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Journal of Research in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ISTP-JREEE)

RECTANGULAR MICRO-STRIP PATCH ANTENNA USING METAMATERIAL FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION


Rahul Tiwari rahulcktd@gmail.com

Abstract
In this paper, a Symmetrical Rectangular Cut Shaped Structure has been chosen to construct the metamaterial substrate due to the ability of constructing this shape, this structure produces a better performance compared to the other shapes. The implementation of the metamaterial as the substrate in a rectangular microstrip patch antenna produces high value of return loss. This high value of return loss indicates that only small amount of reflection waves were returned back to the source and most of the power will be radiated from the patch.

Keyword-

Bandwidth, Rectangular Microstrip patch

Antenna, Return Loss, Ground Plane.

Introduction
The concept of such antennas though introduced in early 1950s in US by Deschamps & in France by Gutton & Bai ssinot, it was in 1970s only that with advent of Printed Circuit technology, some serious advancement in this research area had begun [2]. A Microstrip device literally means a sandwich of two parallel conducting layers separated by single thin dielectric substrate. The lower conductor is called Ground Plane & the upper conductor is a simple resonant circular/rectangular Patch. The metallic patch (usually Cu or Au) may take many geometrics viz. rectangular, circular, triangular, elliptical, helical, ring etc. The IEEE definition of Antenna [IEEE std. 145-1983] says: Antenna is a means for radiating or receiving radio waves [1]. In addition to receiving or transmitting energy, an antenna in an advanced wireless system is usually required to optimize or accentuate the radiation energy in some directions and suppress it in others. Thus antenna is a directional device as well as probing device. The field of Antennas is vigorous and dynamic and planar oriented antennas such as Microstrip Patch have attracted significant attention primarily for space borne applications. A microstrip antenna is characterized by its Length, Width, Input impedance, and Gain and radiation patterns. The microstrip antenna consists of ISSN: 2321-2667

conducting patch on a ground plane separated by dielectric substrate. This concept was undeveloped until the revolution in electronic circuit miniaturization and large-scale integration in 1970. After that many authors have described the radiation from the ground plane by a dielectric substrate for different configurations. The early work of Munson on micro strip antennas for use as a low profile flush mounted antennas on rockets and missiles showed that this was a practical concept for use in many antenna system problems. Various mathematical models were developed for this antenna and its applications were extended to many other fields. The number of papers, articles published in the journals for the last ten years, on these antennas shows the Importance gained by them. The micro strip antennas are the present day antenna designers choice. Low dielectric constant substrates are generally preferred for maximum radiation. The conducting patch can take any shape but rectangular and circular configurations are the most length of the antenna is nearly half wavelength in the dielectric; it is a very critical parameter, which governs the resonant frequency of the antenna. There are no hard and fast rules to find the width of the patch. There are many kinds of materials used to improve the gain of microstrip patch antenna. Among them, Metamaterial [4-6] are found most suitable. Metamaterials have opened an exciting field to realize unexpected physical properties and applications, which are not possible from naturally occurring materials. Conductive or dielectric inclusions in metamaterials can be tailored in shape and size, periodicity, and defects to produce unusual yet exciting properties. Unusual properties such as, negative permittivity and permeability, negative refraction at the interface of two (RH and LH) media [8]. Metamaterial are artificial structure that can be design to exhibit specific electromagnetic properties that doesn't found in the nature. In Greek Meta means beyond [1]. These features in the field of communication, microwave, biomedical and in antenna brings Metamaterial in the lead role, due to it provide change in Electromagnetic properties[2].

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Journal of Research in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ISTP-JREEE)

Geometry & Designing of Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna Configuration


The configuration of proposed antenna is shown in figure 1. The proposed wide slot has dimension of L & W and is printed on a substrate of thickness h and relative permittivity =4.4. The printed wide slot is etched on ground substrate. The wide slot is fed by a 50- microstrip line. The basic rectangular slot microstrip-line-fed printed wide-slot antenna design-1 is shown in Figure 1.For exciting the operating frequency at around 2.25 GHz, the dimension of the square slot can be roughly determined by Where c is the speed of light in the air, is the effective relative permittivity and L is the length of the square slot. Simple Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna Fed by Microstrip Line is Shown in Figure 1. A microstrip patch antenna is designed for the resonant frequency 2.25 GHz. The length of the patch is 31.44mm and its width is 40.57mm. The length of the microstrip line is 33.33mm which used for the feeding purpose. For the designing of this antenna we took a both sided copper PCB. On the lower side of PCB copper field acts as the ground for this antenna and the on the upper side of the PCB we designed the patch of giving dimensions. The whole geometry is simulated and raised practically using a dielectric substrate of height 1.6mm and having a dielectric constant 4.4mm. Loss tangent of the material is 0.02. microstrip feeding technique is used for providing the feed to the antenna.

Figure 2: Simulation Results of Return Loss of Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

Figure 3: Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

Figure 1: Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

ISSN: 2321-2667

Volume 2, Issue 1, Jan. 2013

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Journal of Research in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ISTP-JREEE)

Comparison Between Practical & Simulated Return Loss


0 -5 -10
Return Loss (dB)

-15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 2.058 2.148 2.232 2.274 2.304 2.388 Frequency (GHz) Practical Return Loss (dB) Simulated Return Loss (dB)

2.5

Figure 4: Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

Figure 5: Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

Geometry & Designing


A microstrip patch antenna using metamaterials (fig 4.1) is designed for the resonant frequency 2.25 GHz. The length of the patch is 35.44mm and its width is 45.64mm. The length of the microstrip line is 37.5mm which used for the feeding purpose. For the designing of this antenna we took a both sided copper PCB. On the lower side of PCB copper field acts as the ground for this antenna and the on the upper side of the PCB we designed the patch of giving dimensions. On the other PCB we designed metamaterial structure and the lower portion of this PCB, which is acts as a ground plane, removed. After etching we connected both PCB with the help of screw in such a manner so that the both design could overlap on each other. The whole geometry is simulated and realized practically using a dielectric substrate of height 1.6mm and having a dielectric constant 4.4mm. Loss tangent of the material is 0.02. microstrip feeding technique is used for providing the feed to the antenna.

Figure 6: Simulation Results of Return Loss

ISSN: 2321-2667

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Journal of Research in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ISTP-JREEE) r = Dielectric constant of substrate The effective dielectric constant of the Microstrip antenna to account for fringing field. Effective dielectric constant is calculated from:

Length of metallic patch (L) L = Leff - 2L , where

Figure 7: Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

Calculation of Length Extension

Comparison Between Practical & Simulated Return Loss

0 -5 -10

Calculation Of VSWR
VSWR=S= Where = Reflection Co-efficient

Return Loss (dB)

-15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.69 1.72 1.79 1.97 2.4 2.89 Frequency (GHz) Practical Return Loss (dB) Simulated Return Loss (dB)

Calculation of Return Loss


When an electromagnetic wave travels down a transmission line and encounters a mismatched load or a discontinuity in the line, part of the incident power is reflected back down the line. The return loss is defined as Return Loss=

Figure 8: Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

Result and Discussion


The proposed antenna structure has been simulated using Zelands IE3D simulator. Figure 3.3 shows the variation off return loss with frequency for the simulated microstrip patch antenna. In the process or simulation the resonant frequencies for which minimum return loss occurs for various bands are shown in table 3.1 After the successful simulation of the proposed antenna, it is realized practically on a double sided PCB in the laboratory . The return loss of this fabricated antenna is measured using spectrum analyzer . And then a comparison is done between the simulated response and practical response . Fig 3.5 shows the com-

Methodology
Width of metallic patch (W)

Where, c = free space velocity of light

ISSN: 2321-2667

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Journal of Research in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ISTP-JREEE)

parison between the simulated and practical response. Figure 3.4 shows the current distribution of the proposed antenna. On the comparison it is found that the practical response is in close approximation to that of simulated response . This results clearly shows that the proposed antenna has a single band frequency response . It can be operated at resonant frequency 2.25GHz at which return loss is minimum .

Conclusion
In This Paper we have Discussed proposed design of RMPA using Inspired Metamaterial have been calculated mathematically and hit and trial, Simulated on the IE3D Software, drawn on AutoCAD design. Simulation and Fabricated in systematic way and finally Measured on Spectrum Analyzer. In This Paper it is found that the insertions of Inspired Metamaterial Structure at 3.2mm Layer on Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna ultimately Reduction of Return Loss and Enhances Bandwidth significantly. This had also been proven that the focusing effect of Metamaterial really Reduces Return Loss as well as Improve Bandwidth.

Resonant Frequency (GHz) Simulated Return Loss (dB) Practical Return Loss (dB)

2.25 -25 -37

Reference
[1] A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and D esign, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1997. [2] R. Garg, P. Bhartia, I. Bahl, and A. Ittipi boon, Microstrip Antenna Design Hand book Antennas, John Wiley & Sons, 1997. [3] Pozar, D.M. and D.H.Schaubert, Microstrip Antennas: The Analysis and Design of Microstrip Antennas and Arrays, New York: IEEE Press, 1995. [4] W.L. Stutzman, G.A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and design, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd Ed., New York, 1998.

The proposed antenna structure has been simulated using Zelands IE3D simulator. shows the variation off return loss with frequency for the simulated microstrip patch antenna using metamaterial. After the successful simulation of the proposed antenna , it is realized practically on a double sided PCB in the laboratory . The return loss of this fabricated antenna is measured using spectrum analyzer . And then a comparison is done between the simulated response and practical response . Fig 4.5 shows the comparison between the simulated and practical response. Figure 4.4 shows the current distribution of the proposed antenna. On the comparison it is found that the practical response is in close approximation to that of simulated response . This results clearly shows that the proposed antenna has a single band frequency response . It can be operated at resonant frequency 2GHz at which return loss is minimum .

[5] Merih Palandoken, Andre Grede, And Heino Henke, Broadband Microstrip Antenna With Left-Handed Metamaterials, IEEE Transactions on Antennas And Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 2, February 2009. [6] S. Satthamsakul, N. Anantrasirichai, C. Benjangkaprasert and T. Wakabayashi, Rectangular Patch Antenna with Inset Feed and Modified Ground-Plane for Wideband Antenna, SICE Annual Conference 2008 August 20-22, 2008, The University ElectroCommunications, Japan. The Basics of Patch Antennas By D. Orban and G.J.K. Moernaut Orban Microwave Products 2009.

Resonant Frequency (GHz) Simulated Return Loss (dB) Practical Return Loss (dB)
.

2 -31 -40.1

[7]

ISSN: 2321-2667

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