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Scientific and Management Challenges in Conserving the Reefs in the Coral Triangle Region: Lessons Learnt from Indonesia

Prof. Jamaluddin Jompa


-Director:

Research and Development Center for Marine, Coastal, & Small Islands, Hasanuddin University, Makassar - Secretary General: Indonesian Coral Reef Society (INCRES)
ICRS 12, Cairns, Australia Monday 9 July 2012

WHO AM I?
Scientist (22 years) Lecturer (20 years) Secretary General of Ind. CR Society Deputy Chair for Ind. Oceanologist Assoc. Chief Editor: Journal of Indonesian Coral Reefs
9 Jul 2012

Managing COREMAP Projects (6 Years) Member of National Fish Stock Assessment (3 Years) Supporting CTI (Regional & National)

Indonesian Fisheries Association Members/advisors of various foundations and NGOs/private sectors.


ICRS 12-Jompa Plenary

Outline Themes
1. What is the Coral Triangle and Who Cares? 2. Review of the Science & Management Nexus in the CT 3. Introduction to the CTI and Indonesias National Plan of Action 4. How Integrated Resources Management Links Science & Management 5. Indonesias Coral Reef Management Approach: Lessons Learnt from COREMAP 6. Messages to the ICRS Audience
9 Jul 2012 ICRS 12-Jompa Plenary

THEME 1: What is the Coral Triangle and Who Cares? Where is the Coral Triangle? -SW Pacific
-SSE Asia

9 Jul 2012

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Why is the Coral Triangle Important? GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS Center for marine biodiversity

Coral Triangle:

Amazon

Congo Basin

Coral Triangle

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Coral Triangle's Significance to Global Coral Reef Systems: Diversity & Area
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%
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76 37
% of World's Coral Species

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% of World's Coral Reef % of World's Coral Reefs Fish Species ICRS 12-Jompa Plenary 6

3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500

WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? CORAL TRIANGLE has MORE Coral and Fish Species Compared to 3000 Other Seas
#Coral Species # Fish Species

1500 1100 700 82 150 Hawaii 400 600

Caribbean
9 Jul 2012

Australia

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Coral Triangle

Why save the Coral Triangle?


Biodiversity Conservation

Economic Development

Food Security

Ecosystem Resiliency Pharmaceuticals Potential? Livelihoods : 120 million people Habitats: $2.3 Billion /yr Tourism: $12 Billion / yr Live Reef Fish: $1 Bill / yr 50% of World Tuna stocks 60% of their protein from the sea
ICRS 12-Jompa Plenary

9 Jul 2012

Importance of Coral Triangle: Rich


Greatest Mangrove Forests of the World

Worlds Most important refuge for Marine Life. 6 out of 7 Marine Turtle Species

Habitat for Worlds Largest Tuna Fishery


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The Coral Triangle is Special

Unique and charismatic fauna


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Cultural Diversity and People in Need 10 ICRS 12-Jompa Plenary

What are the C Ts Problems?


~85% of CT reefs are under integrated local threats and ~5% of CT reefs are under global thermal and climate change threats (vs. 75% world wide)(WRI
Reefs at Risk-Revisited)

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LOCAL THREATS: Destructive and Overfishing: Affects >60% of CT Reefs


From Reefs at Risk

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LOCAL THREATS
Coastal Development Watershed-based Pollution Marine-based Damage & Pollution

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GLOBAL THREATS: Climate Change

Reefs at RiskRevisited Solomon Islands

Coral Bleaching
9 Jul 2012

Sea Level Rise; Storms


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GLOBAL THREATS: Ocean Chemistry


MAP 3.4. Threat to Coral Reefs from Ocean Acidification in the Present, 2030, and 2050 2005: 380 ppm CO2

CT at greater risk than other areas

CT Reefs
2030s: 450 ppm CO2

2050s: 500 ppm CO2 Reefs at RiskRevisited


9 Jul 2012 ICRS 12-Jompa Plenary

Red = marginal calcification, Blue = Optimal Chemistry 15

Reefs at Risk in the Present, 2030, and 2050 for the Countries of the Coral Triangle Region Mostly at high risk in 2050

Source: Burke et al. 2012 / Knight et al. 2012

Importance of Coral Reefs for Indonesia

12-15% of the WORLDs area of Coral Reefs ~240 Million People (more than of CT) Livelihood and business of millions of people in thousands of villages Center of the Coral Triangle

& Indonesia

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Importance of Coral Reefs for Indonesia


Location of the Biodiversity Bulls eye (Highest # of Species)

BULLS EYE

# of Coral Species (Veron, 2008)


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Current Major Threats for Indonesian Coral Reefs


Over Fishing Destructive Fishing Coral mining Bleaching Sedimentation Corallivorous Outbreak Pollution Euthrofication Diseases Storms, earthquake, tsunami Algal overgrowth,

Indonesian Coral Bleaching Phenomenon in 2010


Severa Locations of Coral Bleaching
(April July 2010) June 2010

Aceh Padang Karimunjawa ? Lombok Strait South Borneo Pangkep & Makassar Bone Bay Buton Wakatobi Raja Ampat
Source: Jompa & Yusuf, 2010; Setiasih et al. (2010) Suggett et al. (in prep); Risya et al. (in prep)

October 2010

Past & Present Conditions of Indonesian Coral Reefs


50 45 40 35 Percentage of reefs 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Years Excellent Good Fair Poor

How does this Sci help Managers?


Focus on LOCAL THREATS: Bigger (85 vs 5% of total threat to reefs) They can be under our control: can apply practical ICM, MPA, Fisheries Management Measures This will build resilience for future CC Threats
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THEME 2: Review of the Science & Management Nexus in the CT


SCIENCE brings: Knowledge to choose MANAGEMENT brings: Authority to act
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SCIENCE/KNOWLEDGE

AUTHORITY/MANAGEMENT

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SCIENCE: Scientific Research DEFINED the need for Management of HUMAN ACTIVITIES in Coral Reefs
Science here is COMPLICATED! BIODIVERSITY HUGE AREA (4 Time Zones) REMOTE Large and Small Islands, Atolls Poverty
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9 Jul 2012

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MANAGEMENT: Hundreds of Cultures, Hundreds of Languages, Agencies Involved


MANAGEMENT here is COMPLICATED! Culture DIVERSITY HUGE AREA (4 Time Zones) Regional, National and Local Users REMOTE areas Requires Special Approaches Requires Flexibility
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SCIENCE vs. MANAGEMENT Cultures


SCIENCE Culture Nerds
Narrow Expertise Motivated by Frontier or Discovery Fact-Based Publish for Peers High Level of Capacity Long Time-Line for Work
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MANAGEMENT Culture
Community or Govt Workers Wide Range of Issues Motivated by Public Opinion/ Conflict Reduction Opinion/Scenario-Based Publish for Guidances Limited Capacity in CT Time and Money Bound
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THEME 3: Introduction to the CTI-CFF and Indonesias National Plan of Action


RESPONSE to CORAL TRIANGLE Science & Management Challenges 2007: President Yudhoyono (Indonesia) Invited CT governments and Partners to join together under a Coral Triangle Initiative for Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security

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Who are involved in the Coral Triangle Initiative?


CT6 Countries
South China Sea

Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Timor-Leste

Seven Initial Partners


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Coral Sea 28

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What is the CT Initiative?

CORAL TRIANGLE INITIATIVE ON CORAL REEFS, FISHERIES AND FOOD SECURITY (CTI-CFF) 2009-2020
CT6 Leaders Declaration
CTI Summit 2009

Six Natl Plans of Action


Nov 09 30

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CTI Goal 1 in the RPoA


Priority Seascapes
designated and effectively managed

SSME Tri-National Committee has Strategic Action Plan, Turtle Network Plan and more CTI Seascape Guide is in Review for Adoption
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CTI Goal 2 in the RPoA


Ecosystem approach to
fisheries management fully applied
National efforts to develop EAFM programs underway
CTI EAFM Policy Framework is in Review for Adoption by Sr. Officials

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CTI Goal 3 in the RPoA


Marine protected areas and networks established
and effectively managed

National MPA Systems in development linked to ICM Mgt. Effectiveness benchmarks shared and being tested in CT6 CTI MPA System Framework and Action Plan in development for Adoption in 2012 (more....)
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Progress in CTI Goal 3: MPA


Will complete CTMPAS Framework in 2012
Criteria design lead by Science teams Framework drafted by both Scientists and Managers Governance, Ecological and Social Principles, Objectives and Criteria drafted Strategy and Implementation Planning in Progress

Will recruit 1st round of sites in early 2013 Regional Gap Analysis will be done in mid-2013 CTI MPA System to be inaugurated in Q3-2013
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CTI Goal 4 in the RPoA


Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change strengthened

CTI Regional Early Action Plan for CC Adaptation complete and ADOPTED by Sr. Officials. Tool kit to help managers and communities assess and act is in trial and review Training of trainers in all six countries completed for CCA approaches and Local Early Action Plans
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CTI Goal 5 in the RPoA


Threatened marine species protection
improved

National progress on this Goal Campaigns underway on reducing demand for turtle and shark Focus on by-catch mitigation
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CTI Atlas and other KM Tools


Need central info center and formats or voiceless / can not make sound choices Helps to integrate management World Fish, Reef Base, TNC and CTI partnership creating this CT Atlas ctatlas.reefbase.org ADB supporting the State of the Coral Triangle Report and national KM Centers

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So How does the CTI Work?


coral triangle initiative

Joint Actions for Transformational Change

National alliances and action plans

(CTIP) CTI Partnership


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THEME 4: How Integrated Resources Management Links Science & Mgt


Integrated Coastal Resources Management: Not New in Theory; Still young in Practice
ICM Planning Process Phases Issue (and Stakeholder) Identification and Baseline Assessment ICM Plan Preparation & Adoption Action Plan and Project Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation Information Management, Education and Outreach
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SCI

MGT

X X X X X

X X X X X
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Integrated Management of People and Natural Resources

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THEME 5: Indonesias Approach to Coral Reef Management: Example from COREMAP

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sustainably use Indonesian coral reefs


EA: LIPI (1999-2003) DEPDAGRI, DEPTAN, DEPHUT, LH , TNI-AL

COREMAP is long term program to protect and


PHASE -I: INISIASIATION
PHASE -II: ACCELERATION & DECENTRALIZATION
EA: KKP (2004-2011) LIPI, KEMENHUT

To establish strong foundation & national platform on coral reef management

Strengthen and accelerate coral reef management actions on priority sites through decentralization
World Bank : IDA, IBRD, GEF dan Asia Development Bank (ADB)

World Bank Asia Development Bank, AusAID (Australia Agency for International Development)

Institutionalization of effective coral reef management at all government levels and broader stakeholders; Implementing and achieving CTI goals

COREMAP Ultimate Goals


Insure biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of coral reefs and related ecosystems; Strengthen the capacity of communities and local institutions to manage coral reefs and related ecosystems; and Lower the incidence of poverty in the Programs coastal communities

COREMAP II Locations

NCU & CRITC Jakarta

ADB Sites
3 PROP, 9 KAB/KOTA
PROP. SUMATERA UTARA; 1. KAB. TAPANULI TENGAH 2. KAB. NIAS SELATAN* 3. KAB. NIAS UTARA* 4. KAB. NIAS BARAT* PROP. SUMATERA BARAT 1. KAB. MENTAWAI PROP. KEP. RIAU 1. KOTA BATAM 2. KAB. BINTAN 3. KAB. NATUNA 4. KAB. LINGGA**

World Bank Sites


5 PROP/RCU, 7 KAB/PMU
PROP. SULAWESI SELATAN 1. KAB. PANGKEP 2. KAB. SELAYAR PROP. SULAWESI TENGGARA 3. KAB. BUTON 4. KAB. WAKATOBI* PROP. NTT 5. KAB. SIKKA PROP. PAPUA BARAT 6. KAB. RAJA AMPAT PROP. PAPUA 7. KAB. BIAK NUMFOR

COREMAP II: 42 Output Indicators 7 Key Performance Indicators

Several Major Outputs/Outcome of COREMAP Program:

Emerging/remaining scientific questions and management challenges

CORE of COREMAP

We are still kids..!!! Please help

Small Scale Locally Managed No Take Area (DPL)

Spill-Over: Increased population outside NTZ?

No Take Zone

Output, Management Challenges & Scientific Questions


Outputs: 430 village based -Small Scale- NTZ s and 15 District Marine Conservation Areas
Zona Inti

Zona Penyangga

Zona Pemanfaatan Umum

Zona Inti

Main Factors Affecting Effectiveness of NTZ (DPL)


1. Enforcement of DPL regulation 2. Community participation on site selection 3. Community awareness /knowledge of DPL 4. Monitoring, Controlling & Surveillance 5. Signs of demarcation/board
0.3 0.2

Analyses on 32 DPL (2012)

3 Tira

P7 K8 P2
0 0.05 0.1 0.15

K2
0.1 0 -0.1

P5

K7 K5 K10 P1

-0.15

K1

-0.1

-0.05

0.2

0.25

0.3

P3 P4 K4 P6 K3

K6

-0.2 -0.3 -0.4

2 Karangrang Sanane Ballang Lompo Sombu Badi Wasuemba Samatellu Lompo 1 Kondong Bali Liya Mawi Wakinamboro Patikarya Wabula TIDAK EFEKTIF Kulambing Pajenekang Bahari Waha 0 Saugi KURANG EFEKTIF -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 Kasuari 2 Wandoka 3 Parak 4 Lampanairi Tongali Tanamalala Horuo -1 Bungaiya Liya Togo Bontolebang Barugaiya Laiyolo Kembang Ragi -2 EFEKTIF Apatanah -4 -3

Nurliah, Nessa, Ali, Jompa 2012

Output, Management Challenges & Scientific Questions: NTZ/DPL (continued)


Management Challenges:
Legal/regulatory supports for NTZ/DPL Incentive for management efforts Incorporating with right based fisheries Coordinate actions (scale up)

3 1 8 9 5

Scientific Questions:

7 6

Minimum/optimum size each DPL? Expected significant: what, when? Self recruit vs connectivity? Adapt. design to be in lined with KKLD to Seascape (scale down) ?

Comprehensive Evaluation of MPA Status in Indonesia : (in progress)


Effective & Sustainable
(5)

No. Main Criteria 16 Pengelolaan KKP meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat 17 Pembiayaan berkelanjutan 12 13 14 15 8 9 10 11 4 5 6 7 Penataan batas kawasan Pelembagaan Pengelolaan sumberdaya kawasan Pengelolaan sosial ekonomi dan budaya

Developed
(4)

Minimum Standards Fulfilled


(3)

Pengesahan rencana pengelolaan & zonasi Standar Operasional Prosedur (SOP) Pengelolaan Pelaksanaan Rencana pengelolaan dan zonasi Penetapan Kawasan Konservasi Perairan

Green

Created
(2)

Unit organisasi pengelola dengan SDM Rencana pengelolaan dan zonasi Sarana dan prasarana pendukung pengelolaan Dukungan pembiayaan pengelolaan

Initiated

1 Usulan Inisiatif 2 Identifikasi & inventarisasi kawasan 3 Pencadangan kawasan

Trends of Live coral cover at permanent plots at COREMAP sites (2006-2011)

Outcome, Management Challenges & Scientific Questions: % Live Coral Cover Outcome: LCC at 5/7 districts increased; average 18.8% Management Challenges:
- Optimum targets (always increased vs maintained)? - What if not achieved?

Scientific Questions:
- What are the best & practical reef health indicator ? - High coral cover vs reef fish abundances (not simple)!

Other Major Outputs/Outcomes of COREMAP Program


Reduction of destructive fishing practices Significantly improved public awareness Stronger legislation and policies (national, provincial, district, and villages) Developed institutional capacities (LKM, SPP, Government agencies) Improved coastal community livelihood Certifications of marine ornamentals Provide coral reef baseline information (www.coremap.or.id)
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Total abundances of Angle Fish Pomacanthus xanthometopon


45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 Flat 1 Crest 1 Slope Flat Crest individu Slope Flat Crest 9 10 8 3 Slope 24 39

P. Liukang Tuppabiring

P. Liukang Tangaya

P. Taka Bonerate

Challenges for decentralized and community based CR management in Indonesia


The four major tribes in Indonesia, fishing all over Indonesian coral reefs (migratory fisherman) Going fishing 3-6 months

Source: Suharsono 2009

Map of Poverty Index for Indonesian Coastal Communities

Distribution of coastal communities

8,090 Coastal Villages 16.42 M people 3,91 Households Individual Poverty Index 0.3214

The possible future scenarios of Indonesian Coral Reefs??

Several Key Strategies for Optimistic - Possible Scenarios:

Legislation, law enforcement, public participations/stewardship Strong science based and adaptive management Integrated Land-Coastal-Marine Zone Management /EBM Coral reef resilience & effective MPA Networks More effective &/or proactive and Reef Rehabilitation/Restoration Climate Change mitigation and adaptation

MESSAGE 1a: Science: Take a Walk on the Applied Side. But WHY?
PURE Science
Unexpected Knowledge Frontiers of Discovery New Paradigms

APPLIED Science
Huge and Critical Need Informed Decision-making Put Science to Use/ Work
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Stronger ScienceBased Culture and Citizens

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MESSAGE 1b: Science: Take a Walk on the Applied Side. But HOW?
Support Grad Student Thesis Topic Learn Another Sector

Serve as Local TWG Advisor

Conduct Outreach to Public, Students


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Improved ICM

Strengthen Government Applied Science


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MESSAGE 2a: Managers: Take a Walk on the Wet Side. But WHY?
PURE Management
Political Rational Efficient Implementation

WET Management
Appropriate and Effective Approaches Realistic Expectations Empowers Implementers

Stronger Reality-Based Management and Leaders

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MESSAGE 2b: Managers: Take a Walk on the Wet Side. But HOW?
Invite Researchers to your Team Learn Some New Science Invite Users and Experts to TWG

Join a Field Activity (Monitor, Patrol, Install)


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Improved ICM

Strengthen Government Applied Science


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MESSAGE 3: S&M: We Need Viral Tools to Create Fast, Effective Changes


Communities and Users: The numbers are daunting, and one-byone changes too little and too slow
Scientists and Managers (S&M) can work together to design safe Viral Interventions
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Replicate Modify for General Use

Pilot
Design
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MESSAGE 3: Create Contact Surfaces


Forums Technical Working Groups Advisory Groups Outreach Campaigns Partnerships Learning Networks
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MANAGERS/GOVERN MENT

NGOS

SCIENCE SECTOR

CIVIL SOCIETY

RESOURCE USERS

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CTI Learning Networks


A group working across organizations and/or boundaries to collectively create, apply, test, document and share solutions to common challenges.
Learning network reaching out to MPA Managers and Practitioners in more than 1500 MPAs in the Coral Triangle.

Pilot: CTI MPA Learning Network Objectives Connect site managers across the CT6 to improve their capacity to manage MPAs. Connect MPA networks and leaders across CT6 in support of the CT MPA System (CTMPAS). Catalyze/accelerate learning and sharing of information by supporting linkages between MPA managers, existing networks, scientists, policy makers, local communities, and practitioners.

Contact Surfaces of the CTI


CTI-CFF Exhibit booth: Please go and Visit CTI DRAFT MPA System Framework: Circulating CTI DRAFT EAFM Framework: Circulating CTI Regional Early Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation (Already Adopted) is Available CTI Integrated Toolkit: Circulating www.coraltriangleinitiative.org for more info
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Photo by Nat. Geog. 2012

Photo by D. Smith

Acknowledgment:
MaCSI Hasanuddin University Ministry of Marine Affairs & Fisheries CTI-CFF Regional Secretariat Dr. S. Tighe/ TNC Dr, Suharsono & Dr. Dirhamsyah (LIPI) NCC CTI Indonesia ARC C0E for Coral Reef Studies US CTSP (Maurice Knight) Coral Triangle Center (CTC) Essex University (D. Smith & D. Sugget) Naneng Setiasih ADB-KM team NCC of CT6 Countries Worl Bank ADB
9 Jul 2012

Dr. Suseno Sukoyono Eko Rudianto Dr. Alan White Dr. Laurence McCook Prof. Bob Pressey Dr. Perri Alino Prof. Ed. Gomez Syafyuddin Yusuf Dr. Darmawan

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Thank you. Jamaluddin.jompa@gmail.com


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