idc Greatest Vdc Average Vdc Ramp Rate Sag Sag Run #1 1 kA/s -0.38% (79.7 kV) -0.19% (79.85 kV) Run #2 2 kA/s -0.88% (79.3 kV) -0.44% (79.65 kV) Run #3 5 kA/s -2.75% (77.8 kV) -1.38% (78.90 kV) Run #4 10 kA/s -5.50% (75.6 kV) -2.75% (77.80 kV) Run #5 20 kA/s -11.0% (71.2 kV) -5.50% (75.60 kV)
November12&13,2008 EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference 6

ImpactofCableLength
1000milecable

Simulationparameters
80kV,10kA,two terminalSCDCcable currentcontrolterminal: 2kA/secramprate

Graphsofvoltageripple
2000milecable

0.302%V_offset 0.554%V_ripple 4000milecable

0.583%V_offset 1.108%V_ripple
November12&13,2008

1.13%V_offset 2.22%V_ripple
EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference 7

VSCModel

SingleDCpoleoperation andaSCDCcablewith groundreturn sheath

November12&13,2008

EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference

TransientOscillations

1000kmTypicalDCCable

November12&13,2008

EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference

TransientOscillations

1000kmSmallResistanceDCCable

November12&13,2008

EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference

10

TransientOscillations

1000kmNearSuperconductingDCCable

November12&13,2008

EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference

11

TransientOscillations
1000kmNearSuperconductingDCCable

November12&13,2008

Current[kA]

EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference

12

Comments
PSCADsimulationsshow
thattheoperationoftheVSCconvertersseemto workadequatelyasfarasthecontrolofvoltageis concerned howeverthecurrenttransientsontheDClinefor nearsuperconductingconditionsafteranACfault areextremelysevereandneedstobedealtwith creativesolutionsandmaynotbeeasilyachieved

November12&13,2008

EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference

13

ControlSchemes
Multiterminalsystems
extensionsofthepointtopointsystemcontrol concepts(basedonthenotionofcontrolmodes)
voltageregulationmodeatoneconverterstation
generallyappliedtoarectifyingconverter

currentregulationmodeatallotherconverterstations

November12&13,2008

EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference

14

DCVoltageDroopControl
Adistributedvoltageregulationschemefor controllingcurrentinjections
similartofrequencypowerregulationinacgrids
achangeinvoltageusedtosignalthecontrolsystemto meetchangesinpowerdemand(currentinjections) naturalregulationrequiringnocommunications

performsbestonaSCDCmeshorparallelnetwork
eachofthenodesreachthesamesteadystatevoltage level

November12&13,2008

EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference

15

DynamicsofDroopControl
Thedroopdynamiccomponents
VSCrectifiersequivalentsourceimpedance DCcapacitorsattheterminalsofeachconverter SCDCcableinductance SCDCpropagationdelayforlonglines(>1000km)

Droopdynamicrange
thebuiltindroopofarectifyingconverterisquite small(e.g.,10sMW/0.001pu ofV)
simplifiesthepowerregulationatinvertingconverters largechangesinthedcvoltagecanindicatesystem problemsandtriggerloadsheddingasnecessary
November12&13,2008 EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference 16

DynamicswithLongSCDCCables
Twoofthelongcabledynamiccharacteristics causeavoltagedifferentialacrosstheSCDC cable
inductance propagationdelay

Controlschememustaccountforthe propagationdelayofthecable
delayvalues:1msto25ms

November12&13,2008

EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference

17

TwoCableSystem
Proposedfromareliabilityperspective
twinconvertersandtwincablesrunninginparallel crossoverswitchesforaddressingfaultedsections

Fromacontrolperspective:
usingbothcablessimultaneouslypermitsa doublingofthecurrentrampratesforaspecified sag,swell,andripplerequirement inthecaseofafailure,halfofthefullrated currentwouldneedbetransferredtothe remaininggoodcableorconverter
November12&13,2008 EighthEPRISuperconductivityConference 18

Pulse Tube Cryocooler Refrigeration System for HTS Cables


Praxair, Inc.
Greg Henzler November 13, 2008

8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference

Copyright 2008, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

Outline
Praxair Pulse

introduction

tube cryocooler technology OH cryocooler experience

Columbus, HTS

refrigeration system layout

2
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Copyright 2008, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

Praxair at a Glance

A Fortune 300 company Sales of $9.4 billion in 2007 Largest industrial gas company in North America Operations in more than 30 countries One million customers worldwide 28,000 employees

3
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Copyright 2008, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

Strategic Global Position


Industrial Gases Sales by Region
2007 Sales $9.4 billion

North America 55%

Europe 14%

Asia 8%

South America 17%


Excludes worldwide sales of Praxair Surface Technologies (6% of total sales)
4
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Copyright 2008, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

On-Site Supply Business Model

Plants are located on customer sites


z

Air separation, H2 and other types of plants

Owned, operated, maintained and updated by Praxair Remote operation and monitoring Reliably supply product 24/7 Critical customers include
z z z z

Hospitals Chemical plants Semiconductor fabs Steel mills

Praxair is viewed as a gas utility by many of our customers


5
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Copyright 2008, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

Praxairs Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

Pressure wave generator (PWG) converts electrical energy into acoustical energy Coldhead and inertance network convert acoustical energy into refrigeration capability

Coldhead Inertance Network Coldhead Vacuum Container

Process Lines Inertance Tank PWG

Linear Motors with Pistons


6
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Copyright 2008, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pulse Tube Benefits


No moving parts in cold end No connecting rods No wearing parts No bearings No oil

Long life High reliability Low maintenance High Carnot efficiency Small modular footprint Low noise and vibration Environmentally friendly

Key enabler of HTS cable technology!


7
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Copyright 2008, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pulse Tube Basics


Linear Motor Aftercooler Regenerator Warm Heat Exchanger Pulse Tube Reservoir

Cold Heat Exchanger

Impedance Network

Major components of electrically driven Pulse-tube cryocoolers


Linear

motor: electrically powered oscillating piston(s) water cooled heat exchanger array of narrow passages - high Cp material

Aftercooler:

Regenerator: Cold

heat exchanger: refrigeration is extracted here tube heat exchanger, impedance network, reservoir, oscillating gas
8
Copyright 2008, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pulse Warm

8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference

PWG & Cold Head Improvements


2nd
z z z

generation PWG
Improved efficiency Increased clearance External thermal management system New drift control system Shorter piston stroke length

z z

2nd
z z z z

generation cold head


Design completed Higher cooling capacity Improved heat transfer Enhanced regenerator
W , r e w o P g n i l o o C
3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 40 60 1kW G2

1K Unit and Gen-2

80

100

120

Tc, K
9
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Copyright 2008, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

Columbus, OH HTS Cable Project

Termination

Cryostat

Refrigeration System

PT Cryocoolers

HTS cable energized 8/8/06


z

~ 20,000 hours of operation


Chiller

2nd gen. PWG energized 8/20/08


z

~ 2,000 hours of operation at site


1 kW Cryocooler

Praxair operates, maintains and monitors refrigeration system System working well
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference

10
Copyright 2008, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

Termination Refrigeration System


A loss At full ofrefrigeration 1 cryocoolerdemand at full refrigeration of demand 5 kW, the results cryocoolers in the remaining operate cryocoolers operating at 85% of at their 98% full of their capacity. full capacity.

Cryocooler Shutdown

Percent of design 98% 97% 95% 93% 91% 89% 87% capacity per cryocooler = 85%

11
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Copyright 2008, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

Refrigeration System for Long Lengths


Cryocoolers at the substations only

cooling channels

RETURN

steel pipe
GO

GO RETURN

cryostat cable

f
f f

f e

f
f f

12
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Copyright 2008, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cooling System Key Components


Pressure
z

Wave Generator (PWG)

Two opposing pistons on linear motors Heat exchangers and regenerator No moving parts

Coldhead
z z

Water
z

chiller

Packaged unit

Cold
z

box

Cryo valves, piping, pumps etc. VFD Temperature, pressure, vibration etc.

Controls
z z

Majority of components are existing technology and readily available.


13
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Copyright 2008, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

Benefits of Independent Cryocoolers


Each If

cryocooler is operated by a single PWG cryocooler acts independently to overall higher reliability redundancy on a smaller scale

a motor fails, then only one cryocooler fails

Each

Leads

Manage More

turndown flexibility

14
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Copyright 2008, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

Conclusions
Praxair

reliably supplies product for critical applications in diverse industries tube cryocoolers are a key enabler for HTS cable applications continues to have significant success with pulse tube cryocooler technology

Pulse

Praxair

15
8th Annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference Copyright 2008, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cost and Performance Comparisons Between HTS And Conventional Utility Power Transformers
Bill Schwenterly Oak Ridge National Laboratory Ed Pleva Waukesha Electric Systems Alan Wolsky Argonne National Laboratory
November 13, 2008 8th EPRI Superconductivity Conference

Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

OUTLINE
z Design assumptions z Overview of design spreadsheet z Capital and Operating Cost Comparison z Efficiency Comparison z Weight and Dimension Comparison z Other Design Issues z Summary of Requirements

Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

HTS Unit Design Summary


z 25-MVA rating; 115 kV / 13.09 kV; 72 A / 1103 A z YBCO winding in pressurized, subcooled nitrogen bath
z HV Disc, 10 turns/disc z LV Transposed screw, 8 wide or 16 narrow tapes in parallel z Wrapped insulation on conductors z Co-wound 1-mm copper

z Pressurized bath is coupled to cryocooler by cooling


shell.
z Air-cooled compressors

z Composite dewar
z Metal dewar would form a shorted turn around core.

z Core in air
3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

Conventional vs. HTS Unit Ratings Comparison


z Conventional Unit
z 15/20/25-MVA ratings with no fans/1-stage fans/2-stages fans. z 30 minute operation at 50 MVA with increasing winding temperature.

z HTS Unit
z Cryocoolers are sized for 25-MVA heat load. z HTS is sized for 50-MVA load with Ipeak < Ic. z 15/20/25-MVA ratings with cryocoolers cycled to match heat loads at lower ratings. z 30 minute operation at 50 MVA with liquid nitrogen boiloff. z Current leads are sized for 125% of 25-MVA current. z Maximum current lead temperature rises to 120C at 50 MVA with increased heat load.

Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

Transformer Schematic
Bushings Cryocooler Core
Foam

Winding

Removable Top Plate

Cooling Shell Shield

Composite Coil Dewar

Unit is surrounded by weather enclosure in place of oil tank.

Pressurized Subcooled Nitrogen

Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

Single-Phase Transformer Concept


138-kV Bushing Core AL-300 Cryocooler Composite Dewar Cooling Shell

Winding Pack

Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

Common Dewar for 3-Phase Unit


Stainless outer jacket

Composite core limb jackets and winding vessels

Composite top & bottom plates

Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

Overview of HTS Unit Design Spreadsheet


z Inputs:
z Ratings and voltages; overload factor z 5 different volt/turn values can be specified z Conductor dimensions z Winding geometry disc or layer; number of layers or disc turns z Materials properties Ic, cost, density z Wall thickness for coil structure and dewars z Insulation thickness and voltage standoff distances z Refrigerator dimensions, weight, input power, cost

z Outputs:
z Capital and operating costs z Winding, dewar, core, and enclosure dimensions z Weights-conductor, core, dewar z Length of conductor z Lead and ac loss heat loads (Rhyners equations for ac losses) z Room temperature input loss power z % Fault impedance
8 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

15-MVA 30-Year Capital and Operating Costs


z Assumptions: $50/kA-m HTS, 350 A/cm, 0.6 cm width, 70-K Toper z $8.80/kg copper, $4.20/kg steel 120 V/turn z Load losses $1250/kW No-load losses $2500/kW
Item Selling Price No-Load Loss Load Loss TOTAL Oil Containment Fire Suppression Refr. Maintenance (2 AL-600) GRAND TOTAL HTS $680 K $84 K, 34 kW $4K, 3.3 kW $768 K ------$106 K $874 K Conventional $458K $35 K, 14 kW $58K, 46 kW $551 K $30 K $100 K ---$681 K
10

10

Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

High cost of conductor forces minimum in lifetime cost to high volt/turn values.
z V/n gives required number of
turns in a phase.

z V/n = Rcore2
z = 4.44 f Bcore

z Lcond = 2Rcoren = 2V/Rcore z Thus, larger core diameter


reduces conductor length.

11

Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

11

15- and 25-MVA Efficiency


z Assumptions: Refrigerator COP 27 W/W.
z 2 Cryomech AL-600 refrigerators, ea. 560 W at 70 K, 15 kW input power. z HTS and Lead losses are refrigerator input power. Item Load Core Loss AC Loss Lead Loss Copper Loss TOTAL LOSS EFFICIENCY 33.3 kW 99.8 % 15 MVA 2.9 kW 7.4 kW HTS 25 MVA 13.1 kW 8.8 kW ---44.9 kW 99.8 % 46 kW 60 kW 99.6 % 23 kW Conventional 15 MVA 25 MVA 14 kW ------131 kW 145 kW 99.4 %

12

Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

12

15-MVA Dimensions and Weights


z Assumptions: 0.3 m side and 0.1 m top/bottom enclosure clearances
Item Length Width Height 1.65 m 4.22 m including bushings HTS 3.75 m including compressors Conventional 3.02 m 3.33 m including radiators 4.92 m including bushings 9.1 t 39.9 t

Core weight 16.4 t Total weight 24.0 t

13

Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

13

What if conductor cost is lowered?


z Minimum in total cost moves
down and to left as conductor cost falls.

z Capital cost approaches

conventional at $10/kA-m.
z Copper ~$25/kA/m in conventional unit at 3A/mm2. z Capital costs shown are at minimum total lifetime cost.

z Refrigerator cost reduction


($109K in present design) would also help cost comparison.

14

Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

14

z z z z

Assumptions: $20/kA-m HTS, 350 A/cm, 0.6 cm width, 70-K Toper $8.80/kg copper, $4.20/kg steel 70 V/turn Load losses $1250/kW No-load losses $2500/kW Refrigerator cost reduced by half Item Selling Price No-Load Loss Load Loss TOTAL Oil Containment Fire Suppression Refr. Maintenance (2 AL-600) GRAND TOTAL HTS $478 K $60 K, 24 kW $5K, 4 kW $543 K ------$106 K $649 K

15-MVA 30-Year Capital and Operating Costs

Conventional $458K $35 K, 14 kW $58K, 46 kW $551 K $30 K $100 K ---$681 K


15

15

Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

Other Design Issues Fault Handling


z IEEE/ANSI Standards specify a 2-sec total fault duration without
overheating. z Extra copper is needed for fault handling.
z 2-sec requirement leads to large fraction of a conventional units Cu! z 1 mm of copper is adequate for 1/2-sec 10X fault.

z Copper cannot be co-insulated with HTS tape


in advance because the inner conductor buckles during winding.

HTS

Insulation

z HTS tape is too fragile to wind with high-voltage insulation by itself. z Winding on insulation as coil is wound is not practical, especially for multiple conductors in LV winding.

Copper

z Need copper laminated or plated on both sides of the HTS tape,

so that the HTS is on the neutral axis. z This would provide a robust conductor that could be insulated on a high-speed machine.
16 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

16

Other Design Issues Layer Build, Core, AC Losses


z Designs with ~20-turn discs are desirable.
z Core limbs >2 m high are flexible and hard to handle in shop. z Smaller core with shorter limbs and lower losses is possible with more turns in discs. z At constant window area, h/w ratio of = 4/3 minimizes core loss. Window area Aw = hw = w2 = h2/ Core volume Vcore = Acore[3h + 2(2w+3Dcore)] Vcore = Acore[3 Aw + 4 Aw/ + 6Dcore] Derivative = 0 with = 4/3. z BUT-- more turns on a disc raises field on HTS conductor on inner turns and increases ac loss.
h w

z HTS loss reduction needed striations, nano-particles, etc.

17

Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

17

SUMMARY For a competitive HTS


Transformer:
z We need HTS tape cost near $20/kA-m. *(Not including extra Cu) z We need HTS tape with 1/2 mm or more of copper laminated or
plated on each side.

z We need HTS tape with ac loss reduction features such as


striations or nanoparticles.

z We need reduced cryogenic refrigeration costs. z With higher no-load losses and lower load losses than a

conventional unit, an HTS transformer is most appropriate in a base load application where it is loaded most of the time.

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Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy

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