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Week 1: Review of Theory Fundamentals

Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Know treble clef and bass clef notation, write and recognise all key signatures, construct major and minor scales. Recognise major and minor scales by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

Student Task / Reading


Complete the exercises and ensure all key signatures are known.

Week 1 - Exercises
Write out the following scales: E major

Eb major

F# major

G harmonic minor

G# harmonic minor

C melodic minor

Week 2: Rhythm notation and time signatures


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Know all commonly used rhythm notation symbols and apply notation conventions. Understand all forms of commonly used time signatures. th Transcribe a rhythm in common time using 8 note subdivisions. Summarise todays lesson content.

Quick review of major and minor scales writing and recognising them aurally. Aural test to ensure familiarity. Look at rhythmic divisions of notes: Semibreve (whole note) = 4 beats Minim (half note) = 2 beats Crotchet (quarter note) = 1 beat Quaver (eighth note) = beat Semiquaver (sixteenth note) = beat Adding a dot after a note adds half as much again to its value:

Rests are used to fill in the gaps between the notes to make each bar the correct length:

If we need to include notes that are longer than 4 beats or that cross a bar line then we use a tie. We use a tie to create a note whose duration cannot be written by a simple note. For example, if you need to have a note that is 5 beats long then this can be written by having a semibreve in one bar which is tied over to a crotchet in the next bar. For example:

Practice writing rhythms in common time as played by the teacher

Student Task / Reading


Recap scales and keys from last week to ensure familiarity. Transcribe simple rhythms as played by the teacher. Starting off with 1 bar and gradually getting longer and more complex.

Week 3: Intervals
Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Write and recognise all intervals within the range of one octave (diatonic and chromatic). Recognise diatonic intervals within the range of one octave by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

Recognising intervals is one of the fundamental skills of the musician. All music is made up of harmonic and melodic intervals of varying sizes. Get familiar with both the terminology and the process used to recognise them.

Student Task / Reading


Practice writing and recognising intervals. Practice recognising diatonic intervals by ear.

Week 3 Exercises
Name the following intervals:

Write the following intervals above the given note:

Ear Training - Do various aural tests (played by the teacher) to practice recognising diatonic intervals.

Week 4: Scale spellings


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Apply scale spellings to construct minor, blues and pentatonic scales. Recognise chromatic intervals within the range of one octave by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

Revise interval material from last weeks lesson do a quick test to ensure it is learned. Instead of using the letter names of the notes in a scale, musicians often use numbers. This is called the scale spelling, and is a general spelling for a scale. Major scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Natural Minor 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 8 Harmonic Minor 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 7 8 Melodic Minor 1 2 b3 4 5 6 7 8

Pentatonic Scales
A pentatonic scale contains only five notes. Pentatonic scales are frequently used for creating melodies. They are a purposeful restriction of a parent or master scale A major pentatonic is constructed by taking the 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 and 6 notes from a major scale Formula: R 2 3 5 6 8 nd rd th th Intervals: Root, major 2 , major 3 , perfect 5 , major 6
st nd rd th th

C major pentatonic scale A minor pentatonic is constructed by taking the 1 ,3 , 4 , 5 and 7 notes from a natural minor scale.
st rd th th th

Formula: R b3 4 5 b7 8 Intervals: Root, minor 3rd, perfect 4th, perfect 5th, minor 7th

C minor pentatonic scale

Blues Scale The blues scale is a 6 note scale. It uses notes from the major scale but lowers some of them. st rd th th th rd th The notes taken from the major scale are the 1 , 3 , 4 , 5 and 7 , however the 3 , 5 and th 7 notes are all lowered by 1 semitone to create blue notes. The b3rd and b7th replace the rd th th 3 and 7 notes but the b5th is used in addition to the normal 5 . The scale spelling for the blues scale is as follows: 1 b3 4 b5 5 b7 8 The b5 note within a blues scale is sometimes referred to as #4 by some musicians. This is th because it is traditionally correct to avoid writing two notes on the 5 degree of the scale. Flat 5 however is used most of the time. With all scales you need to able to write the key signature that goes with it. Major key signatures should be written for Major scales, Major Pentatonic and Blues scales. Relative Minor key signatures should be used for Natural, Harmonic, Melodic and Minor Pentatonic scales.

Student Task / Reading


Practice using scale spellings to construct scales. Practice recognising chromatic intervals by ear.

Week 4 Exercises
Ear Training - Practise recognising all intervals (diatonic and chromatic) up to 1 octave.

Write the following scales: A major pentatonic

B major pentatonic

E minor pentatonic

F minor pentatonic

E blues

Bb blues

Week 5: Triads and chord spellings. Harmonised major scale


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Apply chord spellings to construct major, minor, augmented, diminished triads. Harmonise a major scale to triads. Recognise the main triad types in root position by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

Triads
Triads are three note chords that are constructed by taking an interval of a third above the root, and then another third above that. For example, the C major triad consists of the notes C-E-G. C is the root, E is a major third above C, and G is a minor third above E. The C minor triad consists of the notes C-Eb-G. C is again the root, Eb is a minor third above C, and G is a major third above Eb. There are two more combinations possible two minor thirds and two major third intervals. These are diminished triads and augmented triads respectively. All four triads are shown in the following, together with their chord symbols:

C major triad perfect fifth major third root

C minor triad perfect fifth minor third root

C diminished triad

C augmented triad

diminished fifth augmented fifth minor third major third root root

It is often useful to invert triads. There are three positions for triads: root position (shown above), first inversion and second inversion. Below is the C major triad in all inversions:

root position

first inversion

second inversion

Major scale triads The basic harmony played in most styles of music derives from the major scale. Chords from the major scale are made by starting on each note of the scale, and taking every other note. Taking three notes in total makes a triad. For example, starting from C we obtain C-E-G the C major triad. Following the same procedure for each note, we obtain the following triad harmonisation of the C major scale:

The chord numbers are shown along the bottom. This order of the different types of triads is the same for every major scale. (Note that major/minor/diminished chords are sometimes written Cmaj, Dmin/Dm, Bdim etc.) Thus an F triad in the key of C major may sometimes be called chord IV and so on.

Student Task / Reading


Practice applying chord spellings to construct triads. Practice harmonising a major scale to triads. Practice recognising the main triad types in root position by ear.

Week 5 Exercises
Ear Training Practise recognising the 4 main triads aurally

Write the following triads

G dim

Bb min

A maj

E aug

B maj

Db min

Recognise the following triads:

Write the following harmonised scales to three note chords (include chord symbols): D major

Ab major

Week 6: Seventh chords. Harmonised major scale to sevenths.


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. th Apply chord spellings to construct the main 7 chord types: major 7, minor 7, th dominant 7 and half-diminished. Harmonise a major scale to 7 chords. th Recognise the main 7 chords played in root position by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

Revise triads from previous lesson. Seventh chords There are four main seventh chords we will focus on today: MAJOR 7 CHORD A major 7 chord is constructed by taking the 1 , 3 , 5 and 7 notes from the major scale
st rd th th th

The symbols for a major 7 are: Maj7, M7 or ^7. DOMINANT 7


th

th

To create a dominant 7 chord lower the seventh of a major 7 chord by a semitone.

The symbol for a dominant 7 is just the number 7 on its own. MINOR 7
th

th

To create a minor 7 chord lower the third and the seventh of a major 7 chord by a semitone.

The symbol for a minor 7 are: min7, m7 or -7.

th

HALF DIMINISHED To create a half diminished 7 (m7b5) chord lower the third, fifth and seventh of a major 7 chord by a semitone.
th th

The symbol for a half diminished chord is either: or m7(b5). Chord spellings Major 7 = 1, 3, 5, 7 th Dom 7 = 1, 3, 5, b7 th Min 7 = 1, b3, 5, b7 Half Dim = 1, b3, b5, b7 Harmonised scale Now follow the same procedure as for harmonised scale to triads, but this time construct fournote (seventh) chords. Here is the C major scale harmonised in seventh chords:
th

There are four different seventh chord types that arise from harmonising a major scale in this way: the major seventh chord (written C, Cmaj7 or CM7), minor seventh chord (D-7, Dmin7 or Dm7), dominant seventh chord (G7) and half-diminished chord (B, Bmin7b5 or Bm7b5).

Student Task / Reading


Practice applying chord spellings to construct 7 chords. Practice harmonising a major scale th th to 7 chords. Practice recognising the main 7 chords by ear.
th

Week 6 Exercises
Ear Training - Recognise the seventh chords by ear:

Construct the following 7 chords:

th

Bbm7

G^7

F7

E7

Identify the following 7 chords:

th

Write the following harmonised scales to four note chords: D major

Ab major

Week 7: Cadences. II V I progressions


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Identify the 4 principle cadences. Identify a major II-V-I progression. Recognise the 4 principle cadences by ear. Transcribe a simple diatonic chord sequences using triads. Summarise todays lesson content.

Chords do not exist as isolated sounds but relate to each other in established progressions. There are four principle cadences: perfect, imperfect, plagal and interrupted cadences. The Perfect Cadence (also called authentic cadence) is the full stop of music and involves chord V moving to chord I (also in minor keys). It creates an air of finality and will confirm the tonal centre or key in which it appears. In most cases the chords appear in root position with the bass note moving from the dominant to the tonic. The melodic line will most often move from either the supertonic or the leading note to the tonic. In minor key music you will sometimes find a major chord (known as a tierce de picardie) at the final cadence. This custom derives from Renaissance music where to conclude on a rd minor chord was considered weak. The final cadence was either major or the 3 was omitted altogether. The Imperfect Cadence (also called half cadence) is a temporary resting place in the music, pausing on chord V. The imperfect cadence sounds less final than a perfect cadence. The chord V can be preceded by chords I, ii, IV or any other chord. The Plagal Cadence is given by chord IV moving to chord I. This cadence occurs frequently in hymns (often thought of as Amen) and gospel music. The Interrupted Cadence is a V chord moving to any chord except I. Typically the following chord is chord VI or chord IV. This cadence sounds incomplete, creating a feeling of suspension.

Here are examples of the four principle cadences:

Student Task / Reading


Practice identifying the cadences and II-V-I progressions. Practice transcribing chord sequences by ear.

Week 7 Exercises
Ear Training - Practise recognising cadences by ear. Also revise, chords and scales too. Transcribe simple diatonic chord sequences as played by the teacher:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Week 8: More seventh chords.


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. th Apply chord spellings to more 7 chord types: min-maj, aug 7, maj 6, min 6, dim 7, aug maj 7. th Recognise the extra 7 chord types by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

Recap of cadences from last week. More 7 chords: Major 7 = 1, 3, 5, 7 th Dom 7 = 1, 3, 5, b7 th Min 7 = 1, b3, 5, b7 Half Dim = 1, b3, b5, b7 Minor major 7 = 1, b3, 5, 7 th Aug 7 = 1, 3, #5, b7 th Major 6 = 1, 3, 5, 6 th Minor 6 = 1, b3, 5, 6 th Dim 7 = 1, b3, b5, bb7 th Aug maj 7 = 1, 3, #5, 7
th th th

Student Task / Reading


Practice applying chord spellings to extra 7 chords. Practice harmonising the harmonic th minor scale and identifying the minor II-V-I. Practice recognising the extra 7 chords by ear.
th

Week 8 Exercises Write the following chords on a stave: 1. D aug 7th 2. F minor major 7th 3. E major 6th 4. B minor 6th 5. C dim 7th 6. A aug maj 7th 7. B aug 7th 8. Eb major 6th 9. D half dim 10. Ab Dim 7th

Ear Training Practise recognising these chords aurally Revise cadences and scales

Week 9: Review
Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Practice all material covered in term one ready for the formative exam in week 10. Summarise todays lesson content.

How to get the most from this lecture


To get the most from this lecture you need to revise from your notes made throughout the term.

Lecture content
Revise all elements from term in preparation for assessment.

Exercises
Ear Training Practise recognising 7ths, cadences, intervals and scales Practise rhythmic transcription Practice transcription of diatonic chord sequences

Exercise 4 Complete the theory exercises from the whiteboard covering all elements from week 10 formative assessment.

Student Task / Reading


Practice all material covered in term one ready for the formative exam in week 10.

Week 11: Recap formative assessment


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Identify weak areas from the formative assessment that need further work.

Go through formative paper and give correct answers. Go over any material that needs work. Respond to questions from students.

Discussion
What were the weak areas from the term one formative exam?

Student Task / Reading


For next week: Practice and consolidate all weak areas from term one formative exam.

Week 12: Harmonised harmonic and melodic minor scale.


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. th Harmonise the harmonic and melodic minor to triads and 7 chords. Recognise triad inversions by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

Here is the C harmonic minor scale harmonised to 4-note (seventh) chords:

The minor-major seventh chord and the major seventh augmented chord are also both found in the harmonised harmonic minor scale.
th

Harmonised melodic minor scale to 7 chords:

There are three inversions possible when dealing with triads. Root position, first inversion and second inversion. Root position = 1, 3, 5 st 1 inversion = 3, 5, 1 nd 2 inversion = 5, 1, 3 There are numerous techniques for recognising triads in their different inversions.

Student Task / Reading


For next week: Practice harmonising the melodic minor scale to triads and 7ths. Practice recognising triad inversions by ear.

Week 12 Exercises
Ear training Practise recognising the triads in their three inversions

Write the following harmonised scales to 4 note chords (include chord symbols): B harmonic minor

G harmonic minor

C melodic minor

Week 13: Secondary Dominants


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Recognise and understand the use of secondary dominants in chord progressions. Transcribe a simple diatonic melody by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

How to get the most from this lecture


To get the most from this lecture you need to practice this material in your own time. Make sure you revisit the material you learn in the lesson before you come back to the next lesson. This will help you to remember the important elements.

Lecture content
The following is a common chord progression in the key of C major: C D7 G7 C

If we analyse this progression we see that the chord D7 is not in the key of C major. This progression is an example of the use of secondary dominants. In diatonic harmony, the dom th 7 chord is the strongest clue pointing to the key centre, because it is a V chord in major keys and almost always in minor keys too. Chord V feels like it wants to go to chord I, as in a perfect cadence. In the above progression, the G7 chord that precedes the C major chord indicates the key of C major. Does the D7 chord represent a change of key or is there another explanation? When you listen to the progression it is obvious that the tone centre is C major, with the D7 sounding like a variation on the diatonic IIm7 chord. The change of the D-7 chord to D7 makes this sound more like it wants to go to the G chord, but does not signal the presence of a new key. This is called a secondary dominant. Look at the following chord progression (again in the key of C major): C A7 Dm G7 C

In this example the A7 is the secondary dominant. When you listen to the progression it is again obvious that the tone centre is C major, with the A7 sounding like a variation on the diatonic VIm7 chord. The A7 chord increases the sense of anticipation that D minor is about to arrive. Although the secondary dominant seems to break the rule that dom 7 chords function as V chords, the rule still applies. A secondary dominant chord still functions as a V chord but it is the V of a chord other than I. In the first example, D7 is the V7 of V. This analysis shows that C is still considered to be the tonic, G7 is the primary dominant of the key of C, and the function of D7 is to present the G7 chord in a more dramatic way than would be accomplished by the diatonic Dm chord. The D7 chord will be analysed as: V7/V (spoken as five seven of five, or more commonly five of five) This makes its role in the progression clear. The first progression above would therefore be analysed as:
th

V7/V

V7

In the second example above, A7 is the V7 of IIm. This again shows that C is still considered to be the tonic chord. The A7 chord is analysed as: V7/II (spoken as five seven of two) The second progression above would therefore be analysed as:

V7/II

IIm7

V7

I
th

This description explains better its function in the progression. However, since A is still the 6 degree of the key of C it is often written in chord charts as VI7. Secondary dominants can occur in both major and minor keys. The overall rule is: Any diatonic chord may be preceded by its secondary dominant except the VII chord in major and the II chord in minor.

The exclusion of these diminished chords is due to the fact that these chords are based on a diminished triad, which is considered too dissonant to function even temporarily as a point of resolution. There are a limited number of secondary dominants. To differentiate between dom 7 chords that resolve to their intended chords and those that dont, dom 7ths are recognised in two different ways. The first type are called functioning nd th dominant chords. The 2 type are called non-functioning chords. These are dom 7 chords that do not resolve they create a sense of anticipation for a resolution that is not carried out, such as V7/VI going to IV, etc.
th

Student Task / Reading


For next week: Practice analysing chord progressions that use secondary dominants. Practice transcribing simple diatonic melodies aurally.

Week 13 Exercises
Ear Training - Transcribe simple diatonic melodies by ear as played by the teacher:

Write the Roman Numerals for the chord sequences below bearing in mind secondary dominant chords (in each case, the first chord is the tonic chord).

Gmaj7

Cmaj7

A7

D7

Gmaj7

Fmaj7

Gm7

G7

C7

Fmaj7

Dmaj7

B7

E7

A7

Dmaj7

Week 14: Compound intervals & Extended Chords


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Write and recognise compound intervals (diatonic and chromatic). Construct and name extended chords. Recognise compound intervals by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

In traditional terminology, intervals within the octave are called simple intervals. When intervals extend beyond the octave, they are called compound intervals because they are built from an octave plus a simple interval: Octave Octave simple interval + second + third + fourth + fifth + sixth + seventh Compound Interval = ninth = tenth = eleventh = twelfth = thirteenth = fourteenth

The quality of each compound interval is the same as the quality of the simple interval to which it is related e.g. and octave plus a major second equals a major ninth, etc. Extended Chords Another term commonly used to describe compound intervals is extended intervals, or simply extensions, as these intervals extend beyond the octave. Extensions can also be added to the structure of a seventh chord to produce extended chords. Because two of the extensions-the tenth and the twelfth-are duplications of the third and the fifth that are already part of the basic chord structure, only the addition of the three remaining extensions, the ninth, eleventh, and thirteenth, actually result in extended chords. Extended chords, taking their names from the extensions themselves, are called either ninth chords, eleventh chords, or thirteenth chords. We will look separately at how each individual extended chord is built, but all extended chords have certain things in common: Extended chords are named by the largest unaltered interval present. For example, if the chord contains a ninth and a thirteenth, it is called a thirteenth chord, with the presence of the smaller interval being assumed. Adding extensions to a chord will not alter that chord's basic harmonic function. For example, both D7 and D13 are V chords in the key of G; the presence of the thirteenth does not change the function, even though the chord sounds fuller and more dissonant. Extended chords have the same qualities as the seventh chords on which they are based. For instance, a major seventh chord with an added ninth is called a major ninth chord, a dominant chord with an added thirteenth is called a dominant thirteenth chord, etc. Extended chords may be seen as different shades of the same color. Building Extended Chords Extended chords are built following exactly the same principles as for 3 and 4 note chords. The names of the chords always follow the order: root note, chord type, largest unaltered extended interval, altered extensions.

Ninth Chords Ninth chords are constructed by adding the interval of a ninth to an existing seventh chord, regardless of its quality. Where the ninth is a major ninth, such an addition produces major ninth chords (from major seventh chords), minor ninth chords (from minor seventh chords), dominant ninth chords (from dominant seventh chords) and minor nine flat five chords (from minor seventh flat five, or half-diminished chords). The chord symbols for these are, for example, C9, C-9, C9, C-9(b5). Where the ninth is altered (i.e. not a major ninth), this is reflected in the chord symbol. In this case, the chord symbol is written as the seventh chord, with either (b9) for a minor ninth, or (#9) for a raised ninth. The following shows the C major scale, harmonised to ninth chords, with corresponding chord symbols given:

Note how two of these chords sound quite dissonant, due to the presence of avoid notes.

Eleventh Chords Eleventh chords are created by adding an eleventh interval to an existing ninth chord. Again, where the eleventh is altered, this is reflected in the chord symbol by adding (b11) for a minor eleventh, or (#11) for an augmented eleventh. The following shows the G major scale harmonised to eleventh chords:

Again, note how some of these chords sound dissonant due to the avoid notes in particular, the major eleven chord and the dominant eleventh chord. This dissonance is not present in the Lydian mode, the 9(#11) chord. In summary, chords with major 3rds and #11, as well as chords with minor 3rds and natural 11 do not sound dissonant. Thirteenth chords Complete 13 chords are built by adding the interval of a major thirteenth to an existing 11 chord, taking into account the rules stated above regarding altered thirteenths. It is very important to note, however, that extended chords are usually voiced with fewer notes than th those that are theoretically possible. The most common note to leave out of a 13 chord is the th th th th 11 . If a 13 chord does contain an 11 , and the 11 is altered, the alteration must be written into the name of the chord. E.g. C13 (#11). The following shows the D major scale harmonised to thirteenth chords, with chord symbols given.
th th

Its worth pointing out that the construction of extended chords as above is a theoretical rather than practical construction. This construction tells us which notes are in each extended chord. However, in practice it is unlikely that extended chords will be voiced as they are above, and not all the notes of the chord will necessarily be played.

Student Task / Reading


Practice writing and recognising compound intervals. Practice recognising compound intervals by ear.

Week 14 Exercises
Ear Training - Practice recognising intervals simple and compound:

Write the following extended chords:

Identify the following extended chords:

Week 15: Modes


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Write and recognise all seven of the major scale modes. Recognise each of the modes, played in sequence, by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

How to get the most from this lecture


To get the most from this lecture you need to practice this material in your own time. Make sure you revisit the material you learn in the lesson before you come back to the next lesson. This will help you to remember the important elements.

Lecture content
Major scales contain seven different notes Modes of the major scale are created when all of the notes in a major scale are played in order starting from any note in that scale. E.g. Starting a C major scale on D and finishing it on D This gives us seven different scales with a unique interval structure, all related to the original major scale, which is referred to the parent or master scale. The seven modes of the major scale are named as follows:

1. IONIAN (Major Scale) 2. DORIAN 3. PHRYGIAN 4. LYDIAN 5. MIXOLYDIAN 6. AEOLIAN (Natural Minor Scale) 7. LOCRIAN

These are the modes of the C major scale:

C Ionian

D Dorian

E Phrygian

F Lydian

G Mixolydian

A Aeolian

B Locrian

There are various methods for learning how to recognise the modes aurally.

Student Task / Reading


Practice writing and recognising the major scale modes. Practice recognising the modes by ear.

Week 15 Exercises
Ear Training Practise recognising the modes aurally. First Ionion, Lydian and Mixolydian, then Dorian and Aeolian and finally Phrygian and Locrian. Write the following modes: Construct the following modes:

1. A Dorian

2. Bb Lydian

3. G Phrygian

4. A Mixolydian

# 5. D Locrian

6. B Aeolian

7. F Lydian

8. C Dorian

9. Gb Ionian

# 10. F Locrian

Week 16: Modes in practice


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Analyse a selection of songs that make use of minor modes such as Dorian & Aeolian. Recognise the major scale modes, played out of sequence, by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

Each mode of the major scale fits with a specific chord type The formula of the mode tells us which chord type the mode fits with This relates directly to the harmonised major scale

NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

MODE Ionian Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aeolian Locrian

FORMULA R234567 R 2 b3 4 5 6 b7 R b2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 # R23 4567 R 2 3 4 5 6 b7 R 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 R b2 b3 4 b5 b6 b7

CHORD TYPE major 7 minor 7 minor 7 major 7 dominant 7 minor 7 half-diminished

SYMBOL ^ m7 m7 ^ 7 m7

This shows us which modes fit with which chord types Major 7 Minor 7 Dominant 7 Half-Diminished = = = = Ionian, Lydian Dorian, Aeolian, Phrygian Mixolydian Locrian

In some compositions one of the major scale modes other than Ionian may act as the home chord, or else may be used extensively throughout the piece. This is the case in what is known as modal jazz, which developed from the 1950s with composers such as Miles Davis and John Coltrane.

Dorian Mode Perhaps the most famous jazz album of all time, Miles Davis Kind Of Blue, was recorded with the modal concept in mind. One tune from this album is So What, which uses exclusively Dorian harmony. The form is very simple it has an AABA structure, where section A consists entirely of D Dorian, and section B consists entirely of Eb Dorian.

Phrygian Mode The Phrygian mode is characteristic of Spanish music. This chord was used extensively on Miles Davis and Gil Evans album Sketches Of Spain. The following shows a typical cadence in Spanish music an E Phrygian chord resolving to an E major chord.

Lydian Mode Lydian chords are commonly used today as tonic chords, and are often thought of as sounding very modern. However, George Gershwin used a Lydian chord at the start of the bridge in Someone To Watch Over Me, and there is even a Lydian chord in Happy Birthday! Below is an example of a piece that extensively uses Lydian mode Wynton Marsalis Sunflowers:

Mixolydian Mode The simplest example of music that is uses Mixolydian mode is the 12-bar blues. Sus chords are also based in Mixolydian mode, and there are two famous jazz recordings from the 1960s that extensively used sus chords: Herbie Hancocks Maiden Voyage and John Coltranes Naima. Maiden Voyage consists entirely of sus chords. The vamp for this tune is shown below.

Aeolian Mode Aeolian harmony is used a lot in Rock and Pop music an example of a piece that is based in Aeolian mode is Bill Withers Aint No Sunshine. An example of a modal jazz piece that uses Aeolian mode is the bridge to Miles Davis Milestones:

Student Task / Reading


Practice analysing the modes that are used in songs from the lead sheet. Practice recognising the major scale modes by ear.

Week 16 Exercises
Ear Training Practise recognising the modes aurally

Write out the modes that would fit with the following chords

1.

A^

2.

Dm7

3.

Bb7

4.

5. Bbm7

Week 17: Modes from the minor scales


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Construct the modes of melodic minor and harmonic minor from the scale spellings. Recognise a selection of the modes from the minor scales by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

How to get the most from this lecture


To get the most from this lecture you need to practice this material in your own time. Make sure you revisit the material you learn in the lesson before you come back to the next lesson. This will help you to remember the important elements.

Lecture content
In last weeks lesson we built scales from each of the degrees of a major scale in order to find the major scale modes. We can do a similar thing from the degrees of minor scales:

Harmonic minor Degree I II III IV V Name Harmonic minor Locrian #6 Ionian Augmented Romanian Phrygian Dominant (Spanish) Lydian #2 Ultralocrian Notes Notes in C

VI VII

Melodic Minor Degree I II III IV V VI VII Name Jazz Minor Dorian b9 Lydian Augmented Lydian Dominant Mixolydian b6 Semilocrian Superlocrian Notes Notes in C

Student Task / Reading


Practice writing and recognising the modes from the minor scales. Practice recognising a selection of the minor scale modes by ear.

Week 17 Exercises
Ear Training - Practice recognising the major modes and selected minor modes: (Lydian dominant, Phrygian dominant, superlocrian, harmonic and melodic minor)

Week 18: Review / Mock exam


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Practice all material covered in term two ready for the exam in week 19.

Complete the mock assessment paper and mark it yourself.

Student Task / Reading


For next week: Practice all material covered in term two ready for the exam in week 19

Week 21: Review term 2 assessment & new chord list


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Identify any issues arising from the term 2 assessment. Identify a selection of extended chord structures by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

Review the term 2 assessment and answer any questions arising. Go through the chord list below these are the chords that are tested for this term.

CHORD NAME Major 7 Major 9 Major 7 #11 Major 9 #11 CHORD NAME Minor 7 Minor 9 Minor 11 Minor Major 7 Dominant 7 Dominant 9 Dominant 11 (no 3 ) Dominant 13 (no 11 ) Dominant 7 #9 Dominant 7 b9 Dominant 7 #11 Dominant 7 #5 Half-diminished Diminished 7
th rd

SYMBOL C^ C^9 C^7(#11) C^9(#11) SYMBOL Cm7 Cm9 Cm11 Cm^ C7 C9 C11 C13 C7(#9) C7(b9) C7(#11) C7(#5) or C+7 C or Cm7(b5) C7 R357 R3579

FORMULA

R 3 5 7 #11 R 3 5 7 9 #11 FORMULA R b3 5 b7 R b3 5 b7 9 R b3 5 b7 9 11 R b3 5 7 R 3 5 b7 R 3 5 b7 9 R 5 b7 9 11 R 3 5 b7 9 13 R 3 5 b7 #9 R 3 5 b7 b9 R 3 5 b7 #11 R 3 #5 b7 R b3 b5 b7 R b3 b5 bb7

Week 21 Exercises
Ear Training - Recognise the listed chords by ear:

Student Task / Reading


For next week: Get as familiar as possible with the chord list.

Week 22: Transposition


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review last weeks content / exercises. Apply various methods of transposition to transpose chord sequences and written music. Transpose melody and chords for playback by different instruments Transcribe melody by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

In this lesson you will be asked to demonstrate your skills in transposing melodies and chord progressions. There are a couple of methods you can use. They will both give you the same result. Chord Numbers First identify the key of the original chord progression and work out the chord numbers for each chord. Using the chord numbers then work out the chords in the new key. For example: Transpose the following to the key of Bb major: A Bm7 E7 A

First work out the key A major we know this because of the E7. A dominant 7th chord is usually the fifth of the key. We can see the last two chords make a perfect (V I) cadence. The fact that Bm7 (chord II) is minor confirms this. Chords 2, 3 and 6 are normally minor. Now write in the chord numbers: I A IIm7 Bm7 V7 E7 I A

To transpose to Bb major work out the I, IIm7 and V7 in Bb major. The chord quality remains the same. E.g. Bb Cm7 F7 Bb Intervals Another way to transpose the chord progression is to change the root note of each chord by the interval requested. Again, work out the old key, and then work out the interval to the new key. IN the A Bb case it is up a semitone or a minor2nd. Move all the chords up the same distance. Sometimes it is necessary to arrange a melody to a different key. Take a look at this melody:

It is in G-major. We know this because there is one sharp in the key signature, and there are no D-sharps to indicate a leading tone to E-minor. If we were to transpose this to F major, it would look like this:

There are several ways to transpose melodies, and it is recommended that you become familiar with all of them, and use one method to check against the other. The following three methods will assume that you have been given the original key, and the key that you will be transposing the melody to. Let's use these methods to transpose our melody from G-major to F-major. The first step to using any of the following three methods is to place the clef, time signature, and the new key signature on a staff. METHOD 1. Transposing by Scale degree When transposing a melody into a new key, the scale degrees, or technical names, will remain the same. In other words, if the melody begins on the tonic in the original key, it will begin on the tonic of the new key. If it ends on the submediant in the original key, it will end on the submediant of the new key, and so on. In the first example above, the melody begins on the tonic of the original key, G-major. Therefore, the new melody will begin on the tonic of the new key, F-major. You can then go through the entire G-major version of the excerpt, determine the technical name (scale degree) of each note, and write the same degree in the new F-major version. METHOD 2. Transposing by Harmonic Interval You know that the original key is G-major and the new key is F-major. Now determine the interval between those two notes: From your knowledge of intervals, you know that the 'F' is a major 2nd lower than the 'G'. Therefore all the notes in the new melody will be a major second (whole tone) lower than the original G-major melody: METHOD 3. Transposing by stave distance Take the original melody and determine the distance between the first note in the original key and the first note in the new key. Look at the relationship between the two notes on the stave and make that relationship common throughout the piece. In reality, you will probably use a combination of all three methods at different times and also to check on against the other.

Common Transposing Instruments Clarinet is usually a Bb instrument. The most common clarinet sounds one whole step lower than written, so parts for it must be written one whole step higher than concert pitch. Like French horns, clarinets used to come in several different keys, and clarinets in A (with parts that are written a minor third higher) and other keys can still be found. Alto and Baritone Saxophone are Eb instruments. Parts for alto saxophone are transposed up a major sixth. Parts for bari sax are transposed up an octave plus a major sixth. Tenor and Soprano Saxophone are Bb instruments. Parts for soprano sax are written a step higher than they sound, and parts for tenor sax are transposed up an octave plus a whole step (a major ninth). English Horn is an F instrument. Parts for English horn are transposed up a perfect fifth. Trumpet and Cornet can be in B flat or C, depending on the individual instrument. B flat is the more common key for cornet. If you are writing for a particular player, you may want to find out if a C or B flat part is expected. French horn parts are usually written in F these days, up a perfect fifth. However, because of the instrument's history, older orchestral parts may be in any conceivable transposition, and may even change transpositions in the middle of a piece. Because of this, some horn players learn to transpose at sight. Alto flute is in G, written a fourth higher than it sounds.

Tubas and euphoniums may also be transposing instruments. Some tuba and euphonium parts are written as bass clef C parts (sometimes even when the instrument played is nominally not a "C instrument". But in British-style brass bands, BBb and Eb tubas (called basses) are written in treble clef. The BBb is written two octaves and a major second higher than it sounds, and the Eb an octave and a major sixth higher than it sounds. in France (and in the case of parts printed in France), you find Bb euphoniums (calles basses or petites basses) written for in bass clef transposing by a major second, and bass tubas (called contrebasses) in Bb written for in bass clef transposing by a major ninth. If you are writing for a particular group or player, you may want to check to see what kind of instrument is available and what transposition the player is comfortable with.

Some transposing instruments do not change key, but play an octave higher or lower than written. Guitar parts are written one octave higher than they sound. Men's voices, when given a melody written in treble clef, will usually sing it one octave lower than written. String Bass parts are written one octave higher than they sound. Piccolo parts are written one octave lower than they sound. Contrabassoon parts are written one octave higher than they sound. Handbell and handchime parts are written one octave lower than they sound.

Student Task / Reading


For next week: Practice transposition exercises. Practice transcribing melody and chords.

Week 22 Exercises
1. Transpose the following melody:

Change to D major

Change to Bb major

Change to F major

Exercise 2
Transpose the following melody:

Change to E minor

Change to B minor

Exercise 3
Transpose the following melody for the instruments named below:

1. 2. 3.

Trumpet Alto Sax French Horn

Week 23: Score writing for a band


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Apply notational conventions for common band instruments: guitar, bass, keyboards and drums. Notate a basic score for a band line up from a lead sheet. Transcribe melody and chords by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

Writing For A Small Band Example; Thats What Friends Are For (Burt Bacharach/Carole Sager) The MD part has additional cues, in the example here the keyboard player is the MD, although this is not always the case. Keyboards/MD The keyboard part may contain other cues, so that the keyboard player can MD the band if necessary, and cover any additional parts in a smaller band situation. Chord symbols should always be provided, in case the player is a poor reader, and as a general guide. Usually written on two staves this can often be reduced to just one with any particular lines, perhaps string or brass, plus chords. Rhythm notes can be written with chords, especially in jazz and big band charts. Piano (acoustic, Rhodes, Wurlitzer) is generally the default sound, usually played on a dedicated, weighted keyboard. Additional sounds such as brass, strings, organ, and clavinet can be added with a second keyboard/synth. Intro: Electric piano playing a specific chord part with additional pad. In smaller band situations where there is no harmonica player you could write the harmonica part for the keyboard player. This may mean dispensing with the pad sound unless it can be layered with the piano. A: Chords plus soft pad. This could be simplified to chords and rhythm indications, but here the chords need more specific voicings. B: Chords with a soft pad. E: Chords with a specific string line. G: Outro like the intro is quite soft, so chords only.

Guitar Guitarists like chord symbols, and the top note of the chord will help to simplify reading more specific voicings. Often a chord symbol with notated rhythm will suffice. If you write lines, or solos, which are notoriously difficult to read on guitar, write the chords in. If it is not necessary for the guitarist to perform the same solo, just write in the first bar or so as a stylistic guide. Guitar on this song is not a featured instrument. Intro: Tacet A: Guitarists understand such directions as light country rock funky etc.. They will have basic sounds readily available at the flick of a footswitch such as rock sound

clean. These indications will help the player decide on the correct approach. The verse in this example starts with guitar playing light chips using a clean sound. B: Rhythm indications with chords with specific licks written in. E: Increasing in volume through the repeated choruses. There are many different guitar techniques, and corresponding ways of writing them. Drums The most important uses of a drum part are for general arrangement, intro, verse, chorus, stops, starts and any hits. The first few bars should have enough information for the basic stylistic groove, and every drummer will play it his/her own particular way. Drummers like to see the words play 7 after the first bar has been notated. For all instruments start a new line at the beginning of a new section wherever possible, and do not overwrite. Drummers know more about how a groove should be played than I do, and also how to play a fill, unless it is specific. As a general rule, underwrite the part and rely on the drummers knowledge. Intro: Tacet A: Very little in the first verse, keeping time with the foot on the hi hat. B: Simple part with side stick. It would also be possible to give a basic style and allow the player to deal with the details. But as this song builds in a subtle way I have written out parts in the first two bars of each new section. D: Playing ride cymbal, snare on the head, and sixteenth notes in the bass drum help the song to build. E: Fills not written out in full, but left to the players discretion. Bass Chord charts are often acceptable, but here I have transcribed the original part to retain the feel of the arrangement. Chord symbols are very helpful, although in this case the part is fairly simple. Again, do not write in complicated fills (use the word fill), and if the rhythm is a complicated but repetitive, use sim with a chord chart.

When writing a score there are lots of symbols and conventions to learn and many means to the same end. The best way to learn is to study other players parts and practice writing as much as possible.

Student Task / Reading


For next week: Continue working on score writing. Continue practicing transcribing melody and chords.

Week 23 Exercises
Ear Training Full transcription - Transcribe the melodies with chords as played by the teacher:

Week 24: Harmonisation of a lead sheet


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Harmonise a lead sheet using root and guide tones Review chords for aural and full transcription Summarise todays lesson content.

Week 24 Exercises
Ear Training Review Chord list and full transcription

Harmonise the following melody using root and guide tones, four notes including the melody. Make sure the melody is your highest note and the root your lowest note. Harmony notes should show good voice leading but remain evenly spaced to avoid gaps in the harmony. Try to avoid putting harmony notes too close to the melody note generally no closer than a third, and no lower than E below middle C.

Week 25: Score writing for a band


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Complete the score for a band line up from a lead sheet. Practice all material covered in the Aural section of the term. Summarise todays lesson content.

Week 25 Exercises
Ear Training Full transcription and chord list

Arrange the lead sheet below for the line up given on the score: The line up in this example is comprised of six instruments: Drums Bass guitar Guitar Keyboard Trumpet Tenor Sax The drum kit is used to provide rhythm and is crucial in helping to create the style of the music. The Bass guitar is used to underpin the harmony. It acts as a bridge between the drums and the harmony The guitar can play chords and/or melody. The sound of the guitar also helps to define the style. The Keyboard is used to play chords and melody. In small band situations, it is also used to play string and brass parts as well as piano, elec piano and organ.

The Trumpet in Bb can only play single notes and is good for playing melody or counter melody. The Tenor sax is also a single note instrument and is used in ways similar to a trumpet.

Week 26: Chord substitutions


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Apply chord families and turnaround substitution to reharmonise a chord sequence. Analyse the harmony used in songs. Transcribe a melody of increasing complexity by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

Chord Substitutions Substituting one chord for another in a song, changes the sound of the melody against the harmony. Chord substitutions can be used to create more dissonance and pull against the melody. They can change the mood of a piece making it darker or lighter than the original sequence. They can be used to change key, make a progression sound smoother and can change the harmony from a traditional to a more modern sound. 1. Changing the quality This means changing the type of chord, keeping the same root note. Look at the following standard II V I progression in the key of Bb major, The I^7 chord can be substituted for another type of seventh:

Other possible choices might be Bbm7 or Bbm^7 2. Changing to a similar chord This means substituting a chord that has notes in common with the original chord. Harmonising the major scale to sevenths, shows that chords a third apart have three notes in common with each other. These also go by the name of chord families. Chord I can be substituted for chords III and VI Chord IV can be substituted for chords II and VI Chord V can be substituted for chords III and VII

3. Putting a chord V before a I chord 4. Putting a II chord before a V chord 5. Putting a V chord before a V chord (secondary dominants) Remember the melody note must work with the new chord.

Tritone Substitution Another type of chord substitution that is used in popular music, especially jazz influenced styles, is commonly called tritone (or flat five) substitution. This occurs when a functioning th th th dominant 7 chord is replaced by the dominant 7 with its root a diminished (flat) 5 interval away. As in diatonic substitution, the result is a change in the bass line and voice leading th without a change in the overall chord function. All dominant 7 chords contain a tritone rd th th between the 3 and the 7 . Tritone substitution is possible because the two dominant 7 chords share the same tritone interval. th The tritone is a dissonant interval, and this dissonance at the heart of the dominant 7 chord is what gives the chord the feeling of wanting to resolve to the consonant major or minor tonic chord. In flat five substitution, the substitute chord contains the same tritone as the original th dominant 7 chord, meaning that it can resolve to the same tonic even though it is built on an entirely different root. Look at the following chords G7 and Db7
rd th

What is the 3 and 7 note of G7? rd th What is the 3 and 7 note of Db7?
rd th

Although the roles of the notes are reversed, the 3 and 7 s (the two most important notes) form the same tritone interval and thus have the same harmonic effect. Look at the following resolutions to the tonic chords:

Now compare this:

The most obvious result of a flat five substitution is a chromatic descending bass line rather than a bass line descending in 4ths or 5ths. The substitute chord is analysed as bII7 (flat two seven). This process is usually only applied th to functioning dominant 7 chords. The above chord progressions show that the functioning dominant chord G7 can be substituted by a Db7 through tritone substitution. Similarly, a functioning Db7 chord can be substituted by a G7 chord by the same process. Therefore we may view G7 and Db7 as a pair of dominant chords that can substitute for each other through tritone substitution. The rd th reason is because they share the same notes for the 3 and the 7 . In total there are 12 dominant chords (as there are 12 notes in the octave. All of these dominant chords will pair up in the same way as G7 and Db7 the rule being that dominant rd th chords will pair up when they share the same notes for the 3 and the 7 . There is always an enharmonic difference in the spelling of these notes between the two chords, but that is unimportant in the application of tritone substitution. Secondary Dominant Application

Flat five substitution may also be applied to functioning secondary dominant chords as well as V7 in minor keys. Like secondary dominants, flat five substitutions are analysed according to their function. In the key of C major for example the progression of Gb7 F7 is analysed as bII7/IV IV7 (flat two seven of four to four major seven). Rules: Flat five substitution usually applies to functioning dominant 7 chords only Flat five substitution results in a chromatic descending bass line. They are analysed according to their relationship to the chord of resolution, either the tonic of the key or the temporary resolution of a secondary dominant. To the ear, tritone substitution is a subtle change in the direction of the bass line, not a dramatic change in harmony. This means that a bass player can play a descending chromatic bass line while the guitarist plays the original progression (or vice versa). This kind of chord substitution is used in Antonio Carlos Jobims One Note Samba:
th

Student Task / Reading


Start to do revision on all elements covered.

Week 26 Exercises
Ear training Go through various aural exercises including Full transcription, the chord list and more complex rhythms.

Complete the following table of tritone pairs of dominant chords:

G7 C7 A7 E7 D7 Bb7

Db7

Week 27: Re-harmonising a lead sheet


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Reharmonise a lead sheet using a selection of concepts covered in the course. Recognise a chord progression of increasing complexity by ear. Summarise todays lesson content.

Talk about re-harmonising lead sheets. Re-emphasise substitution material from previous weeks.

Week 27 Exercises
Ear Training Practise all material ready for assessment

Re-harmonise this lead sheet from week 26. Use the various substitutions that we have learned about in previous weeks.

Student Task / Reading


Prepare for the Assessment. Go through all term 3 material. Items you will be tested on include: Aural Recognising the list of chords Transcribing a more complex rhythm Transcribing a melody with chords Theory Harmonising a lead sheet Re-harmonising using substitutions Scoring a lead sheet for a small band.

Week 28: Review / Mock exam


Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: Recap / review of last weeks content / exercises. Practice all material covered in term three ready for the assessment paper in week 29.

Complete the mock assessment paper and mark it yourself.

Student Task / Reading


For next week: Practice all material covered in term three ready for the exam in week 30