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Formwork striking times for ground granulatedblastfurnaceslagconcrete: test and site results c. A .

Clear, BSc, PhD, CEng, MICE, MIC7

This Papersets out examples of how the formwork striking time for concretes containing up to 70% ground granulated blastfurnace slag (ggbs) a s part of the cement has been determined over UK winter months. Such high proportionsof ggbs are used to enhance the durability of the concrete exposed to a range of otherwise deleterious environments. The higher the proportion of ggbs the slower the early age strength development becomes, and examples include concrete with 0%, 50%, and 70% ggbs, where the majority ofthe data is on 70% ggbs, as thisis an area of particular interest. Results from both full-size tests using temperature matched curing equipment andin-situ concrete elements are described. These examples include a practical range of strength grade, aggregate type, formwork material and section size useful to those responsible forassessing the formwork striking time of concrete.
what the actual in-situ strength development is likely to be, it is worthwhile to reviewthe benefits of using high proportions of ggbs in conCrete.

EngrsInstn Proc. Siructs Civ. & Bldgs. 1994, 104, Nov..441-448 Siructural and BuildingBoard Structural Panel Paper l OS1 7

Written discussion closes 16January 1995

Durable concrete 2. To ensure the long-term durability of

reinforced and plain concrete structures, it is often desirable to specify concrete containing 70% ggbs. The most frequent applications are to minimize the risk of early age thermal cracking, or to reduce the amount of crack control r e i n f ~ r c e m e n t ~ . ~ (Q)to provide resistance to sulphate.bearing groundwaters above Class 2 as defined in BRE Digest 363,s or to resist attackby acids. (c) to increase greatly the resistance to chloride diffusion, and subsequent reinforcement corrosion where structures are exposed to de-icing salts ora marine environment.6


The durability benefits of using concrete containing up to70% ground granulated blastfurnace slag (ggbs) to BS 6699, in combination with Portland cement(PC) to BS 12, mean that it is specified for a range of structural concrete elements. Combinations of ggbs andPC provide concrete with enhanced resistance to severe forms of chemical attack as well as reducing the risk of early-age thermal cracking. This is achieved by the nature of its hydration which also givesa slower early age strength develop Concrete strength at striking ment than the equivalent grade of concrete 4. Under normal conditions, an in-situ conmade with PC only. Where the proportionof ggbs is restricted to levels up 50% to the strik- crete compressive strengthof 2 N/mm2 is coning times are not increased sufficiently to affectsidered sufficient to prevent mechanical the construction programme, under normal con- damage on striking vertical formwork, and to ensure protection from According to BS ditions. For this reason, the striking time of concrete containing up to 50% ggbs is only con- 8110,9 a t least 10 N/mm2, or twice the stress to which the element is subjected, whicheveris sidered briefly in line with the limited investithe greater, is required to strikehorizontal gations that have been required. Results show that for massive or medium-sized concrete con- formwork. In BS 8110. it is stated that this struction, the useof 70% ggbs does not present strength may be assessedby test on cubes cured, a s near a s possible, under the same con. C. A. Clear. a practical limitation to the striking time. ditions a s the concrete in the element. This Where 70% ggbs concrete is used in thinner, Assistant Technical statement may be interpreted to include cubes Marketing Manager, more exposed elements, some additional concured alongside the structure as well as more sideration may be required and this is dealt Civil and Marine realistic simulations and therefore the various Slag Cement Limited with in detail. Before an assessment is made of

3. Frequently, the types of element that require either an enhanced resistance to chemical attack or require a minimum risk of early age thermal cracking are large sections. Where this is the case, striking times are not generally problematical. However, as the awareness of the durability advantages of using 70% ggbs has grown, so has the requirement to use it in thinner structural elements where striking time may significantly affect the construction programme. When this occurs, it is important to know what strength is required to strike formwork.


CLEAR properties of PCs have changed" over the years. 8. The combination of mean air temperature, concrete placing temperature, formwork material and the minimum dimensionof the section cast are important factorsas they effectively control the early age temperature history of the element. In a report covering Factors affecting striking time methods of assessment of striking time, 5. The striking time of concrete depends on Harrison" states that cubesmade from conthe following factors crete sampled from that placedin an element, ( a ) formworkdesign and cured at a temperatureprofile which ( b ) workmanship matches that of the in-situ concrete, will (c) in-situ concrete strength development. provide the shortest strikingtime. This tem6. Formwork design is relevant, a s even the perature matched curing(TMC)" technique is strongest concrete canbe damaged if a form useful, as it is the in-situ temperature history of has not been designed to allow removal. Simithe concrete element which controls its early larly, workmanship is important, as concrete of age strength development.In addition, the TMC any strength canbe damaged where an appro- fulfils the BS 8110' recommendation to cure priate release agent has not been used or where cubes under conditions as close as possible to operatives do not adopt a sufficiently high level the concrete in the element. Before workwith of care in removing forms. the TMC apparatus is described, it is worth7. Harrison provides tables of minimum while to show therelative effect of using up to striking times8 which effectively summarize the 70% ggbs in a nominal C40 grade concrete at a early age strength development of PC and constant curing temperature. RHPC concrete as a function of: concrete grade; Early age strength development at mean air temperature; concrete placing tem20C perature; formwork type; and theminimum 9. Figure 1 shows the strength development dimension of the section cast. Harrison's tables are based on the concrete strength development of concrete cubes stored in water at 20C up to in with a safety margin.As a consequence, the use seven days, for five concrete mixes as set out Table 1. Mixes M1 -M3 contain 70% ggbs in Fig. l . Early age of Harrison's tables may not give a realistic combination with a marine gravel, granite and strength development idea of strength development for a particular limestone aggregate respectively. Mix M4 conof concrete mixes source of cement, and do not include comtains 50% ggbs and Mix M5 is a PC only conM1 -M5, a t 20C binations of PC with ggbs. In addition, the crete, both in combination with a marine gravel. All concrete mixes were mixed and supplied by ready-mixed concrete vehicles; the concrete used for strength development was 5c sampled from that supplied to the element cast. 10. In the unlikely event that a real structural concrete element was cured at a constant temperature of 20C, then Fig. 1 shows that a 4c 2 N/mmz requirement for the strikingof verti/' cal formwork is met by all the mixesin less / / than one day. All mixes also achieve 10 N/mm2 by two days, with the 50% ggbs mix making it f ' in one day. Wheremore than 10 N/mm2, say 3c E 20 N/mm*, is requiredfor the striking of horit zontal formwork then Fig. 1 indicates a striking s m time of two days for the 50% ggbs concrete, and up to four daysfor concrete containing z 2c 70% ggbs. However, Fig. 1 shows only the strength development at a constant 20C and I type aggregate and Mix, cement thus ignores the temperature history which can I significantly change the early age in-situ -AM1, 70% ggbs. Marine la strength development. eM2, 70% ggbs.Granite strength requirements for striking formwork are only a general guide. Sometimes, it more is appropriate to select an alternative strength requirement for particular applications.For this reason, a summary of factors affecting the striking time is useful.

+M3, 70% ggbs,Limestone

M4. 50% aabs. Marine


Early age temperature of concrete

11. The early age temperature history of in-situ concrete is a function of ( a ) ccncrete placing temperature ( b ) minimum dimension of section cast

4 Age: days


Table 1 . Details of concrete mixes for TMC tests
~ ~~


ggbs: %

Total cement content: kg/m 390 390

Nominal grade

Max. free w/c 0.45


Slump: mm



Admixture* Cube strength: N/mm2 28 day 49.8 52.8 51.0 57.7 56 day 56.0 90 day 61.9 63.3 59.6 59.9

Fine C40 C40


Coarse Marine Granite Limestone Marine Marine

M1 M2


WRA 75

Marine Crushed rock Marine + crushed rock Marine Marine

115 135

M4 M5


C40 390 0.45 C40 415 0.42 50

57.07 59.2 58.3 63.6

site results.

C40 390 0.45



* SP = is a superplasticizer (FEB SP3) and WRA is a normal water reducing or plasticizing admixture (Cormix P4).
t Representative
(c) amount of cementitious material (d) type of cementitious material ( e ) ambienttemperature ( f )insulating properties of formwork.

12. During hydration all cements generate heat, and this exothermic behaviour is normally the most important factor affecting the early age temperature of concrete sections placed in formwork, with a minimum dimension greater than 300 mm. Where more than 30%ggbs is used in concrete to replace thePC, then the in-situ temperature rises canbe significantly reduced, and at70% ggbs the early age temperature rise can be as low a s one third of that containing PC only. However, the factors affecting the in-situ temperature rise of concrete are interdependent. The higher the initial concrete temperature, the thicker theminimum section size and the greater the total cementitious content, then the higher the temperature developed. In BS 8110,9 it is suggested that a suitable method for assessing striking timeis to cure cubes alongside the structure, assuming that the curing conditionsof the cubes will be representative of the concrete in the structure. This method of striking time assessment can give extended striking times,a s the concrete in the cubes is effectively cured at a temperature

close to ambient, frequently significantly lower than that in the structure which it is deemed to represent. Harrison" states that for thick slabs, or for large or well-insulated sections, the 'cubes cured alongside' method will indicate conservative striking times.

Temperature and strengkh

13. A diagram of the TMC apparatus, where the temperature of the water in a curing tank is matched to the temperature of the structural concrete element, is shownin Fig. 2. The position and depth of the single probe within the concrete is important as it should be at a position where the in-situ strength is required, normally the cover zone at the pointof maximum bending moment or a similar point of maximum stress. Little or no moisture should move in or out of a properly cured structural element within formwork. To match this condition, the concrete samples forTMC water bath are placed in cube moulds which are then sealed. 14. In Figs 3(a)-3(e), the early age temperature and temperature matched cured strength development of the five concrete mixes M1 -M5, placed in various elements, are shown. Mixes M1-M3 and M5 were placed in 1 m 3 blocks as partof a test regime to determine

Concrete probe Control unit Structure Water bath


Heating element

Fig. 2. Temperature matched curing (TMC)equipment




--- Ambient

+In-situ strength





0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Age: days


Fig. 3. Temperature matched cured in-situ strength development in test elements: (a)1 m3 block with 70% ggbs and marine aggregate; (b) 1m 3 1 m 3block with 70% ggbs block with 70% ggbs andgranite aggregate; (c) and limestone aggregate; (d)250 mm slab with50% ggbs and marine aggregate; (e) 1 m 3 block with PC and marine aggregate

temperature rises and differentialsfor the avoidance of early age thermal crackingin walls exposed to a marine environment. These blocks were placed during October to December 1992, and the additional TMC measurements were taken to verify the likely striking time based on a nominal requirement for 20 N/mm2. Mix M4 was placed in a 250 mm bridge deck section where an in-situ strengthof 10 N/mm2 was required a s quickly as possible during days in late winter to early spring, to take construction loads. 15. The temperatures shown were recorded at thecover zone, 75 mm in from the face for the 1 m3 blocks, where the requirement tominimize the risk of thermal cracking meant the formwork was well insulated to prevent the development of differential temperatures. In the bridge deck, the temperatures were measured 50 mm down from the top surfaceof the 250 mm thick slab. Also shown in Figs 3(a)3(e) are the ambient temperature measurements which were fairly typical for the times of the year during which the testswere carried out. 16. Table 2 shows a summary of section size, date cast, average ambient temperatures and striking times for requirements of 2 N/mm2, 10 N/mm2 and20 N/mm2. 17. The 1 m cubes were cast to simulate a water retaining wall where the reuse of formwork programme of one to two weeks rendered of academic interest the strikingtime of up to three days. The construction programme for the deck slab wasmore restrictive, but the required 10 N/mm2 was achieved within two days. This test was carriedout in early March which simulated the most severe condition as the ambient temperatures were higher during the following months when the rest of the deck slab was completed. The high cementitious contentof mix M4 was required tomeet the w/c requirements and the 28 day cube strengthsexceeded the specified characteristic valueby a high margin. 18. The PC results for mix M5 gave such high early strengths over the first nightof placing that the exact times when the various strength levels were achieved was not determined. However, at less than one day, such high early strengths arenot generally required for in-situ concrete in civil engineering structures, and theywould allow formwork removal earlier than would be advisable without the immediate applicationof a protective barrier for proper curing. 19. These results demonstrate how useful the TMC apparatus is in ascertaining the in-situ strengthof concrete but it may not always be readily available to contractors or other engineers. It is possible to estimate the in-situ strength of concrete from standard cube results in combination with just thetemperature history of the in-situconcrete. Thus the need for a full TMC equipment is replaced


Table 2. Section size and striking time for TMC tests


Minimum dimension
l m l m l m

Average ambient Date cast Minimum striking for a strength requirement of temperature; "C 10 N/mm2 20 N/mm2 2 N/mm2 9 Dec. 1992
20 Oct. 1992

M1, Fig. 3(a)

M2, Fig. 3(b)

8 8

21 hours 21 hours

39 hours
42 hours

69 hours
72 hours

M3, Fig. 3(c)

M4, Fig. 3(d)

3 Nov. 1992 13 Mar. 1990 250

24 Nov. 1992

18 hours
12 hours
< l day

hours 33 hours < l day

38 hours 27 63 hours < l day

l m

10 10

M5, Fig. 3(e)

by a temperature measuring device with disposable or recoverable thermocouples or probes for embedding in the concrete.

Equivalent age
20. The principle of Equivalent Age was set out by Weaver and S a d g r ~ v e in ' ~ 1971 for Portland cement concrete. Harrison14 verified the relationship in 1975 for temperatures in the range 7"-27"C during the assessmentof the risk of mechanical damage to concrete by early removal of formwork. Wimpenny andEllis15 verified that the EquivalentAge principle works for a range of combinations of ggbs and PC. Simply stated, a concrete cured for period a T , at a temperatureof 0C has an Equivalent Age Tcqwhen cured at 20C. The relationship can be expressed thus Equivalent Age Teq = 1 (e

say, 7 N/mm2; the same concrete will be expected to achieve 7 N/mm' if it is cured for either: 46 hours at10C; or 32 hours at15C; or 24 hours at20C; or 19 hours at 25C; or 15 hours at 30C. 22. A realistic example is set out in Table 3, using the temperature history of the 1 m section shown in Fig. 3(c), the results forM3, and 70% ggbs concrete with a limestone aggregate.

TMC in-situ strength

23. In effect, when the in-situ concrete is three days old, its Equivalent Age to concrete cured at 20C is 4.8 days because it was at a higher temperaturemost of the time. The TMC in-situ strength at three days, as shown in Fig. 3(c), is 33.5 N/mm2. Inspection of Fig. 1, concrete strength at 20"C, gives an estimated strength of 31 N/mmz for an Equivalent Age at 20C of 4.8 days. This example shows that a safe estimateof the TMC in-situ strength can be achieved a s the estimate is lower than the TMC in-situ strength. 24. Figure 4 shows the relationship between the estimated strength-the strength estimated using the in-situ temperature history and the 20C cube strength curves shown in Fig. 1and the TMC in-situ strength results for the four mixes M1 -M4. In the case of mix M5, only the earlier agePC results up totwo days old are included, becauseat later ages the concrete is at its maximum strength, when further curing would not give an increase in strength, and thus the equivalent age principle would not apply. 25. From an inspection of Fig. 4, it is evident that the estimated strengths are either 1.7 equal to or a little less than theTMC in-situ strength results, indicating that the estimating method is safe for the concretemixes and minimum dimensions of sections tested.



where B is the average temperature, and A t is the increment of time at the average temperature. 21. A simple example is a concrete cured at 5C for 70 hours, which attains a strengthof,
Table 3. Example of equivalent age calculation
Age :



Average temperature





1 2

19 23.5 28 31 34 34 34 32 30 28.5


1.2 2.9

4 5



1.5 25.5 1.3


8.1 9.4 10.5

Estimated strengths without TMC

26. In general, it is advisable to use the full TMC tests to ascertain an accurate striking time where it is the critical factor controlling the construction programme.However, in many

24 20


CLEAR section details and the properties of the concrete mixes. 28. In Fig. 5(a) it is shown that an estimated strength of 10 N/mmz wasachieved within two days with a 50% ggbs concrete, even though the in-situconcrete temperature did not exceed 30C. This was acceptable to the construction programme, but it was evident that a 70% ggbs concrete would not achieve the required strength in such a thin and exposed deck slab. 29. Results from a 400 mm diameter pile using 70% ggbs concrete are shownin Fig. 5(b), where it is evident that the temperature of the ground kept thepile temperature consistently low. In this case, thepile temperature was measured l m below the top. An estimated strength of 5 N/mmz wasachieved in under two days, which was deemed sufficient to resist damage caused by the placing of adjacent piles. 30. Results from the centre of a 500 mm section cast in 70% ggbs concrete using timber formwork are shownin Fig. 5(c). A strengthof 7.5 N/mmz was required to support the falsework system for the erection of the formwork on top of the current section. The insulating properties of the timber form allowed the surface concrete to achieve a temperature of 20C within 12 hours. This meant an estimated strength of 7.5 N/mm2 wasachieved within 24 hours. 31. When concrete is slipformed, it is exposed to the elementsvery quickly after casting. Fig. 5(d) shows the results for a 1m thick section where the concrete emerged from the form after 7 hours. Despite this, the con20C and crete surface temperature maintained the estimated strengthdevelopment was very close to the strengthdevelopment of standard cubes. In this example, there was no early age strength requirement, as the experience of the slipform personnel, and their proven rule of thumb method-more like a ' thumb penetration test '-was all that was requiredto gauge the safe rateof movement for the slipform.

Mix, cement and aggregate type

A M1, 70% ggbs, Marine

0 M2, 70% ggbs, Granite

M3, 70% ggbs, Limestone M5, PC, Marine
Q M4, 50% ggbs, Marine

I 10

I I 40 20 30 In-situ strength from TMC results: Nlmm'


Fig. 4 . Relationship between estimated strength and in-situ (temperature matched cured) strength

cases, the concrete strength estimated from a minimum concrete temperature and the early age strength development at 20C may be sufficient to show that the striking time unlikely is to be a controlling factorin the construction programme.

Estimating concrete temperatures in structures

27. In Figs 5(a)-5(e), the results are shown from five examples,E l to E5 respectively, of structural elements where the early age strength developmentof cubes at 20C and the in-situ temperatureof the element have enabled the in-situ strength to be estimated up to two days after casting. Table 4 summarizes the

Table 4 . Details of site structural elements and concrete mixes

Structural element and minimum dimension El E2 E3 E4


Average ambient temperature: "C 5.0



Total cement content: kg/m3 415 425 330 380

Nominal grade

Max free wlc 0.42

Slump: mm


Slab, 250 mm 400 mm 500 mm

On precast slabs Ground Pile, Timber Wall, 7 hours in slipform Steel 3.5


C40 C40 C30 C40

75 175

WRA, P4 WRA, 211 WRA, P4 WRA, P4 WRA, P4 75

9.2 8.5 7.0

0.5 1

70 70



C30 330 0.51

or plasticizing admixtures.

* WRA P4 is Cormix P4 and WRA 211 is Conplast 211, both are normal water-reducing

FORMWORK STRIKING TIMES FOR GGBS CONCRETE Nevertheless the example is useful, a s under severe conditions of almost immediate exposure of the concrete an estimated surface strength of 5 N/mm2 was achieved a t one day. 32. On a larger scale, the results from a 3.5 m thick section is shownin Fig. 5(e) where a special steel form was used without insulation. Like the slipform, there wasno early age strength requirement for striking formwork but the example is useful as it shows how the steel reduced the initial surface temperature of the concrete and so the estimated strength was only about 2.5 N/mmz atone day. However, the subsequent temperature rise enabled the concrete to achieve an estimated strength of 10 N/mmz at two days.
6 Ambient temperature P - Concrete surface temperature 20C cube strength 0 Estimated concrete strength Requiredconcretestrength



Practical application
33. In the above tests and examples, the concrete used for ascertaining the early age strength, either at 20C or by TMC, was sampled from, or indicative of,that supplied to the element cast from the ready-mixed concrete truck. In cases where the concrete strength data are not as representative as this, an additional factor of safety for the strengthof concrete at striking may be required. 34. Similarly, the temperature history of each element has been measured at a point representative of the position where the in-situ strength is required, normally at the reinforcement level near the concrete surface. As shown by the examples, an exact early age strength requirement is not always specified but they were included as useful information for those who may be interested in estimating the early age in-situ strength of similar sized elements using up to70% ggbs concrete.

General conclusions
35. The TMC test results confirm that the principle of Equivalent Age canbe applied to estimate the early age in-situ strength of concrete containing up to70% ggbs. Early age is up to an equivalent age of 7 days which is equivalent to a real age between 4 and 6.5 days for 70% ggbs concrete cast in 1 m thick sections under cold winter conditions. Under similar ambient conditions, the PC only concrete produced higher concrete temperatures at early ages, and an equivalent age of 7 days was achieved in less than 3 days. 36. The results were obtained during the spring of 1990 and the winter of 1992, to simulate a worst case for the concrete elements under construction in the United Kingdom. Owing to the somewhat variable natureof the1.5 British climate, care mustbe taken when these results are extrapolated to colder winters or cooler climates. 37. From the examples of winter concreting described, it is evident that the in-situ early age strength development of C30 + concrete, con5L

- 10

Age: days

Fig. 5. Examples of estimated in-situ strength without TMC: ( a ) 250 m m slab, cast on precast concrete planks, 50% ggbs concrete; (b) 400 m m diameter pile, cast in ground, 70% ggbs concrete; (c) 500 m m wall, in timber forms,70% ggbs concrete; (d)1 m thick slipform wall, 70% ggbs concrete; (e) 3.5 m thickcrosshead in steel formwork, 70% ggbs concrete


Sulphate and 5. BUILDING RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT. taining up to70% ggbs, in sections with a acid resistance of concrete in the ground. BRE, minimum dimension greater than250 mm , is Garston, July 1991, BRE Digest 363. sufficient to achieve a striking time which does STANDARDS INSTITUTION. Code ofpractice not extend the construction programme. Where 6. BRITISH for maritime structures. BSI, London, BS 6349: only up to 50% ggbs is used, the reductionin Part 1: 1984, Last amendment No. 4, July 1989. early age development has not presented prob- 7. THE CONCRETE SOCIETY. Formwork, a guide to good lems significant enough to prompt much field practice. Joint committee of the Concrete Society investigation, a s reflected in the examples. and The Institutionof Civil Engineers, London, Structural elements which mayneed detailed Aug. 1986. consideration are where the minimum dimen8. HARRISON T.A. Tables of minimum striking times for soffit and vertical formwork. Construction sion of section cast is less than or around Industry Research and Information Association, 250 mm, particularly in combination with conLondon, 1977, reprinted March 1979, Report 67. crete cast in non-timber formwork, such as f 9. BRITISHSTANDARDS INSnTvnON. StYUCtUYal use O steel, slipform or cast against the ground. In concrete, Part 1 :Code ofpractice for design and these cases, it is worthwhile to use a worst case construction. BSI, London, 1985, BS 8110: Part 1. in-situ temperature history, suchas a represen- 10. THE CONCRETE SOCIETY. Changes in the properties tative minimum concrete temperature, to estiof ordinary Portland cement and their effects on mate the minimum striking time to see whether concrete. London, Oct. 1987, Technical Report 29 or not a full temperature matched curing test is (Report of a Concrete Society working party). required in order to obtain the most realistic 11. HARRISON T. A. Formwork striking timesmethods of assessment. Construction Industry value.

38. The Author acknowledges gratefully the help and assistanceof Trafalgar House Construction Special Projects Limited for the site data and other information provided for this Paper.
1. BRlnsH STANDARDS INsnTunoN. Specification for

Research and Information Association, London, 1987, Report 73,2nd edn. 12. BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. Method of tem-

perature matched curing of concrete specimens.

BSI, London, 1984, Draft for development DD 92. 13. WEAVER J. and SADGROVE B. M. Striking times of

formwork-tables of curingperiods to achieve given strengths. Construction Industry Research and

Information Association, London, Oct. 1971, Report 36. T.A. Mechanical damage to concrete by 14. HARRISON early removal of formwork. London, Cement and Concrete Association, London, Feb. 1975, Technical Report 42.505. 15. WIMPENNY D. and ELLIS C. The effect of ggbs on the temperature and strength development in concrete elements underlow ambient temperatures. P Y O C . Int. Conf. on Blended Cements in Construction, Sheffield, 1991, Elsevier Applied Science, London, 1991,222-235.

Ground granulated blastfurnace slag for use with Portland cement. BSI, London, 1992, BS 6699. 2. BRITISH STANDARDS INsnmnoN. Specification for Portland cement. BSI, London, 1991, BS 12. 3. THE CONCRETE SOCIETY. Mass Concrete. Concrete Society, London, Aug. 1986, Digest No. 2. 4. HARRISON T. A. Early-age thermal crack control in concrete. Construction Industry Research and
Information Association, London, 1981, Report 91.