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Chapter #11: Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic Big Picture Themes 1.

. Jeffersons election was considered a revolution because he represented the common people for the first time. 2. Troubles in North Africa and between England and France emerged. Jeffersons actions were sluggish. 3. Trying to again avoid war with England or France, Jefferson bumbled around with an embargo. His theory was that the only way to avoid war was to stop interaction between U.S. ships and Europe. The overall effect was to kill U.S. trade and enrage the merchants and businessmen up North. 4. The Louisiana Purchase came as a complete surprise and quickly doubled the size of the U.S. 5. James Madison picked up where Jefferson left off with the embargo in trying to avoid war. But, young western Congressmen wanted war to possibly gain new land, to squelch Indian troubles, and defend the free seas. They declared the War of 1812 with England. IDENTIFICATIONS: Marbury v. Madison One of the aftermaths of the Federalists Judiciary Act of 1801, through which Adams quickly appointed numerous midnight judges before his presidency ended. When Jefferson became president, his security of state, James Madison, took away the commission of one of the midnight judges named William Marbury. In response Marbury sued Madison, resulting in the Marbury v. Madison case in Supreme Court. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that only the Supreme Court had the right of judicial review, determining which laws are unconstitutional. Henry Clay The eloquent and charismatic leader of the War Hawks, an extremist group in Congress, Clay was a distinguished senator from Kentucky. He was a strong supporter of the American System, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as The Great Compromiser. Essex Junto The Essex Junto was a name given to the extreme nationalist wing, led by Timothy Pickering, Senator George Cabot, Theophilus Parsons, and several of the Lowell family of merchants and industrialists in New England. It was also strongly supported and led by Aaron Burr. It opposed the Embargo act and the War of 1812, and strongly pushed for the separation of New England states from the nation. Burr Conspiracy Aaron Burr, Jeffersons first -term vice president, joined a group of extreme Federalists to plot the secession of New England and New York. When Alexander Hamilton foiled Burrs conspiracy, Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel and ended up killing Hamilton. His career in jeopardy, Burr then allied with General James Wilkinson of the Louisiana Territory and planned to separate the western part of the nation from the East and create a new confederacy.

Impressment It is the act of forcing men into the navy by force. This often occurred during the 18 th and 19th centuries, especially during Jeffersons presidency, by the Royal Navy. Although this act was directly against the British constitution, the British often practiced this in order to recruit more men into their navy. Chesapeake/Leopard Incident In 1807, the Chesapeake, an American ship, refused to allow the British on the Leopard to look for deserters, or navy men for impressments. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake, make the United States expel all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology. Non-intercourse Act This act immediately replaced the Embargo Act of 1807 and only placed a ban on imports between America and Britain and France. Although it was intended to hurt the economy of England and France, it proved to be highly ineffective because it was harder enforce on the people. Macons Bill No. 2 After the Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 proved to be unsuccessful, Congress replaced the act with Macons Bill no. 2, which reopened trade with Britain and France, but also asserted that if either country agreed to respect American shipping, America would discontinue trade with the other. In response, Napoleon falsely promises to stop interfering with American shipping, leading to Madison endingall trade and diplomacy with Britain. William Henry Harrison and the Battle of Tippecanoe War Hawks A new sub-party that emerged in 1811. The extreme group focused primarily on raging war with Britain, and consisted of members primarily from the South and the Western Frontier. These War Hawks were able to quickly dominate Congress, especially with its eloquent leader, Henry Clay. Battle of Horseshoe Bend A battle during the War of 1812 in Alabama. In 1814, General Andrew Jackson let American forces and several Indian allies and defeated the Red Sticks, a part of Tecumseh s Creak Indian Tribe. This effectively ended the Creak War between the Native Indians and the American.s Hartford Convention In 1814, Massachusetts issued a call for a convention at Hartford, Connecticut. Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island had full delegations, while New Hampshire and Vermont sent partial representation. These men met in complete secrecy from December 15, 1814 to January 5, 1815, to discuss their grievances and to seek redress for their wrongs. Despite alarming claims, the convention was quite moderate and only demanded financial assistance from Washington to compensate for lost trade, sought to abolish the 3/5 clause in the Constitution and prohibit the

election of two successive presidents from the same state. However, when these New England delegates went to the Capitol to present their complaints, the recent victory at New Orleans made their requests almost treasonous. This marked the death of the Federalist party. Treaty of Ghent Essentially an armistice, the Treaty of Ghent was signed on Christmas Eve in 1814. Both sides agreed to stop fighting and restored conquered territory. The War Hawks made numerous omissions of grievances such as the Indian menace, search and seizure, Orders in Council, impressments and confiscations. This war ended in a virtual draw. Treaty of Greenville 1795 The treaty that resulted from the Battle of Fallen Timbers, fought against Little Turtle and the Miami Confederacy. Abandoned by the British, the Native American Indians soon offered General Anthony Wayne a peace treaty after they were greatly defeated. The treaty made the confederacy give up vast tracts of the Old Northwest, but also gave them a payment of $20,000, an annual annuity of $9,000 the right to hunt on the lands they had ceded, and the recognition of their sovereign status. Battle of New Orleans The third British attempt of invasion was aimed at New Orleans, menacing the entire Mississippi Valley. Andrew Jackson, was placed in command here, and had a force of seven thousand sailors, regulars, pirates, Frenchmen, and militiamen from Louisiana, Kentucky and Tennessee. In this battle, the overconfident British created a major blunder by launching a frontal assault on January 1815. GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: Federalist and Republican Mudslingers Know: John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Whispering Campaign 1. What political liabilities existed for Adams and for Jefferson in 1800? Adams Alien and Sedition Acts brought much opposition from the republicans by 1800, and the Federalists under Hamilton were upset with President Adams when he avoided the glorious war with France. When Adams refused to even fight the French, the people were very upset because the feverish war preparations had increased public debt and new taxes. Jefferson, on the other hand, was attacked on his character, and accused of having numerous mulatto children with one of his slaves, Sally Hemings. He also was criticized by clergy men that he was an alleged atheist. The Jeffersonian "Revolution of 1800" Know: Aaron Burr 2. Was the 1800 election more or less important than the 1796 election? Explain. The 1800 election was more important than the 1796 election, because it was a major shift in power, without any blood shed or violence. In 1796, the Federalists still kept power in the federal government. In 1800, however, Thomas Jefferson and the Republicans were able to overthrow the Federalists and take over, democratically.

3. If the Federalists had power for such a short time, were they really that important? Explain. Yes, because the Federalists set certain precedents that Jefferson may not have established because he was a Republican. They had an effective, although not exactly fair, way of raising revenue for the government and establishing order and economy into the young nation. They also were very efficient and wanted the country to grow in manufacturing. Responsibility Breeds Moderation Know: Pell-mell 4. How revolutionary was the "Revolution of 1800?" After the election of Thomas Jefferson, there was a first party overturn in American history. It also proved that Washington may have been wrong and that America may survive with two opposing parties. In his presidency, Jefferson also established precedents himself, he began to establish more democratic principles and practices, like the rule of pell-mell and addressing the Congress through a clerk. Jeffersonian Restraint Know: Albert Gallatin 5. "As president, Thomas Jefferson acted more like a Federalist than like a Democratic Republican." Assess. Thomas Jefferson, who strongly opposed Hamilton and his Federalists ideas during Washingtons and Adams presidencies, actually kept most of Hamiltons plan. The only part that he repealed was the excise tax, and ended actually adding more tariffs to increase government revenue. The Republicans also later chartered a bigger bank instead of attacking the Bank of the nation. The "Dead Clutch" of the Judiciary Know: Judiciary Act of 1801, Midnight Judges, John Marshall, Marbury v. Madison, Samuel Chase 6 What was the main purpose of John Marshall as Chief Justice? How can this be seen in the Marbury v. Madison decision? John Marshall was appointed as Chief Justice in order keep Federalist power and control in the federal government even during Jeffersons pr esidency. This can be seen in the Marbury v. Madison case, in which Marshall ruled that only the Supreme Court has the final authority to determine the meaning of the Constitution. This is also known as the judicial review. Jefferson, a Reluctant Warrior Know: Barbary States, Shores of Tripoli, Gunboats 7. How did Jefferson deal with the extortion of the Barbary States? Jefferson had to go into war with the Barbary States when the North African states began attacking the American navy and ships. Although very reluctant, Jefferson dispatched an infant navy to the shores of Tripoli. After four years of fighting, Jefferson was able to get a peace treaty from Tripoli in 1806 and the bargain price of $60,000.

The Louisiana Godsend Know: New Orleans, Deposit Privileges, James Monroe and Robert Livingston, Napoleon, Toussaint L'Ouverture Explain two ways that history may have been different if the French had not sold Louisiana to the United States. If the French had not sold Louisiana to the United States, United States would have lost the vital control of the New Orleans city, which was at the mouth of the Mississippi River, an essential waterway for trading. Moreover, Jefferson, who desperately needed control of the Mississippi, wouldve been forced to go into an alliance with the British to fight French for the land. Louisiana in the Long View Know: Lewis and Clark, Sacajawea, Zebulun Pike 9. What positive consequences resulted from the Louisiana Purchase? The Louisiana Purchase gave America the richest river valley in the world, which laid the foundations of a future major power. The vast land now allowed the agrarian economy that Jefferson had envisioned. The Louisiana Territory now gave America dominance over the European powers, because it had doubled in size with the new purchase. America: A Nutcracked Neutral Know: Orders in Council, Impressment, Chesapeake 10. In what way did the struggle between France and Britain affect the United States? The struggle between France and Britain mostly affected the United Stated economically. Britain, wanting to gain dominance in imports and trading, issued the Orders of Council, which forced all ships, including American ships, to stop at British ports first. In response, the French began attacking all ships that visited British ports, leaving American ships attacked either way. The Hated Embargo Know: Embargo Act, Non-Intercourse Act 11. Who opposed the embargo and why? All citizens were opposed to the embargo, including the South. The ban on all commerce and imports drastically depleted the New England manufacturing and shipping industry. However, not only the rich businessmen were affected by the Act. The South, which relied on its imported tobacco, cotton and grain, was not able to export its goods due to the embargo. Madisons Gamble Know: James Madison, Macon's Bill No. 2 12. How did Napoleon take advantage of American policy? Because Napoleon wanted to control American and British trade, he found a chance to control both by releasing a very ambiguous message, which stated that the French would repeal its decrees if the British lifted its Orders in Council. His ambiguous message made America reopen trade with the French, while continuing its embargo on Britain, facilitating Napoleon s plan.

Tecumseh and the Prophet Know: War Hawks, Henry Clay, Tecumseh, The Prophet, William Henry Harrison 13. What considerations motivated the war hawks to call for war with Great Britain? The fact that the British Orders in Council stopped the flow of American trade, especially western farm products, angered the War Hawks and made them call for war with England. The War Hawks were also especially angered by the Indian tribes, led by Tecumseh and The Prophet, who went into an alliance with the British after the Battle of Tippecanoe "Mr. Madison's War" Know: War of 1812 14. How and why did New England Federalists oppose the War of 1812? Many of the New England Federalists thought the war would be a national disaster and claimed to be unconstitutional. The war was dominated by the Democratic-Republicans, first of all, and was a recipe for chaos, especially because it was supporting the anti-Christ Napoleon and going against the economically beneficial New England.