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Presenc perfec-t or past simple?

A
I
rr

rtlritt.'t itrtt

I-ook ac rhi:::

Sa rn

Now conlperc:
-uses

Sanr and Kay have bought e nelv car. Sanr

rhe prcsellt perfect to tell us abottt thc arrd the prescnt. They botrglrt tirc car, 1',rst :ur.l it's tlrcirs ttolv.

Thcy Uougtl, the car lasc rveqk. Kay uses the past sirnple to tell i.rs abotrt thc pasr, a tirrrc which is finished.

sr

W,-' do not use the present pcrfcct rvith phrascs likc ye.;tcrday, Iast wcek, ten )'ears ago. o r -{[Jr cyl,e b o ugh t<l : e-a r'l o s t- we e k'-

B [ lravc clotre/I clicl


Compare:
PI\ESENT PERFECT 'W'e use rhe present pcrfect to talk about the pasr and the.pi:esent: Jane has packcd her case, look,
llfl-'zxrstr.a@4ffi
PAST

SiMPLE

'

We
past:

use the past simplc

to taik about thc

Jane packeil lrcr case last night,


l'l1z:!r<Jr6 *rE,

pasr',:rd#sduG{v* -+ NOw l!-*- s.lgr,:fi


nfE
Linited haue won the Crq!

pasr Ft'{ HrE-M'--2.

United won the Cup in 1989.

ersr*&awiEry:@r;1u5

ffijgm**#,ffi
The present pcrfect tells us abouc rhe present. There is a present result of a pa*.r action: Jane has packed her case. (So che case is luU now.) unitert haue won the Cup!(So chc Cup is theirs now.) Tint lrcs repaircd. thc chair. (So tlte chair is all right now'.) But che past simple does not tell us about the present: (Her things may not berin the case rrow.) Jane Ttacked her case last nig:ht. l)nitcd won the Cup itt 1989. (Uniccd may not have the Cup rorv.) Tim repaired the chair. (Ic rnay be brokcn ,gri1 now.) We ofcen gilr" , piece olne'ws in thc present perfect and use.the past simple for the de tails:
I't,e:found nty waliet.

Sotneone has tcft Your parcel lns ativcd.

this daor apeil.

Oh, good. WIrcre did you jnd it? * [ expcct Phil did u*e n he weilt out. 'brought it this nrcrrting. 'fhe
ltosttttan

We ofcen

use

just, already and yec with

But Anrerical'ls sometimes use the


sir:rplc:

pasc

tlre prcscrrc pcr[t:ct: li ue.i rr s t rent e.trtb c rc ti so :rt c tlt ittg. Tltc btrs has atreadY lcft. I{as Tom replied to yout lcttar y27J [--or thcsc adverbs se c Unir 90'

'

just

remetubered sonrclhirrR,

Thc bus alrtady teft. Did Tom reply to your letter yei?

For nrorc exarnp!e:i sce p 288.

I've been/[ was


Comparc:
PI\ESENT PERFEC'T Wc rrsc thc prescnt pcrrfcct
I'N S'T SIMt'LE

Ibr a statc rvhich has gonc on up to rlrc prcscllt: ll/c'r,t: lirci lrcrc-f t:r !ttt ycars. (And wc still livc hcrt:.)

ffitrx*,#flflH
Here are some nlore exarnples: l've had this bricf,:a:afor apcs. (And I'vc still got it now.) Enma has loued lSali sittce shc-first saw il. (Arrd slrc scill lovcs ic norv.)

tltc past sintplc {or I stltc irr tlrc irr r Pgpiscl rvlriclr is firrislr.':tl: l\/c liyctl thucJrtr tcu ),cttrs. (Wc clon't iivc tlrcrc rror,,,.) 'l':,; livcd .i.'t. ."' '::' .' : - NOW.

Wc

trJc

1'r:ts

';.:'.., ., -. ^.---., ::,l.iti"i'ii,*.;,',.i

t.L

.1i -.. i'(

;.

I ha,{ a bricJcasc orrcc. I dott't krrotv tJ' ! .qol if. {:rrtttra loucd Bali tplrctr slrc first s,ttu it

utr

s(i tf
i

Have you ever . . .7 /Did you ever


Cr)IllParcl
'We
PRESENT PERFECT use the present perfect

for acticns in a period of cime up to the prcscnt: This yotng producer lrcs madeJourjlns sr)
-fnr. has made

'We use the past sirnplc for actions in tlrc past, a pcriod which is finishcd:' Tlte prodtrccr tttade 1q15 (,ffilrrts irr his lttttg
carcer,

ITNST SIMPLE

I{e's madcftlnts rncarls that it

;:Jffi
i:; possiblc hc

f-i :::*,-.'.'9j..*r.*:trii*;iir

;N'P,rv

i',

will make rnore

fil:r-:s.

He nadcflrns nteans that his carccr in filrrr5 is over. He won'c make arlv more.
My grandparenrs. like d di t:tb i ng. 7'h c y c{inbed this mountaitr nratty tirrtes. Did Clurclill euar go to Atttarica? - No,',( dott't think so. I played volleyball at college.

Here are some more cxamplcs: V/e ii'ke clintbing. lUe'vc clinbed this mountain nuny tlmes. Have you ever been lo Atneica? - Yes, ['ve been lhere twice. I've played vollq'bdl befon.

I:

todayl this week ctc.


'We use toclay and phrascs lvith tlris for
PR-ESEN'I' PEI\FECT
a

period trp to tilc prcsent:


I'AST STMPLE

It

fuastt't raificd lttdev,

Hauc 1,ort seui tltis tieek's magazine?

It rained yestcrday. Did you see last week's magazinc?


I didn't seeJody' at scltool today. (Thc school day is ovcr.) Did tltc post co,ttc lltis tttorrtittg? (lt is htcr in rlrc dry.)

llut note tfrese exampies:


I hapcr't seen Jody toda)' . (lt's stilI da1' tinrc.) Has tltc posl cotttc tltis ntontirtg? (lr is still rtroririiig.)

Exercises I have clorre,/I did (A,


B)

Put in thr: correct verb fornr. D havc done / did l'uciantall the housc,work. 'firc housc is clean. D have bouglrt / bought A young couplc bolrgrrt rrrc rrotrsc. Bur rr-Lcy didn't rive there lo.g. t have arrived / arrived Our _ . Thcy,re sirrirrg in rhe garden. 'isitors 2 has repaired / ..'pri."J Susan tlrc tclevision, bur then ir brok: dorvn again. 3 havc lost / lost I __ _ - rny prlrsc. I carr'r fincl it anywhcrc. + has starrcd / startcd
5

has -rrn ,/ ran

6 ''7 8 9 10 11

Joattne
lras cerncd

/ clrrrcd /
planted

away lronr home. But she came back rwo days lare r.

Jrttnes
hrvc

wc

1>larrtcd

-.

solne rnoney last rveek.

llur I'rn afraid he's alreaciy spe,r ir all.

--

have gone

/ wenr
tlrrncd

a crcc

i'r'c

glrdcrr. LJrrForturretcry it's dicd.

has turrrcd ,/

12 has -- broken / broke

Sotneorre o1 rhe hi-fi. i can hear ir. have phoned / phoned I __---che ofiice at elevr:... Heien isn'r chere tcday, rhey said. lrave madc / ntadc I a cake. Would you like a piece?

'flre ru:lner Amos Temila the rvorld record lor rire mile in Frankfurr. Then crvo da1's later in l{elsinki, Lee Wihiams ran'rhe nrile i;r an evcn faster time.

I've been/I was (C)


Cornpiete thc letcer. Put in tirc prescnt perfcct ()r pasr rirr-rpl" of thc verbs on che rig6r. I o--ras a.ngry and sai to herrr that someon<, plaru ro k,ock down tire 'White Horse Im in Brjckficld. 'fhis pub o-foas been rhe 3er-rtrc of village I life for centuries. It at our crossroads for abour 500 2 [t eirnolrs in the old days, and 7eas. Slr:rkcspearc oncc a--- thcrc, they say. I i^ lrrickficld -.-_-- elr r,y rirc, arrd I knorv ail abouc ir. Wc 5-[or sotrrc tintc of chc dangcr ro our pub. Tlrerc 6--^--sonre ralk a ycar or rwo ,go ,botr, knocking ir corvn. llrrt ail thc vrllagen arc.rqeinsr tlrc plen. We willsrop ic, \,ou'l_l sec.

Dbe obc 1 srand

2bc 3 stay 4 livc 5 kn<>w


6be

LO

Bd#-

pr(:sc'nt perfect or past sirnplc.

T[r,e s,rn has done . . .,,'fhc fathcr did . . . (D) I\cgirrald was a riclt atrd sltcr:cssfi-rl busirrcss^1a11, but.ow hc's a. olcl nrarr ard clocsrr'r r,,.oi-k arry tllcrrc' His son Hugo is a vfl7 rich and vcr/ stlcccssfirl brrsi.css,lall. l,trt i* tlrc vcrbs. Usc tlic
Most btrsiness pcoplc ntakc rnistake,s. l\cginald
trradt-- rrristakcs,

nade a mistake.

b.t

his

so, _/r,r;_ rrc\rcr

lathcr

Business peopie travel a 1oc. Hugo all ovcr clrc rvorld. I lis I-etlrcr on btrsiness too, lJ\lt rlot so rrrr,rch. =-:--Good business peopJc tn:,kc nloncy. F{r-rgo f50 rrrilliorr rrog,. l.lis

'

R-cginalci tlre Exporrcr of tlrc ycar. prize rwice. Hi.s son ic four tiurcs alrcady. A lor of busincss pcoplc dorr'r rakc risks. Old l\r:ginrld risks [rccar.rsc he rvas afraid to. But his son - qLritc a [ew risks so tir irr his c:]rccr.
Rusincss pr:oplc can rvin priz.csI

{10nrillion.

today, this vveek etc. (E) D -Iatl2


Prrt irr this, la:;t, today or ycsterday. nlonth priccs \vent up, btrr

t/ris l'r'rorlth thcy havc fallerr a lirrlc.


u,eck, brrt ._ -_ rvcck \\.iis vcr), \\,cr. and spcnc all rhc ruorrey I crrrrccl -=-

lt's bccn dry so far I rrrctrt shopping carli,:r

We didn'c havc lnany tolllafocs _ ycar. Wclve grorvn a lot lnore stllnmcr. I don't feel so dr:ed now. We got up quite late nrorniuq. i fclr rcally'tircc{ - nrorning wl-:en we got up so carly.

Prc'sent per[ect or past sinrple ? (A-E)


Pur in the verbs.

Craig: oJJtyqlahw,,l__ Nicola: l\o, ra'hat Craig: She 2-1

rhe news abouc Cathy?


7

D
1

you irc.rr
happcn

-l.licola: Oh, horv a'yfuli When s--Craig: Yesterday afce rnoon. Sarah about it last niglit. 'i-Nicola: Last night! Y ou you 8-_ Craig: 'Well, I e-- lo--Nicola: I hopc shc's all right. Shc ll accidcnts, 1,ou kporv. S[c l2
sa.r-ne

4---

for

a b'us

whcn shc

---

3r1

accidcrrt. Shc rvas runnltlg down and

2 3
4

hlvc

filt
:

lrcr lcg.
me
lasc nigirc, anci

brcak this l'r: 6 tell

mc!

yotr last nigirt. And you today, until norv.

lots oI tirc

knorv B , noc tcll 9 not scc 10 not scc 1 1 hrvc

12 do

fhing

al.>our

two ycars ago.

1T

__

li have
A

been doing or I have doire?

l't.t'st'trl l)t'rli't t'. o:tIittt.totrs (lravc l-rccrr ttoirrg) t,r'sirrr1.,lt. (tr;rvt. clorre ).
Comparc:

have been doirrg


'Wr: use rhc present perfc,:l r:ontinuous for an action uver a period (Unit 8): We've bcen totiring Scctlund. A strong wind hus been )lou,ing all aay.

have done

'Wc use the prescnr pcrGcr sinrple for r complcrc acrion (Unir 4): L4/e'ue j.ui-shcd our tour of Scotlatrd. The wind ha; t,lorun ouri'ettce ove r.
as

T[re choice of fonn depcnds on wlrcther we sue thc action as continuing ovcr a pcriod or complcte. Compare: '' o\/ER A PERIOD (have beerr doing) coNlPLETE (have done)

Tim has been repairing.lis bike. He's got oil on his lwds. Jane is out af ltreatlr. Slrc's bcen. running,

I've been writiag an es:iay. I'm tired now,


'W'e

rrornr.ally use the corrtinuous fornr with a phrase saying how l,.rrg: Mandy lrcs beer picking aitptcs all aJteruoon. ' I've been wdtittg letters since this

Tim has repaired his blke. It goes all right llow. Jane hopes she isn't late. She's ruti all thc way. I've u,ritten an essay. I can hand it in noc, 'We use the simple form with a phrase sayirrg how many: A4andy llrs picked hwtdreds of apples. I'ue writtett ten letters.
;

morning.
B

Actrons arlcl st:atcs

'We cannot nonnally use tl,,e coutinuous forrn for a statc (sec Unic 3): I'ut' knowtt the secretfor a long /inre. Nor -t-ve4een*now*t! The Broturs hauc lnd thal calbr at least te,t I'edrs. ll/e'uc never been uer1, ltdpllv l1g7s.

I-ive an.j rvork (= havc aj"L;

can bc cotrtinuolts or not, rvith liirlc difl:rcncc in trreaning: lYc'ue been liuittg. hcrc :itrce i'988. Ok We've lived here since 1988. Ton' has bectr working tt titc l:cnkJor thre.e years now. ot\ Tun has worked at the bankfor ttnrce

yedrs notu,

.{i

tl

p
.,Exercise s

I havc bcen doing: or I Irzrvc dorrc? (A)


[)ut tlrc vcrb [ornrs in tlrr:s,: convcrsations.

A: [ fecl really tir,:rl. IJ: It's becausc youo_'ve bcctt doittg too rrruclr. A: Wcll, at lcast lD3_cSaulrcd thar rcporr now, arrd I can havc a rcst. A: sonrcorrc l----tlrc l;rdricr otrrsic,lc, look.
t]:
A:

o
C-

do finish
lca

I cxpcct rhat's llrian. I-Ic 2 dorr't think he's finishcd ycr.

vc

clca n

ll:
A:

Yr:u'vc got grilss o:1 your

shoes.

You

lawn. it. Ir loolls a lot bc;ter. it nicc and short.

3
a )

lno\v
cut

4 scc

I hdve been doing or f have done? (A)

D ftuild) The Thorp es besLhJil-dWa h.ouse [or so,re tinre. . '.they 've built more-haue than halfof ir now.
(nrn) Those young ,lr". -l They (do) Since tea tirne Elaine for terr mitrutcs.

Put in the verb fornrs.

LJ.sc

the prcsent perfecr conrinuous or sinrplc.

nearly ru,o irriies.


sunrs
fifr-,/.

(drink) You _You (deliver) Sinron (pl.y) Bob and his {Hr:;rds -

She

in hcr exercisc book.

----:-:-

tca ali day. at least tell Cups.

about rwo hundred ncrvspapers. - e arly this rnoming. thenr since golf since Itrnch cinrc. Thc1,

I have been doing or I have done? (A,

B)

Con"rplete tire dialogue. Ptrt in the verbs in the present perfect co:rdnuous or sirnple. Lirrda: \Uhar ar:e you doing,Je.{I? 1t out rhis cupboard nrost ol 1 clcao th: afrcnroon. T'hcre's a lot of old stu{T'in lrcrc. 1z this, look. 2 find 3---Linda: '/ou rhac book for: rhe lasc fivc 3 read minutcs. I 4--4 rvarch s It's mv old diary. I it sirrcc I 5 not scc Jcft-: ('' \vas tcrr. It in hcrc for ycars. 6bc -You. Linda: And is that old [cnnis racker.yours? j.tl 1 [ __ No, it nlusi b(:'yours. r7 _ 7 rrcvcr lravc tcnnis rackct.

J"ff

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