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5th Call Women Scientists




{This research proposal application form must be accompanied by letters of endorsement from All institutions collaborating in this projects} (Expand the spaces provided in the form to fit. The proposal should not exceed 20 pages (new times roman font
size 12, single spacing) excluding relevant appendices e.g. Logframe, CV max 2 pages, roles of collaborators, endorsement page, Institutions letters of endorsement, explanatory notes of the budget etc) . The minimum

qualification of the team leader is MSc/MA. Indicate area of study: (e.g. Agricultural sciences, Health sciences, Engineering, e.t.c). PHYSICAL AND NUCLEAR SCIENCES PROJECT TITLE: ENHANCING INTEREST IN CHEMISTRY THROUGH COOPERATIVE LEARNING AND EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING Abstract (Maximum of 500 words, providing a maximum of 5 key words in the study) Chemistry is one of the science subject taught at secondary school level in Kenya. There has been consistently poor performance in science subjects in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) examinations over years as indicated by Kenya National examination reports. Several research studies have revealed that students are not interested in learning mathematics and science. In addition, preponderance of chalk and talk as the dominant teaching strategy in those subjects leads to passive lessons resulting to low motivation, negative attitude and poor performance among students. There are a variety of teaching strategies that teachers can use to improve students interest in learning science. This study will investigate whether cooperative learning enhances students interest in learning chemistry together with the use of improvised laboratory apparatus. About 100 teachers from public schools sampled purposively from Siaya County Nyanza province will be used. The study will employ quasi-experimental design coupled with naturalistic design. Under quasi pre-test, post-test non-equivalent group design will be adapted and under naturalistic teachers will be interviewed and lessons observed in chemistry. An attitude questionnaire will be administered before and after the treatment. The experimental group classes will be taught for a period of four weeks using cooperative learning strategy under the topic salts. Normal teaching will continue in the control group schools and classes. A chemistry achievement test will be administered to measure students achievement for that period in the schools. Quantitative data will be analyzed using the Statistical package of Social Sciences version 17 using independent t-test and ANOVA. Hypothesis testing will be done at P0.05 significant level. Qualitative data will be categorized into themes and analyzed in a narrative way. Total Budget Applied for: (Kshs 2,074,000) 1.0 Background to the research (Provide sufficient background information of the proposed project,
identifying clearly the problem that the proposal is addressing and justification of the study).

Common problems exist in science classes all over the world. Consistently poor performance in science subjects in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) examinations over years in secondary education in Kenya as reported by Kenya National Examination Council (KNEC) reports is a key indicator that such problems exist in Kenyan science classes. A baseline conducted by SMASSE (Strengthening Mathematics Science in Secondary Education) project in 1998 revealed that students are not interested in learning mathematics and science. Chemistry is one of the science subjects taught among biology and physics. In addition the study revealed that preponderance of chalk and talk as the dominant teaching strategy in chemistry leads to passive lessons which in turn give rise to low motivation among students, students exposure to laboratory only during examinations time also contributed a lot to poor performance. There are a 2

variety of teaching strategies that teachers can use to improve students interest in learning science. This study will investigate whether cooperative learning and Experiential learning by use of improvised laboratory apparatus enhances students interest in learning chemistry. 2.0 Up-to-date scholarly knowledge (Provide updated literature review information related to your proposed research). This section reviews literature on action research, a kind of research concerned with solving local problems and giving immediate solutions, teaching and learning strategies are discussed and also policies that are a directing efforts to mainstream gender in Kenya. 2.1 Action research Action research is an approach to professional development and improved student learning in which teachers systematically reflect on their work and make changes in their practices. Patterson, Leslie and Shannon (1993) describe action research as an inquiry in which practicing teachers try to understand the particular individuals, actions, policies and events that make up their work environment in order to make professional decisions. Garner (1996) defines actions research more systematically as a systematic, reflective, collaborative process that examines a situation for the purpose of planning, implementing and evaluating change. The systematic collection of classroom data presents teachers with a view that could "catalyze" a change and facilitate informed decision making with regard to curricula and the instructional issues. Action research provides teachers with an opportunity to apply the findings of traditional research to their own situations and to adapt theory to practice. It also involves teachers as participants in their own educational process, and helps them to develop a critical and reflective eye for their own instructional practices along with those of their peers (Lederman & Niess, 1997). Lederman & Niess (1997) emphasizes that action research is the most direct route to facilitating teachers development into reflective practitioners, and that it helps them to become lifelong learners of pedagogy. According to Gay (1996), the purpose of action research is to solve practical problems through the application of the scientific method. It is concerned with a local problem and is conducted in a local setting. The primary goal of action research is the solution of a given problem, not contribution to science. Whether the research is conducted in one classroom or in many classrooms, the teacher is very much a part of the process. The problem the study sought to address and solve is low attitude by students towards chemistry that leads to poor performance as stated earlier. Action research is considered by educators at present as an alternative to the more theory-based approach in education research. It is a powerful method to bridge existing gaps between theory and practice in teaching science. Through action research, science and chemistry teachers, educators are encouraged to develop their own theories and pedagogy from their classroom practices to bring changes through professional growth and collaborative efforts. 2.2 Teaching and learning strategies Based on the teaching and learning theories, there are various teaching strategies a teacher can use to impart knowledge to the learners. Arends (1997) notes that many teaching and learning strategies have been created by educationists, researchers among others in an attempt to improve classroom instruction. According to Brown et.al, 1982, for effective teaching and learning process to occur, the teacher must use an effective approach to convey information to the learners. There are various teaching and learning strategies that are commonly used by teachers. These include: Active Learning - Active Learning is anything that students do in a classroom other than merely 3

passively listening to an instructor's lecture. Research shows that active learning improves students' understanding and retention of information and can be very effective in developing higher order cognitive skills such as problem solving and critical thinking. Collaborative/Cooperative Learning - Cooperative and collaborative learning are instructional approaches in which students work together in small groups to accomplish a common learning goal. They need to be carefully planned and executed, but they don't require permanently formed groups. Critical Thinking - Critical thinking is a collection of mental activities that include the ability to intuit, clarify, reflect, connect, infer, and judge. It brings these activities together and enables the student to question what knowledge exists. Discussion Strategies - Engaging students in discussion deepens their learning and motivation by propelling them to develop their own views and hear their own voices. A good environment for interaction is the first step in encouraging students to talk. Experiential Learning - Experiential learning is an approach to education that focuses on "learning by doing," on the participant's subjective experience. The role of the educator is to design "direct experiences" that include preparatory and reflective exercises. Inquiry-Guided Learning - With the inquiry method of instruction, students arrive at an understanding of concepts by themselves and the responsibility for learning rests with them. This method encourages students to build research skills that can be used throughout their educational experiences. Learner-Centered teaching - Learner-Centered teaching means the student is at the center of learning. The student assumes the responsibility for learning while the instructor is responsible for facilitating the learning. Thus, the power in the classroom shifts to the student. Problem-Based Learning - Problem-based Learning (PBL) is an instructional method that challenges students to "learn to learn," working in groups to seek solutions to real world problems. The process replicates the commonly used systemic approach to resolving problems or meeting challenges that are encountered in life, and will help prefer students for their careers. 2.3 Cooperative learning Cooperative and collaborative learning are instructional approaches in which students work together in small groups to accomplish a common learning goal. They need to be carefully planned and executed, but they don't require permanently formed groups. According to Johnson and Smith's (1991) the following are six characteristics of Cooperative Learning,a) Groups Positive Interdependence: Team members are obliged to rely on one another to achieve their goal, b) individual, accountability: All students in a group are held accountable for doing their share of the work, c) face-to-face promotive interaction: Group assignments should be constructed so that the work cannot be simply parceled out and done individually. Assignments must include work that has to be done interactively, d) Appropriate collaborative skills: Students are encouraged and helped to develop and practice trust building, leadership, decision-making, communication and conflict management, e) Group processing: Team members set up group goals, periodically assess what they are doing well as a team, and identify changes they will make to function more effectively in the future and f) Heterogeneous Groups: Individuals benefit the most from working with people different from themselves. 4

2.4 Teacher- centred teaching and learning Teacher centred approach refers to the method of teaching where the teacher controls what is taught. The teacher has the central role as both the planner and the facilitator of student learning. Teacher-centered instruction means that a teacher controls what is taught, when and under what conditions within a classroom. Despite its many advantages particular when a teacher is dealing with large classes research studies have revealed that this strategy is a sure way of preparing learners more towards instrumental learning, as cited in Wakhaya ( 2010). Indicators of teacher- centred teaching and learning approach includes: Teacher talk exceeds student talk during instruction, instruction occurs frequently with the whole class; small-group or individual instruction occurs less often, use of class time is largely determined by the teacher, the teachers rely heavily upon the textbook to guide curricular and instructional decision making and the classroom furniture is usually arranged into rows of desks or chairs facing a chalkboard with a teachers desk near 2.5 Millennium Development Goals Following the September 200 meeting at the United Nations in New York where 198 countries Kenya included met and endorsed the millennium declaration was endorsed; Kenya is committed to fulfill its commitment by the year 2015. According to Ministry of Education, (2007), in many developing countries, Kenya included Education For All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are close to being achieved but the challenge remains at the secondary level. Indeed, equity is a pipeline problem, and unless the parity is achieved at the primary level, subsequent levels will remain inequitable. The disparities that exist in representation as well as in education are largely as a result of the social construction of gender, the trend has been seen to change with time, which has influenced education matters right from elementary education to the highest levels of education. In a society various levels of the educational structure from nursery to university have their own special aspects that need to be carefully examined. Performance of girls in science and mathematics at secondary level has been generally poor compared to boys (Wilson, 1983 and Soyibo, 1985) report that student positive attitudes to science correlate highly with their science achievements. If women are challenged in the field of science and technology, the governments effort of achieving the MDGs will be underpinned, this is because women play a critical role in promoting gender equality and women empowerment (MDG NO. 3), reducing child mortality, (MDG NO. 4), improving maternal health (MDG NO. 3), combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases and also assist in global partnership for development (MDG NO. 5),this geared the campaign for girl child to be empowered forgetting the boy child and now both need to be considered equally. 2.6 Vision 2030 The aim of Kenya vision 2030 is to have a globally competitive and prosperous country with high quality of life by 2030 (vision 2030). The vision is anchored on the three key pillars, economic, social and political governance. The pillars will be implemented under several foundations one being science, technology and innovation (STI). Under this foundation, the vision recognizes the importance of research and development, especially in the line of scientific research touching on the quality of teaching of mathematics and sciences in the schools, polytechnics and universities. Success of this action study will enhance girls attitude towards science and then subsequent high academic achievement which will contribute to attainment of vision 2030. 2.7 The New Constitution of Kenya and Gender The gender gains provided for in the Constitution of Kenya provide a begin point for Kenya in providing a legal backing for ensuring equal enjoyment by women and men of socially valued goods, opportunities, resources and rewards. .The new Constitution of Kenya has made a major step towards ensuring gender equity in major decision making organs. This is an important step because historically in Kenya, women have always been under-represented in decision making at major levels of 5

governance. Women, who in the past were willing to do science and mathematics or run for elective posts had suffered violence, intimidation and improper influence or corruption to discourage them, this has partially contributed to the low representation of women in decision making organs at levels. In the past, women have had also fewer opportunities than men in accessing professional skills through higher education and professional training. This has limited their capacity to participate in gainful employment. In addition, most cultures in Kenya have also limited women from accessing and controlling a major socio-economic capital such as land. The New Constitution of Kenya has gender provisions in various articles. Article 97 (b)) reserve 47 seats for women representation in the national assembly, article 232 (1) accords adequate and equal opportunities for both men and women in the appointment, training and advancement at all levels of public service. In article 81 (e), women are protected from acts of inequalities that tend to limit their participation in running for elective posts Article 27 (2) guarantees the right to equality for both men and women. The State has also given the women a chance to fight as much as the men in gaining places ,for all the Governmental and Non-governmental has so far forgotten about the men and their needs the performances of the men in sciences and other related fields has been seen to be deteriorating therefore need for equality in gender. The state also has been limited in terms of discriminating any person on any ground such as race, sex, pregnancy, marital status, health status, ethnic or social origin, color, dress, language or birth (Article 27 (5)). Article 69 (1 and 2) obligates the State and every person to protect and conserve the environment to ensure ecological sustainable development and use of natural resources. The Constitution encourages equitable sharing among both men and women of the accruing benefits of the sustainable exploitation, utilization, management and conservation of the environment and natural resources (Article 69 (1, a)). The new constitution has been designed to redress any disadvantages suffered by individuals or groups because of past systematic discrimination. To enjoy those rights and contribute to national development, both girls (women) and boys (men) must be empowered academically and economically for the society trend is fast changing for all are now endangered. Positive attitude towards science for girls and boys must be inculcated from basic level all the way to the universities. Teaching strategies that promote scientific values must be employed by teachers at all levels. This study will investigate cooperative learning and experiential learning strategy 3.0 State the objective(s) of the research (The objectives must be specific, measurable, realistic and
attainable with the given time frame of two years).

The overall objective of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of cooperative/collaborative method of teaching/learning and experiential method as a strategy for increased participation, interest, enjoyment, understanding and consequent performance of chemistry subject by both boys and girls in Kenyan Secondary schools with the topic conductivity and electrochemistry as the sample. Its also hoped that through the study chemistry teachers will enhance their teaching skills in chemistry making the process more meaningful and rewarding to both the learners and the teachers. 4.0 Methodology (Provide clearly descriptions of the scientific methodologies you will use in this research,
indicating statistical methods, experimental designs and analysis to be used etc).

4.1 Research Design The study will use a combination of both quantitative and qualitative approaches to determine whether cooperative learning strategy and experiential learning enhances interest towards learning of chemistry. For the quantitative approach, the study will adapt quasi-experimental design as the design allows the study to be carried in a natural education setting. According to Best and Kahn, (2003) it is difficult to ensure equivalence of the experimental and the control group in a school by randomisation because classrooms are intact and its unethical to dismantle them for the sake of the study. To ensure 6

equivalence in order to control some of the internal and external threats associated with this design due to lack of randomization attempt will be made to match the comparison school as possible with the control schools. This will be done by purposively sampling schools of the same academic mean score by using KCSE mean score of the last five years and also using public day schools from Siaya county. Under quasi design Pre-test Post-test non-equivalent group design will be adapted. Cooperative and experiential learning strategy will be the treatment while regular teaching will be considered as the control group. An attitude measuring scale questionnaire will be administered to the teachers before the treatment(Pre-test) and the same to the experimental groups after the treatment(post-test). An achievement chemistry questionnaire will also be administered to the teachers before and after the treatment. O1XO2 O3CO4 O1- Pretest experimental group O3 - Pretest experimental group X C O2 Post-test experimental group O4- post-test experimental group

X- Treatment(Cooperative strategy learning and experiential learning strategy) C Control (Normal teaching) Under naturalistic design, in-depth interviews and lesson observation guides will be used in this study to gather data from teachers and chemistry lessons as they proceed naturally. Information gathered will be used by the researchers to evaluate whether the teachers teaching skills are enhanced after employing cooperative and experiential strategy. 4.2 Target population The study will target chemistry teachers from selected secondary schools in Siaya county in Nyanza province in Kenya and students in form two. 4.3 Description of the sample and sampling procedures. 4.3.1. Sample The sample will include five schools from Siaya county, Nyanza province Kenya, students from form two classes in each of the four sampled schools and chemistry teachers teaching chemistry in those particular classes. 4.3.2 Sampling procedures The study will adopt probability and non-probability sampling methods in stages. At stage one; five public day schools will be selected purposively from Siaya County. According to Mugenda and Mugenda(2003) purposive sampling technique is used to allow a researcher use cases that have required information. Schools with similar characteristics are required in this particular study to try and ensure equivalence. KCSE mean score of the last five years will be used to sample the four girls school with almost same academic achievement. At stage two, the teachers in every school will be selected using simple random sampling as the schools selected might have several streams. 4.4 Data Collection Instruments. Different research instruments will be used to collect information. These include questionnaires, indepth interview, lesson observation guides and a chemistry achievement test. 4.4.1 Questionnaires Questionnaires are commonly used to obtain information about a population. A questionnaire is a set of questions or statements that assesses attitudes, opinions, beliefs and biographical information. (McMillan and Schumacher 2001). This study will use questionnaires because of their economy in 7

time and funds. The questionnaires will also ensure enormity and will provide time for the students and teachers to think about the response. This method of collecting data will enable the researcher to collect data quickly from a large number of teachers and students who are able to read and write independently. Questionnaires will be administered directly. An attitude measuring scale questionnaire for the students comprising of 31 Likert types of four options questions will be used. The questionnaire will have three sections. Section A of the questionnaire will gather information about the student background that is, age and gender. Section B information on learners attitudes towards chemistry and section C information on teaching and learning strategies used by the chemistry teacher and improvements learners could wish to be done in teaching and learning of chemistry. (Appendix 1) 4.4.2 Lesson observation guide

The guide will be used to observe lessons. Guides are composed of questions and guidelines that the researcher follows to obtain data required to meet specific objectives. This qualitative research technique is flexible in nature and permits the researcher to record naturally occurring behavior and avoid some of the disadvantages associated with the questionnaires. Even though observation guides are costly, time consuming they will be used in this study to capture natural behavior of the teachers and the students. The observation guide will mainly consist of items that gather information on learner involvement and utilization of teaching and learning resources. (Appendix 2) 4.4.3 In-depth Interview Guide

Interviews can be used to collect facts, e.g. information about people's place of work, age, etc. The bulk of interview questions seek to elicit information about attitudes and opinions, perspectives and meanings. They are widely used because they are a powerful means of both obtaining information and gaining insights. This qualitative research technique is flexible in nature and permits the researcher to pursue leads that appear fruitful and elaborate points that the respondent may misunderstood. An interview guide of 14 items will be addressed to the two teachers teaching chemistry in form 2. The interview guide will mainly consist of items that gather information on learner involvement and teaching and learning strategies used by the teacher. (Appendix 3) 4.4.4 Achievement test Tests are used to measure the amount of learning acquired i.e achievement,(Orodho,2005). Two chemistry achievement tests will be set to be used in this study. One test will be administered before the treatment the other one after the treatment to measure to measure students mean achievement. The test will consist twenty five short items structured constructed following the Kenya National Examination format (Blooms taxonomy). 4.5 Validity and Reliability of Instruments 4.5.1: Validity Validating research instruments ensures that they are measuring what they are purporting to measure. To ensure content validity, experts from education department will help to vet the 20 items comprising the attitude questionnaires and identify positive and negative statements. Procedures in cooperative and experiential learning will be validated by lecturers from the chemistry department, Multimedia university of Kenya. The instruments will then be revised by peers and a number of academic experts. 4.5.2: Reliability A reliable research instrument yields consistent results or data after repeated trials. The reliability of the instruments will be determined by using cronbach alpha method with the responses of 10 8

students and teachers from the pilot study. The instruments will be pilot tested in one school in the division under focus. The data collected from the pilot school will be analysed using SPSS version 18 and the reliability index cronbachs coefficient set at index of 0.70. According to Orodho (2005) a coefficient of about 0.70 is satisfactory for any research instrument. 4.6 Data collection procedures The researchers will seek research permit from the National commission of Science Technology & Innovation (NACOSTI) before embarking on the research study. Consent will also be sought for schools to be used through the district education officer (D.E.O) Siaya county .Preliminaries visits will be made to those to determine the extent of syllabus and finalize on any other logistics with the school principals. During the actual study, teachers interview will be conducted during the first school visit in order to find out the opinions on the teaching and learning of chemistry and problems encountered by the teacher in the classroom. The students will also fill in the questionnaire to capture their attitude before. The selected teacher will then teach for four weeks after completion of the attitude scale using cooperative learning and experiential learning. The researchers will observe lessons as they proceed naturally. After the four weeks the student questionnaire and achievement test will be administered. 4.7 Data Analysis and Interpretation. The Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 18 will be used to analyze quantitative data. To test the stated hypotheses, the attitude results for both pre and post treatment be will subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in order to determine whether there is a significant difference between the levels of students interest towards learning chemistry before and after using cooperative learning. Independent t-test will be done on the chemistry achievement test to determine mean achievement. Hypotheses will be rejected or accepted at significant level of P0.05. Qualitative data will be categorized into themes and analyzed in a narrative way. 4.1 For studies using human subjects indicate eligibility (inclusion/exclusion) criteria, access and recruitment, incentives etc Students and teachers will be used in this study in a normal classroom environment. Consent will be sought from the district education officer, Siaya County, school principals and teachers of the sampled schools .A workshop will be organized to induct teachers in the control schools and assistant researchers on the use of cooperative learning strategy and experiential learning that might involve improvisation of a few laboratory apparatus and instruments using the locally available materials that will be used as the treatment. Incentives in terms of allowances will be given to the teachers in the sampled schools and also assistant researcher who will be used to observe lessons and enter data gathered from the study. 5.0 Expected outputs of the research (Clearly state the expected outputs which should be realistic,
achievable within the time frame of two years and quantifiable. The stated expected outputs should be clearly linked with the objectives of the study).

1. Evidence based effectiveness of collaborative learning and experiential learning, 2. Enhanced enjoyment, participation of students in learning chemistry likely to lead to improved performance through collaborative learning. 3. Increased teachers technique in teaching chemistry making their work more fruitful.

6.0 Identify the potential beneficiaries and indicate the expected impact of the research results: A. Students will benefit because collaborative strategy will facilitate a change of attitude and motivate them to participate in chemistry lesson. This will hasten their understanding of concepts in chemistry, increase realization that chemistry learning can be fun and consequently a possible subject to score. B. Findings of this study would be of significant to teachers as information gathered would assist them to become reflective practitioners in their daily chemistry teaching and also broaden their knowledge as to how they can influence students positively towards learning chemistry. The teachers will also develop deeper understanding of their students, the teaching learning process, and the crucial role they play in the educational lives of their students. C. Findings from this study would be cost effective for the poor schools who might be only opening their laboratory doors when the KCSE exams are about to start because of ill equipped laboratory, expensive chemicals and few delicate expensive apparatus .students on the other hand will find chemistry as fun as its apparatus can be found made with locally and economical. D. Findings from this study will also contribute to the body of knowledge on the effectiveness of cooperative learning strategy and form a basis for further research on teaching and learning strategies.


7.0. Plan of activities: Provide clearly the two years project activities on a monthly basis, in the following format below, identifying all the tasks in their sequence that will be performed to complete the proposed work. (The approved budget for this work will be disbursed in two installments on yearly basis).


Year 1 (Months)

Year 2 (Months)

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8 9 10 11 12 th th th th th

Activity 1: Proposal development. Baseline assessment of sampled schools Activity 2: Development of the chemistry lessons manual Activity 3: Pre-testing research tools, workshops for subject teachers and assistant researchers Activity 4: Actual study(Lesson implementation Activity 5 Data analysis and interpretation Activity 6 Compilation of research findings Activity 7 Dissemination and publication


8.0 ITEMIZED BUDGET The institutional overheads/charges, administration fee are not accepted. Emphasis on budget allocation should be placed on expendable supplies; procurement of equipment will not be prioritized. (This Grant does not support the acquisition of items such as :- Laptops; Desktop Computers; Printers; Microscopes; Refrigerators; Deep freezers; Microwaves; Cameras; Mobile phones). Any equipment procured under this grant will remain property of the institution). Yearly itemized budget (Ksh) 8.1 Expendable supplies Year 1 Year 2 Teaching and learning materials (Experimental schools) 250,000 100,000 included Materials for improvisation of laboratory apparatus and 100,000 60,000 items. Sub-total 350,000 160,000 Equipment (Specify and describe each item) Equipments normally found in most 8.2 Labs may not be supported by this grant.

Sub-total 8.3 Documentation and publication costs Chemistry lesson plans manual 40@500 20,000 Students practical guide manual 200@200 40,000 Library services 30,000 Reference books cost 30,000 30,000 Data analysis (including purchase of SPSS 250,000 18) Publishing 150,000 Sub-total 120,000 430,000 Local travel (should be not more than 10% of the total budget)- The grant does not 8.4 support international travelling Transport of researchers and assistant researchers, pre-visits and post-visit to 80,000 schools Research Period, 4 weeks, twice per week for 96,000 each school @ 4,000 per visit Sub-total 80,000 96,000 8.5 Other costs (Clearly specify) Research assistants Lesson observation allowances (Experimental) 12 lessons per school for 2 schools @ Kshs. 6,000 Research assistants Lesson observation allowances (control) 12 lessons per school for 2 schools @ Kshs. 6,000 Induction workshop/meetings for research assistant and subject teachers(include meals, 12

144,000 144,000 350,000

transport, facilitation fee and out of pocket) Supervisory allowances 150,000 Administrative costs e.g Telephone, 50,000 secretarial services e.t.c Expert consultation fee 2@20,000 each 40,000 Sub-total 694,000 144,000 Total Yearly budget 1,244,000 830,000 TOTAL BUDGET 2,074,000 (Total budget Applied for must not exceed the Advertised limit. Any applications exceeding the limit will not be considered) 8.6 List the items you requested funding for in the budget, describing their function and justify their use in the research (Attach explanatory notes of the budget) 1 2 3 5 6 ITEM Chemistry lesson plans manual Students practical guide manual Teaching and learning materials(Experimental schools) Library services Reference books FUNCTION To be used by the teachers in the experimental schools during lesson delivery To be used by the students in the experimental schools during practicals Materials to be supplied by the researchers in the experimental schools (in case the materials are not available in the schools.) For reference when developing lesson manuals For reference when developing lesson manuals

9.0 List any other funds that you or your institution have obtained or applied for this project Donor Time frame Amount (Kshs) NIL NIL NIL If you have co-funding for your project, please give details of the funding you have received and why ST&I Grant is needed. NONE



References (List all the publication/literature quoted in this work) Adeyemi, B. A. (2008). Effects of cooperative learning and problem solving strategies on junior secondary students Achievement in social studies. Elect. J.Res.Edu. Psychol, 16930: 691-708. ISSN 1696-2095. From http://www.investigation Agashe, L. (2004). Sustainable Development and cooperative Learning in the formal Education system in India. Progress of Education. Pune; PuneVidyarthi Griha Parkistan. Gay, L. R. & Airasian, P. (2000). Educational research: competencies for analysis and application. New Jersey: Merrill Kenya National Examination Council (2009). 2008 KCSE Examination Report. KNEC Nairobi. Kenya Institute of Education (2002). Secondary syllabus volume two. Kenya Institute of Education Nairobi Muiji Daniel (1999) Doing Quantitative Research in Education, Sage publications. London. Thousand Oaks. New Delhi Michael R. Mathews, (2008). Constructivism in Science and Chemistry Education, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 Australia. Ministry of Education and Technology; Kenya Education Sector support (KESSP), 2005-2010. Government Printers Nairobi. Mugenda, O. M., A. G. (1999). Research Methods, Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Acts Press. Nairobi. OECD-PISA, (2004). First Results from PISA 2003; Learning for Tomorrows World. OECD. Paris. Orodho, J. (2005). Education and Social Sciences Research Methods. Harlifax Printers Nairobi Soyibo, J. and Atwood, R. (1985). Interest scores as predictors of science Process Performance on a Biology test. Lagos State University Tobin, K. (1993). The Practice of Constructivism in Science and Chemistry Education , AAAS Press, Washington DC



Roles of each collaborator

(State clearly the contribution of each research team member)

1. Carren Akinyi Nyapola Carren is a technologist in the chemistry laboratory at the Multimedia University of Kenya. She will assist in developing the proposal and chemistry manual, train assistant researchers, observe lessons and conduct teachers interviews, analysis, interpret data and give overall guidance on research implementation also will assist in development of the lesson manual especially where chemistry practicals are required, induct teachers on the use of the manuals, observe lessons and help in data entry. 2. Martin Mbugua Magu; Martin is assistant Lecturer in the Faculty of Science at the Multimedia University of Kenya. He will assist in development of the chemistry lesson manual especially induct teachers on the use of the manuals, observe lessons, conduct teachers interviews, data entry and give general guidance on chemistry syllabus implementation, and coordinate research activities. Generate the draft report. 3. Caroline Wanjiru Chege Caroline is a senior researcher in QuestLabs. She will assist in developing laboratory manuals, develop & administer questionnaires. In addition, she will help in conducting the labs & data entry of the filled questionnaires before analysis is done. Interpretation of results and production of the final report. 12.0 Prepare and attach a Logical frame work clearly linking objectives, outputs and activities. Clearly provide verifiable indicators and means of verification for the stated objectives, outputs and activities. (A proposal will not be accepted without a properly done Log

ACTIVITY Choosing & selecting the sample schools, administer the questionnaire Subjecting one set of the learners to experiments while control will only be taught without experiments Administering examinations after experiments and evaluate/ compare the overall performance of boys & girls Demonstrating & taking teachers through the chemistry teaching kits

OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of cooperative/collaborative method of teaching To determine the effectiveness of experiential method of teaching as a strategy for increased participation, interest, enjoyment, understanding To evaluate the performance of chemistry subject by both boys and girls in Kenyan Secondary schools with the topic conductivity and electrochemistry To enhance teaching skills in chemistry making the process more meaningful and rewarding to both the learners and the teachers

OUTPUT Current status of event Chemistry training kits for learners

INDICATORS Overall performance of students Overall scores

MEANS Questionnaires

Experiments from Chemistry lab manuals Examinations

Improved Understanding performance of the topic through extent/level of participation Chemistry training kits for teachers & learners Assessment scores



ST&I GRANT ADMINISTRATION The research team to identify the institution that will administer ST&I Grant if successful: Full Name and Address: MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY OF KENYA, BOX 15653 00503 NAIROBI Telephone Contacts: Mobile No: 0724257083 or 0735900008 Office No.: 020 2071392 Fax No.: 020 2071247 E-Mail Address: vc@mmu.ac.ke







CARREN AKINYI NYAPOLA . P.O.BOX 15653-00503, NAIROBI +254-0723569907 carrennyapola@rocketmail.com, knyapola@gmail.com married 1978 fluent in spoken and written English,kiswahili,luo and basics in german

Education and qualification;

Kenyatta university Pursuing a degree Kisumu polytechnic Diploma in Analytical Chemistry.1999-2001credit Agoro Oyombe Sec K.C.S.E..1994-1996..B-(MINUS) Mbaga Girls Sec 1993-1994 Karapul primary school K.C.P.E-63 POINTS OTHERS; Nairobi institute of business studies (NIBS)certificate in computer2004 A valid driving license Kenya peoples empowerment network--------certificate in guidance and counselling Chemistry laboratory Technologist with 7 years work experience in teaching ,institution & research chemistry laboratory , 4 years gained with Kenya science teachers college .Wide range experience in institution laboratory rules & safety, first Aid procedures, laboratory equipment &apparatus usage and maintenance ,laboratory management & laboratory waste disposal. My attributes are result driven , logical and methodological approach to achieving tasks and objectives. Self a ware , always seeking to learn and grow Determined and decisive uses initiative to develop effective solutions to problems I m emotionally mature & confident ,a calming influence Experience /specialisms; I have experience in carrying out laboratory analytical methods ,processes and procedures. Confidence& efficient in operating laboratory equipment & tools reliably & safely Monitoring and recording of laboratory stock of consumable items and permanent equipments and reporting of the same Listening understanding emphathising ,helping and solving student related questions to my capability Scheduling of laboratory sessions Researching and exploring Achievements Liased with department (moi university chemistry department) in monitoring the performance of the waste &presence of heavy metals in river sosiani 19

Science congress presented a project on Making of shoe polish using locally available materials. Career history ; 1)Multimedia university of Kenya - Chemistry laboratory technologist.(2011 to present) 2) CEMASTEA (centre for mathematics science and technology in education in Africa) 2007 to 2011. Chemistry laboratory technician. Maintainance of laboratory cleanliness and safety procedures Keeping of laboratory records and data entry using the computer Responsible for compiling laboratory reports on the results after a laboratory session Maintainance of laboratory equipments and apparatus Prepares the solutions from stock solution to a required standard I m the bridge between the student (science teachers from Africa)and the institution during laboratory session 3) Kenya science teachers college/kenya science campus;.2002-2005 Chemistry laboratory technician(contract ) Duties;maintainance of laboratory cleanliness Preparations of solutions for practical Through the department assisted during student project research &laboratory equipment usage Keeps records of all laboratory equipments,chemicals,issuances,loses and reported to my supervisor 4) Moi university chepkoilel campus(industrial attachment)Jan-April 2000 Under the supervision of Mr.Ekeyya; Assisted in maintaining of laboratory cleanliness Assisted in laboratory with research analysis using the laboratory instruments e.g AAS,HPLC,flame fotometre,among others Preparation of solutions for practicals Record keeping of laboratory equipments HOBBIES; Doing what is best at the right time and place REFEREES: Mr.Alfred Mitema, Mr.Jonstone kebaso Prof. Abel Mayaka KENYA SCIENCE CAMPUS CHIROMO CAMPUS Multimedia University P.O.BOX 30596 P.O.BOX P.O.BOX 15653-00503. NAIROBI NAIROBI NAIROBI TEL; 0721592806 TEL.;0720929389


MARTIN MBUGUA MAGU PERMANENT ADDRESS P.O. BOX 15653 00503 Nairobi TEL: +254 721-293654; +254786293654 E-Mail Address: magujnr@gmail.com, magujnr@yahoo.com PERSONAL DETAILS DATE OF BIRTH : 29TH July 1983 MARITAL STATUS: Married NATIONALITY : Kenyan ID NO. : 22858740 PIN NO. : A005006139K PASSPORT NO. : A915174 RELIGION : Christian LANGUAGES : English and Swahili ATTRIBUTES: Self-motivated, Flexible, Dedicated, determined, devoted and goal-oriented EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND / ACADEMICS QUALIFICATION: Duration : May 2008 July 2011 University : Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) Course : Master of Science (MSc.) in Environmental Legislation and Management Duration : 26TH January 2009 27TH February 2009 University : Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) Course : Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Audit (EIA/EA) Duration : April 2003 July 2007 University : Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) Qualification : Bachelor of Science (BSc.) in Analytical Chemistry PAPERS AND PUBLICATIONS 1. Keriko, J. M.; Chege, C. W.; Magu, M. M.; Mwachiro, E. C.; Murigi, A. N.; Githua, M. N. and Kareru, P. G. (2010) Fish lipid contents and classes of selected fish species found in Lake Naivasha (Kenya) and the fish feeding habits of the lakes inhabitants. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 4(10), pp. 745-753. 2. Magu, M. M.; Keriko, J. M.; Kareru, P. G. and Chege, C. W. (2011). Heavy metal burdens in twelve common freshwater fish species from Kenyan waters. Journal of Green Chemistry (in press). 3. Magu, M. M.; Keriko, J. M.; Chege, C. W. and Kareru, P. G. (May, 2011). Fish lipid content and lipid classes in commercial fishes from selected Kenyan fresh waters. Book of proceedings for the third annual ITROMID scientific conference at JKUAT Nairobi, Kenya. PROFESSIONAL COURSE/CONFERENCES/WORKSHOPS: Duration : 1ST 3RD December 2011 What : First international ICT conference, multimedia university college of Kenya Theme : Technology Convergence:-The Challenges, Risks and Opportunities Duration : 22ND 23RD November 2011 What : Kenya Chemical Society workshop Theme : Launch of International year of chemistry (2011) in Kenya Duration : 14TH 18TH March 2011 What : Eastern Africa Farmers Federation (EAFF) Bioenergy Workshop Theme : Developing sustainable utilization of bioenergy opportunities in Eastern Africa Region 21

: 16TH 19TH November 2010 : Kenya marine fisheries research institute (KEMFRI) : Second International conference on Aquatic resources of Kenya (ARK II) Duration : 24TH March 2009 2ND April 2009 Trainers : World Agroforestry Centre & Macaulay Land Use Research Institute Theme : Building Ecosystem Services for Semi-Arid Africa-BESSA RESPONSIBILITIES 1. PLACE : Faculty of Engineering, MMU DURATION : April 2013 TO DATE POSITION : Attachment Coordinator ACHIEVEMENTS : industry liaison person looking for attachment places for students and arranging for their supervision. 2. PLACE : JKUAT, GK Chemistry Lab. DURATION : August 2007 December 2010 POSITION : Chairman of postgraduate chemistry students ACHIEVEMENTS : Coordinating students in the lab, repair of minor faults of lab equipment, proper key handling, ensuring sound management of the research lab, receiving new postgraduate students. WORKING EXPERIENCE: 1. PLACE :Multimedia University College of Kenya (MUCK) DURATION : 11TH APRIL 2011 TO DATE POST : Assistant Lecturer 2. PLACE :Institute Of Energy & Environmental Technology - JKUAT DURATION : 1ST MAY 2009 31ST MARCH 2011 POST : Part-time Lecturer for EIA/EA & OSH Courses 3. PLACE :GK Chemistry Laboratory- JKUAT DURATION : 19TH MAY 2007 31ST MARCH 2011 POST : Graduate Research Assistant PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIP AND PARTICIPATION: Active Member of Natural Products Research of East and Central Africa (NAPRECA) Active Member of Kenya Chemical Society (KCS)-Nairobi Chapter REFEREES: 1. MR. EDWIN KOECH KIPYEGON Chairman, Electrical and Communications Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University College of Kenya BOX 15653 - 00503 NAIROBI PHONE: +254722109886 email: ekipyegon@mmu.ac.ke or ekipyegon@gmail.com 2. PROF. JOSEPH M. KERIKO Chemistry Department JKUAT BOX 62000-00200 NAIROBI. PHONE: +254722915026 email: kerikojm@yahoo.co.uk 3. PROF. PATRICK G. KARERU Chemistry Department JKUAT BOX 62000 00200 NAIROBI email: pgkareru@yahoo.com PHONE: +254722639823 Duration What Theme


P.O. Box 7022-20100 Nakuru

Telephone: +254 721 519 465 email: cawachege@yahoo.com

CAROLINE WANJIRU CHEGE Date of Birth: 21/05/1982 Marital Status: Single Gender: Female Nationality: Kenyan Languages: English & Kiswahili PERSONAL PROFILE A diligent 31-year-old individual with good communication and interpersonal skills, fast learner, self-motivated and a team-player. A good listener and can work with minimum supervision. Willing to learn more analytical instrumentation especially troubleshooting and maintenance. CAREER To work in an environment where I can utilize my knowledge, OBJECTIVES acquired skills and experience with the objective of providing the best solutions and services to clientele and enhancing the attainment of the company goals. ACADEMIC 2006 2011 QUALIFICATIONS Master of Science (Chemistry) Project: Analysis of fish lipids and heavy metal contents in selected fish species of Lake Naivasha and the Kenyan coast and fish feeding habits of the inhabitants. 2001 2005 Bachelor of Science (Industrial Chemistry), Second class Honours Upper Division. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) 1997 2000 Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E.) Mary Mount Secondary School, Molo 1989-1996 Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (K.C.P.E.) PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE 1st August, 2013 To date Laboratory Manager at the AgriQ Quest Laboratories Ltd. Nairobi 1st February, 2010 31st July, 2013 Chemical Laboratory Analyst at the AgriQ Quest Laboratories Ltd. Nairobi 28th August, 2006 18th December, 2009 Graduate Research Assistant at the Department of Chemistry - Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) attached to Prof. J. M. Keriko 1


4th July, 2005 - 31st March, 2006 Daily Analyst (Contract) - Magadi Soda Co. Ltd. 4th April, 2005 30th June, 2005 Industrial Attachment - Magadi Soda Co. Ltd. 15th August, 2003 - 18th October, 2003 Industrial Attachment Menengai Oil Refineries Ltd. TRAININGS, WORKSHOPS AND CONFERENCES Development of DDT in soil method using GC-MS on 5th 30th April 2010 Certified ISO/IEC 17025:2005 Awareness Training on 23/02/2011 Development of Histamine in fish method using HPLC-UV on 21st Nov 8th Dec 2011 Development of Multi-residue pesticide method using LC-MS/MS on 1st June 5th July 2012 REFEREES MR. ROBERT MUTHOMI, Business Development Manager. AgriQ Quest Laboratories Ltd, P.O BOX 3097-00506 , NAIROBI Mobile No: +254 725 971 811 Email: robert.muthomi@agriq-quest.com MR. WALTER OGARA, Head of Laboratory Services. AgriQ Quest Laboratories Ltd, P.O BOX 3097-00506 , NAIROBI Mobile No: +254 716 192 427 Email: walter.ogara@agriq-quest.com DR. LEONARD M. GITU, Senior Lecturer, Department of Chemistry. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O BOX 62000-00200 , NAIROBI, Mobile No: +254 724 495 493 Email: gitumleo@yahoo.co.uk