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  • 1. Introduction. Supposea singlecylinder engine produces torque T, andisdriving

a loadwhose torque demand 4, is constant,as depicted in Fig. 1. Obviously,the averageengine torque is equalto the (constant)load torque"

Figure I

  • 2. Energyfluctuations. At pointA, supposethat the rotating parts, including a

flywheel,have kinetic energyU. BetweenA andB, the enginetorque exceeds the loadtorque and there will be an accelerationof theserotating parts; at point B they

will haveenergy U + a. BetweenB andC, the loadtorque exceeds the enginetorque andthere will be a decelerationof theserotating parts; at point C they will have

energyU + a-b " At D theywill haveenergy U + a -b + c, andpointE theywill

haveenergy U +a-b+c-d

-(J,since thecycle starts over again.

  • 3. Maximum and minimum speeds,and accelerations.At pointswhere the engine

torqueis equalto theload torque, points A, B, c andD in Fig.l, thereis no accelerationor deceleration.Such points indicate where (local) matrimumand

minimumspeeds occur. In contrast,point F is wherethere is the greatestexcess of enginetorque above the load torque;this is wherethe accelerationwill be a maximum"

4' FlywheetDesign. Supposethe mar<imum speed ir ,, (which is likely to be at

pointB in Fig 1) andthe minimumspeed is

a4 (whichis likely to be at point E in Fig

1). sincestored rotational kinetic energy is

u =*rrr,


L,(J = *,

@: - ,,4

= :I

(r, * @z)(r, - atr). Now write themean speed as


@^" = ,(at, * az) ; this is anapproximation, but is perfectlyreasonable if



flywheelis to be designedsuch that speedvariation is small. Also write

A'at = (', - a4) to give L(J = I a^*,A,ot " If onewishes to expressthe speedvariation


percentage, thenone can multiply top andbottom by the meanspeed to give


L(J ='Ir'^*,,[ -!q



l, *o therequired moment of inertiawourd be


a U

@i" (l,atfa4" )'

For theexample in Fig. l, LU - b - c + d

5' Variants. Thebasic idea explained above applies equally to whenengine torque

is constant(an electricmotor, say) and the loadvaries (such as a punch),or evenboth

engineand load torques vary throughouta cycle.

6' Example. The furning-moment diagramfor an engineis drawnon a baseof crank

angle,and the meanresisting torque -line is added.The areasabove and below the

meanline are +44A0, -l 150,+1300, -4550 mm' , thescales being I mm : 100Nm

for torque,and I mm = I o for crankangle. Find the massof flywheel requiredto

keepthe speed between2gT and 303 rev/min, if is radiusof gyrationis 0.525m.

(Ans:1a60 kg)

Turning Moment Diagram Example

fui enginedevelops an outputtorque of 1600+ 300sin20 Nm, where d is the crank

anglemea$red from somedatum. This enginedrives a machinewhich requires'a

torqueof 1600+l7OsindNm. Therotating parts have a massof 240kgand radius of

gyration0.5 m. The maximum speeddruing a cycle is observedto b 200 rev/min.


  • (a) the minimum speedduring the cycle

  • (b) the meanpower developed by the engine.

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