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Settlement on Sand

- almost always controls design


- get parameters Irom in situ tests
- dependent on Dr and OCR
- OCR: - diIIicult to estimate Ior sands
- can not use lab test
- need knowledge oI geologic or recent history

Schmertmann's Method
Based on a physical model oI settlement, which has been calibrated using empirical
data.

E
: I
q C C C

'

(1)
where
C

depth Iactor
C

secondary creep Iactor


C

shape Iactor
q' net bearing pressure
I

strain inIluence Iactor at midpoint oI soil layer


z thickness oI soil layer
E

equivalent modulus oI elasticity in soil layer



Empirical correction for depth of embedment, secondarv creep, and footing shape.

=
'
'
5 . 0 1

q
C

(2a)

+ =
1 . 0
log 2 . 0 1

t
C (2b)
73 . 0 / 03 . 0 03 . 1

= B L C (2c)

where
'

eIIective vertical stress at a depth D (overburden at the level oI Ioundation)


t time since application oI load (yr) (t 0.1 yr)
L Ioundation length
B Ioundation width

Strain influence factor I

.

Eor values oI L/B between 1 and 10, necessary interpolations can be made. The
peak value oI the strain inIluence Iactor, I

is:

q
I
'
'
1 . 0 5 . 0

+ = (3)
where
'

initial vertical eIIective stress at depth oI peak strain inIluence Iactor



Equivalent modulus of elasticitv.
Empirical correlations between E

and cone resistance (more reliable) or SPT data can


be used to estimate E

.
Table 1.

Eigure 1
Erom SPT data:
) ( 16 , ) ( 766

ksf N kPa N E

= (4a)
or

N OCR E

+ = (4b)

Table 2.

Most analysis should use OCR1.0 unless there is a clear evidence oI
over-consolidation.

Analvsis Procedure.
1. PerIorm appropriate in-situ tests to deIine the subsurIace conditions.
2. Consider the soil Irom the base oI the Ioundation to the depth oI inIluence below
the base. Divide this zone into layers and assign the thickness oI each layer
depend on the variations in the E vs. depth proIile. Typically 5 to 10 layers are
appropriate.
3. Compute the peak strain inIluence Iactor, I

, using Equation (3).


4. Compute the strain inIluence Iactor, I

, at midpoint oI each layer using Eigure 1.


5. Compute the correction Iactors, C

, C

, and C

, using Equation (2).


6. Compute the settlement using Equation (1).