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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

Water Level Sensor (Buzzer)

By Leader: NOEL JOHN DEL ROSARIO Members: JACQUELINE ROSE DE JULIO ALEXIA DALE MENDOZA JEM MARC JUACALLA AL JAN RODRIGUEZ LAUREN LOUIE MACAHILAS HAROLD MILAGROSA

To ENGR. SALLY G. CORPUS

A Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Subject Requirements in Electronics 2

March 2011

COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

INTRODUCTION

Water level, stage, or flow can be measured with many types of sensors, pressure transducer, bubblers, shaft encoders, or ultrasonic sensors. The location where you are measuring water level, the accuracy required, and the ease of installation all contribute to determining the best water level sensor for your measurement site. Our robust ranges of liquid level sensors are perfect for both long and short term water level monitoring. Level Sensor is a measuring transducer that converts the level measurement of liquids or bulk materials into mechanical, electrical, or pneumatic signals that can be conveniently transmitted, processed and recorded. They can be classified as sensors for liquids or for bulk materials, depending on their purpose, and as float, hydrostatic, electric, acoustic, thermal, nuclear, or optical sensors, depending on their operating

COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

principle. Level sensors detect the level of substances that flow including liquids, granular materials and powders. Fluids and Fluidized solids flow to become essentially level in their containers because of gravity whereas most bulk solid pile at an angle response to a peak. There are many physical and application variables that affect the selection of the optimal level monitoring method for industrial and commercial purposes. The selection criteria include the physical: phase (liquid, solid, slurry), temperature, pressure or vacuum, chemistry, dielectric constant of medium, density (specific gravity) of medium, agitation, acoustical or electrical noise, vibration, mechanical shock, tank or bin size and shape. Also important application contains price, accuracy, appearances, response rate, ease of calibration or programming, physical size and mounting of the instrument, monitoring or control of the continuous or discrete levels. The Water Level Sensor module is part of the Grove System. It indicates whether the sensor is dry, damp or completely immersed in water by measuring conductivity. The sensor traces

COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

have a weak pull-up resistor of 1M . The resistor will pull the sensor trace to a value high until a drop of water shorts the sensor trace to the ground trace. Believe it or not this circuit will work with the digital I/O pins of your Arduino or you can use it with the analog pins to detect the amount of water included contact between the ground and sensor traces. Integral process control in many industries, level measurement sensors fall into two many types. Point level measurement sensors are used to mark a single discrete liquid height a preset level condition. Generally, his type of sensor functions as a high intense of alarm, signaling an overfill condition, or as a marker for alarm condition. Continuous level sensors are more sophisticated and can provide level monitoring of an entire system. They measure fluid level within a range, rather than at a one point, producing an analog output that directly correlates to the level in the vessel. To create a level management system, the output signal is linked to a process control loop and to a visual indicator. A variety of sensors are available for point level detection of solids. These

COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

including vibrating, rotating paddle, mechanical system (diaphragm), microwave (radar) capacitance, optical, pulsedultrasonic and ultrasonic level sensors.

COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Our group would like to give our gratitude for the people who helped us accomplished this project. First of all, we would like to give our greatest gratitude to God who we know is always there to help us in our problems and always guiding us to his plans. To our professor Engr. Sally Corpus for teaching us something new in our college life, for guiding us in making a better student. Building our confidence and imaginations in building new thing and teaching us to act like a real engineer. Also to Engr. Noel Yap for being one of our helping hand. For answering our questions on how the circuit would work and for the confusion of having many ground points which is new in our perception. Although we know what should be done it is good that we have asked him for his advice and opinions about the project.

COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

To our loving parents who gave us a never ending support and for the expenses that were used to buy the equipments needed to build the circuit. Also we would like to give thanks for every member of this group that give their very best to accomplish this project may it be a great experience for each and every one of us today and for the upcoming years.

COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. TITLE PAGE 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ...6 TABLE OF CONTENTS3 OBJECTIVE4 SUMMARY OF PROJECT DESIGN5 DEFINITION OF TERMS THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK.. A. Wiring Diagram Description VIII. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A. Parts List..16 B. Circuit Description..18 C. Schematic Diagram..19 IX. PROJECT APPLICATIONS TO COMMUNITY........................................20
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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

X. XI. XII.

RECOMMENDATION..21 CONCLUSION..23 APPENDICES A. Summary of Group Performance Evaluation B. Pictures at work with descriptions

XIII. LIST OF FIGURES XIV. POFILES

COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

OBJECTIVES Students will be able to: Make a Water Level Sensor Learn how to design a circuit Learn how to etch the PCB Learn how to connect the components needed Learn how to troubleshoot before finishing touch Think and act like a true Engineers.

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

SUMMARY OF PROJECT DESIGN

SIDE VIEW

FRONT VIEW

TOP VIEW

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Level sensors - detect the level of substances that flow, including liquids, slurries, granular materials, and powders. Fluids and fluidized solids flow to become essentially level in their containers (or other physical boundaries) because of gravity whereas most bulk solids pile at an angle of repose to a peak. Buzzer - or beeper is an audio signaling device, which may be mechanical, electromechanical, or piezoelectric. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarm devices, timers and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or keystroke. Battery - which is actually an electric cell, is a device that produces electricity from a chemical reaction. Strictly speaking, a battery consists of two or more cells connected in series or parallel, but the term is generally used for a single cell.

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

Etching - the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original processin modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used on other types of material). PCB (Printed Circuit Board) - used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways, tracks or signal traces etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate LED (light-emitting diode) - a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for general lighting. Capacitor - (originally known as a condenser) is a passive two terminal electrical component used to store energy electrostatically in an electric field.

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

Resistor - a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.

Transistor - is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. Diode - a two-terminal electronic component with asymmetric conductance, it has low (ideally zero) resistance to current flow in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other. Integrated circuit - or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small plate ("chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. This can be made much smaller than a discrete circuit made from independent components. Fiberglass - a lightweight, extremely strong, and robust material. Although strength properties are somewhat lower than

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

fiber and it is less stiff, the material is typically far less brittle, and the raw materials are much less expensive.

THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

A. Wiring Diagram

POWER SUPPLY

9 V DC

SENSOR

CIRCUIT

WATER

OUTPUT
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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

A. Parts Lists QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 COMPONENT Buzzer 2 PCB Pins 10uF/50 V 0.1uF Red LED BC547 100k 5.6k 4.7k 1k Sensor PCB

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

2 Wires

B. Circuit Description This circuit is composed of 2 capacitors, 4 resistors, 2 transistors and 1 Light Emitting Diode. The input for this circuit is a 9V DC battery, while the output for the circuit is the buzzer that will be triggered by the time when the water or the liquid substance has touch or makes contact with the sensor. By having the LED, it also tell that the water has already reached the level limit if whenever the buzzer cant be heard by an individual the light itself shall flicker and give the signal to the people in the area of the process.

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

Miscellaneous: Input- 9 VDC @ 40 mA Output- Buzzer Terminal pins for supply voltage Power-On LED indicator Four mounting holes of 3.2 mm each PCB dimensions 32 mm x 35 mm

Optional: Digital Display Optional Switch Voltage Regulator Housing


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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

C. Schematic Diagram

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

APPLICATION TO COMMUNITY
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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

Global warming has born an adverse effect to worldwide climate. This climate change resulted to massive flood due to tumultuous outburst of rain brought by typhoon and southwest monsoon in some regions of the country. The disaster has been prevailing over the years that cause damage to properties and lives. Various measures had been applied and implemented to lessen or resolve its risk. At these modern times, with the advent of technology, great inventions can conquer this problem at any rate. As our group contribution to the community, we have made the water sensory device. This device could be of great help to people in monitoring the water level whenever heavy rain occurs especially in low lying areas or residences nearby the river. The significance of this tool is that, it can be easily assemble and the needed materials are bought in its affordable price. Another remarkable advantage of this device is that it can be utilized in far flung areas where electricity is not available because it can be operated using a dry cell or battery.

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

Moreover, it warns the people when water level rises because it alarms quickly. It can be installed anywhere in your area or household at the same time. This device is an environmental friendly and economically wise.

RECOMMENDATION

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

In doing this project, first we recommend that once you have the PCB layout or PCB design, it must be both verified and tested. We also recommend checking the effectiveness of every component because any problem in the components will cause delay in the project making and will spend lots of money for the new component. Testing is the real-world counterpart to verification, checking the circuit really does do what it was designed to. We also recommend to consider the type of source you are going to use, either AC or DC. Based on the source or power, there is an appropriate wire to be used. Check with your local hardware store for more information on what wires to use. This is to mainly void power loss during the transmission of electricity. When you have the kit needed in this project, we recommend to double check the polarity of every component because sometimes the polarity indicated in the kit is wrong. If unable to do so, this will cause the maker to check for the problem manually and this will be a waste of time.

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

Before soldering the components, we recommend to check for the connections two or more times to avoid short connections. Improper connections might cause the component to be busted. Lastly, in the transmitter used, always check the positions of the emitter, base and collector because this is the common problem encounter in the circuit.

CONCLUSION

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

After making this project, we have concluded that level sensors are important in observing water level. The projects advantages are it is inexpensive, the material are easily accessible and it is easy to build. Creating the project takes time and effort, so it must be planned carefully. Paying attention to the wiring and assembling is significant in order for the project to work properly. The project is important and applicable for water bodies such as lakes and rivers. This project can be of high use especially in stormy weathers.

APPENDICES

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

A. Summary of Group Performance Evaluation Everyone did their part in making this project a success. Dividing the work to the group makes it easier for each one of us to finish the project. And after a time of hard work we finish it in time. Noel John Del Rosario was the one responsible for the idea in making this Water Level Sensor project and every aspect of this project, from the paper works up to the finish project. But without the help of each one from the group it might be impossible to finish it in time. Aljan Rodriguez and Lauren Loui Macahilas were the ones who thought and built the model design for the project applications. They made the miniature water dam that will be use to show the use of the project in the community. Alexia Dale Mendoza, Jacqueline Rose De Julio and Jm Marc Juacalla were the ones who helped with the paper works and for its documentations.

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

Harold Milagrosa was the one who lent us his tool and equipment in making this project. He also gave some ideas on how the circuit could work in actual situations. The very first thing that we did was to buy the necessary components for the project. After that, we started to etch and drill the PCB, then put the essential components to the designated ports and soldered them. We tested the circuit and it worked fine. Then, we thought of a model that was crucial for the application of the circuit and considered a water dam as an example. Nowadays, especially during rainy days, water levels are more likely to be ignored without the help of any human interaction. This sensor is capable of alarming or reminding each and every individual that the water levels has already reached the limit of the water dam. At first, we thought that it could not be finished at the given time. However, as we pushed ourselves to our limits, coupled with the determination to overcome hardships and sacrifices in completing this project, we were able to finish it.

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

B. Gallery

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

PROFILES Noel John Del Rosario 19 yrs. Old Blk. 4. Lot 18 Calapacuan St. James Subd. Subic Zambales Every problem is an opportunity to learn something new

Aljan Rodriguez 20 yrs. Old

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

Jacqueline Rose De Julio 19 yrs. Old 2706 Rizal Avenue East Bajac Bajac Olongapo City Success cannot be achieved on your own

Noel John Del Rosario 19 yrs. Old Blk. 4. Lot 18 Calapacuan St. James Subd. Subic Zambales Every problem is an opportunity to learn something new Lauren Loui C. Macahilas 22 yrs. Old 1474 Tabacuhan Sta. Rita Olongapo City Everyone has their own reason

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

Jem Marc Juacalla 19 yrs. Old 2155 Ipil Lane Old Cabalan Olongapo City No pain, No gain

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

Harold Milagrosa 19 yrs. Old Castillejos Zambales You only live once

Lauren Loui C. Macahilas 22 yrs. Old 1474 Tabacuhan Sta. Rita Olongapo City Everyone has their own reason Jem Marc Juacalla 19 yrs. Old 2155 Ipil Lane Old Cabalan Olongapo City No pain, No gain

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COLUMBAN COLLEGE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING- ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT OLONGAPO CITY

Harold Milagrosa 19 yrs. Old Castillejos Zambales You only live once

Lauren Loui C. Macahilas 22 yrs. Old 1474 Tabacuhan Sta. Rita Olongapo City Everyone has their own reason Jem Marc Juacalla 19 yrs. Old 2155 Ipil Lane Old Cabalan Olongapo City No pain, No gain

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Alexia Dale Mendoza 19 yrs. Old #0782 Mapanao Asinan Proper Subic Zambales It is good to have an end to journey towards; but it is the journey that matters, in the end Harold Milagrosa 19 yrs. Old Castillejos Zambales You only live once

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