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Safety Manual

Orion Safety Manual

EMPLOYEES ACKNOWLEDGEMENT AND RECEIPT OF SAFETY MANUAL I acknowledge receipt of the Companys Safety Manual. As a condition of my employment, I agree to comply with all Safety policies. After reading these policies, I agree to refer any questions I might have to the Human Resources Department. I understand and agree that my employment with the Company may be terminated at any time with or without cause, by the Company or by me. Further, I understand that this Safety Manual does not create a contract of employment between the Company and me. After reading all Company Safety policies, I will sign this acknowledgement and return it immediately to the Human Resource Department. ACKNOWLEDGED AND RECEIVED this month of ___________, day of _________, 20_______.

_________________________________________ EMPLOYEES PRINTED NAME

__________________________________________ EMPLOYEES SIGNATURE

__________________________________________ SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER

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INDEX
SECTION I
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. General Safety Rules Contraband Policy Rig Orientation Safety Meetings Weekly Crew Safety Training Unsafe Acts and Condtions Pre-tour, Pre-job Safety Briefing Injury / Illness Procedures Incident Evaluation Incident Evaluation Form Rig Inspection Procedures Responsibilities Safety Department Rig Management Supervisors Safety Manager Employee Rigsite Notices & Posting Requirements OSHA Inspections Company Motor Vehicles Safety Lockout & Tagout Procedures Confined Space Entry Fire Prevention and Control Typical Layout for land rig fire extinguishers and safety equipment

J. K. L. M. N. O. P.

SECTION II
A. B. C. D. E. F. Electrical Equipment Welding and Cutting Engines and Generators Water Heater Tanks Forklift Vehicles Certification Waterblasting / Pressure Washing

SECTION III
A. B. C. D. E. Blowout Prevention and Control Precautions to be taken while perforating Typical well testing safety procedures Crew Organization and Duties Drilling Line

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F. Slipping and Cutting Drilling Line G. Drilling Fluid Hoses H. Mud Pumps I. Rig Floor Hoists J. Rotary Table K. Drawworks L. Traveling Blocks M. Drilling Swivel N. Pipe Elevators O. Catheads P. Tongs Q. Slips R. Derricks S. Working Derricks T. Crown Block U. Running Casing V. Casing Stabbing Board (Mechanical) W. Tripping Pipe X. Handling of Drill Pipe Tubular Y. Laying Down Drill Pipe Z. Mud Pits and Shale Shakers AA. High Pressure Pumping Operations

SECTION IV
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. Housekeeping Ladders Stairways and Handrails Floors and Walkways Hand Tools Grinders Portable Power Tools Compressed Air and Equipment Equipment Guards High Pressure Lines Manual Lifting Wire Rope Rigging Handling Drilling Mud, Chemicals and Toxic Substances Chain Hoists, Come-a-longs and Jacks Chains (spinning, jerk, drive, binding) Accident Prevention Signs and/or Markings Protective Equipment Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

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SECTION V
A. B. C. D. Respiratory Protection Program Spray Painting Operations Sandblasting Operations Hazard Communication

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

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A. BASIC SAFETY RULES GENERAL: Always keep in mind that the primary responsibility of an employee is to perform their duties in a safe manner in order to prevent injury to themselves and to their co-workers. They should become familiar with the contents of this manual and must learn the approved safe practices applicable to their work and observe them at all times. Before undertaking special operations, they should review the appropriate section of this manual in detail. Each employee should maintain an active interest in the safety program. Each work group is expected to actively participate in the safety program. Daily five-minute pretour meetings and weekly crew safety meetings at the work location are required. Employees should give their undivided attention to the on-the-top safety discussions which their supervisor may use to prepare them for new or hazardous work. Employee should ask for an explanation of points which they do not understand thoroughly. Failure to observe applicable safety rules could result serious injury to employees to their co-workers. For this reason, unsafe work practices will not be tolerated and will result in discipline, up to, and including, termination. 1. Hard hat, safety-toe shoe and eye protection will be worn by all personnel and third party employees any time they are in the work area. All injuries, regardless of how minor, will be reported immediately to the supervisor. Weekly crew and tour safety meetings will be held in order to discuss accident prevention. Employees should know all locations of fire fighting equipment. All used or missing fire extinguishers should be reported to the supervisor immediately. Horseplay, practical joking, and fighting will not be tolerated. Traveling up and down ladders or steps requires the employee to use the hand rails. All electrical tools shall be effectively grounded. All hand tools will be properly stored and maintained. All employees are to comply with Company policy concerning hair length, facial hair, and jewelry. All rings are prohibited while working.

2.

3.

4.

5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

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10. 11.

Hoisting equipment shall not be loaded beyond its rated capacity. All hazardous conditions and unsafe acts should be reported to the supervisor immediately. Keep extremities away from pinch points. Hearing protection will be worn when working in designated areas. Employees should not position themselves under a suspended load. (Taglines should be used to position and control loads.) Proper lifting techniques should be used. Employees should get assistance with heavy loads. Remember: DO NOT LIFT NAYTING YOU FELL YOU CANNOT HAND. GET HELP!!! Illegal drugs, narcotics, drug related paraphernalia and alcohol will be absolutely forbidden on all Orion Drilling Company, LP property. All personnel are required to wear and use safety belt or body harness protection anytime they are working six (6) feet or more above the rig floor, ground, etc Personal protective equipment for face, hands, body, lungs, etc., shall be provided and used by all personnel when performing specific jobs such as mixing or handling chemicals, hammering, grinding, etc Contact lenses can not be worn while working on Orion Drilling Company, LP rigs. All equipment operating manuals should be reviewed before the equipment is put into service. Safety goggles or shields must be worn when chipping, grinding, changing tong dies on any job where foreign or flying objects might enter the eyes. Safety awareness by each employee is a must. Should they have any questions or need clarification on any of these rules, it is their responsibility to contact their supervisor or the Safety Manager.

12. 13. 14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

For a more thorough discussion of these rules and guidelines, refer to the specific text in this manual.

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C. RIG ORIENTATION STATEMENT OF POLICY: All new employees shall be given orientation as soon as they arrive on the rig, before commencing their work activities. (A new employee is anyone who has not worked on that particular rig, or tour.) PURPOSE: To ensure that all new employees are made familiar with rig surroundings, company basic safety rules, fire fighting equipment, etc., and that they are made to feel welcome as a part of the rigs crew and as a part of the Company. Procedures: 1. 2. The Toolpusher will meet every new employee upon arrival on the rig. The Toolpusher will check the new employee for required paper work and safety equipment. (Hard hats, eye protection, steel toed shoes, etc.) The Toolpusher will start the orientation process:

3.

1) The Toolpusher will familiarize the new employee with his assignments, location and operation of fire fighting equipment. 2) The Toolpusher will instruct the new employee of any special hazards with which they are required to be familiar, before continuing the orientation tour. 3) In keeping with the companys commitment to safety and establishment of a proper business atmosphere, the Toolpusher will explain the following guidelines: a) Neatly trimmed beards and / or mustache are allowed except when conditions on the location may require the use of breathing apparatus (such as H2S potential). b) Hair length require the use of breathing apparatus (such as H2S potential). b) Hair length which extends beyond the collar must be tucked under the hard hat or confined in a hair net to avoid entanglement with moving machinery. c) Jewelry of any type will not be worn in the work area.

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d) Loose clothing should not be worn while working on or near equipment and machines. e) All employees are expected to observe good habits of grooming and personal hygiene at all times, and to avoid any personal practices or preferences that may prove offensive to others.

4.

The Toolpusher will then introduce the new employee to his/her immediate supervisor. The Driller will go over the new employees work assignments and safe working habits. The Driller will assign one of the more experienced employees, or in some cases himself, to the new employee as the SAFEST BUDDY. The Safest Buddy will observe the new employee is ready to be released from the SAFEST BUDDY The SAFEST BUDDY will be assigned to the employee until the Driller feels that the new employee is ready to be released from the SAFEST BUDDY. The new employee must be made familiar with the required personal protective equipment (eye protection, safety belts, gloves, respirators, etc.) that the employee may be required to use during work activities. The Safety Awards Program must be discussed with all new employees. The above items must be discussed with the employee before work commences. The Toolpusher and the Driller will follow up by asking questions of the new employee on a periodic basis for the fist tow hitches to ensure that he/she has and is continuing to develop safe work habits. The Toolpusher and the Employee must sign the check-off list provided. The check-off list must be dated and copies made for: a) Rig File b) Personnel File c) Safety Manager

5.

6.

7.

8.

9. 10. 11.

12. 13.

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D. SAFETY MEETINGS PURPOSE: Safety Meetings are absolutely essential to the success of nay safety program. The primary purpose of safety training is to keep everyone aware that the work can and must be done safely, provided each worker thinks and works safely, regardless of what he/she is doing. 1. Responsibility: a.) It is the responsibility of the Toolpusher to ensure timely and well conducted safety meetings. b.) Safety meetings should be designed to encourage feedback and discussion from participants. The individual who conducts the meetings should be well prepared. 2. Training of Employees:

As a general rule, safety meetings should be held whenever necessary. The following minimum schedule and methods should be adhered to: 1. Crew Safety meetings-Will be held by Drillers on a weekly basis. In these meetings, all topics in the Safety Manual that pertain to their crews should be covered. Other job functions that arise and are not covered in the manual should also be discussed. a) A hard leaf binder for each Driller (with dividers for each type meeting) will be maintained. All topics discussed by each Driller will be filed in their individual binder. Crew safety meetings reports will be filled out on all meetings held by each Driller and turned in to the Toolpusher for review. Drillers will file the training forms in their individual hard leaf binder. All topics in the safety manual, pertaining to each crew, must be covered at least one a year. Copies of all Crew Meetings should be sent in to the Safety Manager each week.

b)

c)

d)

2. Pre-Job Safety Meeting: Prior to beginning any unfamiliar, hazardous or major project, all participants involved should have a safety meeting. Step-by-step procedures should be analyzed.

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3.

Pre-tour safety meeting-Shall be held prior to beginning work. All scheduled work for the tour should be discussed. New employees must be given special attention during this meeting to ensure their understanding of the scheduled work. a) Pre-Tour Safety Meeting form will be filled out on all meetings held by each Driller and turned in to the Toolpusher. A hard leaf binder will be maintained by the Driller. All topics discussed will be filed in the Drillers hard leaf binder.

b)

3. Material for Meetings: 1) This manual should be studied form start to finish, covering a page or section at a time. Once covered, the session should continue, starting at the beginning of this manual again. New employees are likely to be present and experienced personnel can benefit from the additional review. Employees should be encouraged to report any unsafe condition or act they observe to their Driller. These conditions or acts should then be discussed at safety meetings. Any and all injuries, regardless of severity, must be reported to the Driller so that corrective action may be taken and causes discussed at safety meetings.

2)

3)

4. Attendance: Attendance of all employees at safety meetings is mandatory. Attendance and participation of contractors used on our rigs is strongly encouraged. Approval for excused absences must be received from the Toolpusher. The Toolpusher should carefully consider the priorities involved before making the decision to excuse an employee form a safety meeting. 5. Minutes: Topics of safety meetings must be recorded on the appropriate forms shown on the following pages.

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PRE-TOUR, PRE-JOB SAFETY BRIEFING

RIG ______________________ SUPERVISOR ______________

DATE ________________ CREW ________________

TOPICS DISCUSSED: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

UNSAFE ACTS & CONDITIONS CORRECTED DURING TOUR: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

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F. INJURY/ILLNESS PROCEDURES PURPOSE: To establish and maintain a method of immediately reporting personal injury and illness to management so that the needs of the individuals can be cared for in an efficient and timely manner. All injuries and illnesses that occur to employees while working with or for Orion Drilling Company, LP shall be handled in the following manner: 1. DOCTOR CASES- These injuries or illnesses include treatment administered by a physician. Medical treatment does not include first aid treatment (one time treatment and subsequent observation of minor scratches, cuts, burns and so forth, which do not ordinarily require medical care) even though provided by a physician. 1) Arrangements shall be made for transporting the employee to the doctor. The Toolpusher or a company representative should be sent to assist the employee to the doctor. If assistance is needed for notification of hospital or doctor, refer to the following: a) Contact the Safety Manager or Personnel Manager. One of the above will assist in notifying the hospital or doctor of the time of arrival. 2) An Order Form Medical Treatment form should be filled out by the Toolpusher. A copy should be retained for the Rig Files and a copy must be forwarded with the injured employee. Injury/Illness Forms must be filled out in detail. After completion of the form, a copy must be faxed to the Safety Manager. Forward the original form to the Safety Manger. The Safety Manger shall be notified of all Doctor Cases by phone or fax as soon as possible. All Doctor Cases shall be reported on the morning report the following day.

3)

4)

5)

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G. INCIDENT EVALUATION EVAULATING: The Rig evaluation team will consist of the Toolpusher, Driller, Safety Manager and additional levels of supervision and management, depending upon the type of injury or the potential severity of the incident. 1. PREPARING FOR AN EVALUATION: 1) Good Reasons for Evaluation Accidents Incidents and injuries are always undesirable, but when they do occur, the supervisors should try to derive as much benefit as possible from them. To make the most of lessons learned through accidents, the supervisors need a standard method for dealing with incidents and injuries. With such a system, the supervisors can accomplish the following purposes. 2. Prevent Recurrence The chief aim of injury and incident evaluations is to prevent the recurrence of similar incidents. To achieve this purpose, you must ensure that: a) All incidents and injures are reported to the supervisor promptly. b) The evaluation is started as soon as possible and the underlying causes of the incident are identified. c) The results of the evaluation are communicated to the employee in the group where the incident occurred, to other supervisors, and to management. 3. Improve Safety Management

Through these evaluations, employees can see: a) The emphasis on safety. b) How safety procedures, practices, and safety training should be modified to prevent such incidents. c) What trends in safety performance are developing in each area? Evaluations of near-misses reveal potentially hazardous situations, which can then be corrected before any injury occurs.

4.

Demonstrate the Commitment to Safety

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When supervisor and employees react swiftly to injures and incidents on a Rig and take the time to ensure that they are evaluated thoroughly, they are showing employees that they really care about safety. 5. Employees Perceptions of the Reasons The reasons given for revaluating accidents are all positive and important. If, however, employees perceive the supervisors intentions being to find fault, punish, or cover up for management (including themselves), the situation will be a negative one even if they do all the right things for all the right reasons. Supervisors might also feel subject to blame when they become involved in an evaluation. In such a case, the supervisor can change the employees negative perceptions of their motives through approaches such as the following: a) Be positive b) Recognize where people acted properly or responded well to the situation. c) Do not blame or embarrass anyone during an evaluation. d) Act immediately, if possible, to correct an unsafe situation. e) Express compassion for anyone who has been hurt. f) Attend first to the well-being of anyone involved in the incident. 2. THE REPORTING OF INCIDENTS:

Prompt Reporting All incidents, however small, are to be reported to the supervisor immediately. When an accident is not reported at once, two consequences may result: 1) An injury may become more serious through lack of proper medical attention. 2) Another employee may find himself in the same circumstances and be seriously hurt because no action has been taken to eliminate the cause of the original incident. If an incident is not reported, it cannot be evaluated or corrected.

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3.

THE EVALUATION:

1. TIMING OF THE EVALUATION An incident or injury should be evaluated immediately because: a) The circumstances surrounding the accident may change due to changes in operations, weather, personnel, and the like. b) Witnesses to the accident may be unavailable later because of crew change, illness, etc. c) People involved in the accident may forget details and unknowingly substitute conjecture or opinion for fact. d) Witnesses may discuss the incident and influence each others version of the details of the incident. e) An employee may be able to fabricate a plausible story to hide a serious unsafe action on his or her part. 2. EVALUATION GUIDELINES a) To get the most our of an injury evaluation, the supervisor should be sure that the following five steps are completed. The evaluation team must:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Collect all the facts. Determine the causes of the incident. Recommend ways to prevent similar occurrences. Record: a. The results of the evaluation, b. Recommendations to prevent recurrence of the incident. 5. Follow up on the implementation of all recommendations.

The following material discusses each of these steps in detail.

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b) Collect All the Facts 1. Interview the Injured Employee. The employees supervisor should ask the employee to explain: a) What he/she was doing? b) How he/she was doing it c) How he/she thinks the accident happened. If possible, this interview should be conducted at the scene of the accident to make it easier for the employee to demonstrate his or her exact location and to point out things that would be difficult to explain away form the scene. It should also be conducted between just the evaluation team and the employee to avoid putting the employee on the defensive. This may be the fist injury evaluation an employee attends. The supervisor should, therefore, remind the employee of the purpose of nay injury evaluation. (It is not to find fault.) It is important that the employee feels relaxed and that a good relationship exists between the supervisor and the injured employee. In this way, the supervisor will be more assured of a completely honest discussion of the incident. The supervisor should not interrupt the injured employee. He/she should be allowed to tell the whole story to give an overall idea of the circumstances surrounding the injury or accident. Freedom from interruption also tens to relax the employee and to make him/her more responsive to questions. If an elevator (the supervisor) thinks some point needs elaboration, he/she should ask about it after the employee has told his/her story. The only questions should be about the facts surrounding the injury and should not explore its causes. The following sorts of questions do not establish facts and may hinder the search for facts at this time: Didnt you know you had to wear goggles? or, Why didnt you get another ladder?

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2. Interview any witness to the accident. In a serious injury evaluation, a witness may be the only person available to explain what happened. If the injury is minor, the witness may be able to clarify some circumstances or help verify such facts as the methods of doing the job, the tools being used, or the work practices. Witnesses may hesitate to say anything that shows a co-worker in a bad light. The supervisor should help them understand that this not a fault-finding investigation and that the main purpose of the evaluation (as previously mentioned) is to prevent injury to someone else. If possible, witnesses should be interviewed separately; this prevents them from influencing each others stories of being subjected to peer pressure while they talk. They should be interviewed in the same way as the injured employee was interviewed. The whole evaluation team is involved in the following steps: 3. Inspect the scene of the accident and the equipment involved to ascertain any unsafe conditions. 4. Review the training given to the employee. Was it adequate for the job? c. Determine the Causes Often the causes of an injury of incident are quite obvious; sometimes they are not. In every case, however, evaluators need to look for the underlying causes of the accident. Possible Causes 1. Ask whether the supervisor carried out their safety responsibility. For example, if an employee using a grinding wheel and wearing no safety shield is injured by a piece of flying metal, the cause of the

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Injury may be recorded as unsafe practice by employeefailure to wear proper protective equipment. Did the supervisor: a) Specify precisely what protective equipment was required? b) Provide the proper protective equipment for the employees use? c) Train the employee in the use of the equipment? d) Take corrective action when he learned that employees were using the machinery while not wearing protective equipment? Did the supervisor take any action when he observed deficiencies in any of these areas? Or did he react to any warning signals that the machine was not working properly? 2. If the employee had been properly trained and equipped, and safely violations of this type were monitored, you would then need to check that the supervisor had taken the matter further and asked questions to find out hwy the employee acted unsafely: a) b) c) d) Was he trying to save time or effort? Was he under emotional stress? Did he have any deadline to meet? Was it inconvenient for him to act safely?

Like it or not, a supervisor cannot expect employees to go to great lengths to avoid committing unsafe acts. If certain personal protective equipment is required for a job, and if that personal equipment is stored in an area remote from the job, the inconvenience of obtaining the equipment may be the reason why the employee did not wear it. 3. If there was an unsafe condition, the supervisor must determine and correct its source. For example, if an employee falls because of an oil puddle on the floor, the source of the oil might be a piece of leaking equipment, such as a pump or a leaking forklift. Usually, many factors are involved.

In the case of the fall, the unsafe condition may have been caused by an unknown employees unsafe act.

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Importance of Determining Causes Determination of the causes of an incident is one of the most important parts of the evaluation from causes come recommendations to prevent recurrence. If evaluators make a wrong decision about the causes of the accident, they cannot properly fulfill the purpose of the evaluation. d. Make Recommendations

Once the probably causes of an accident have been discovered, the evaluators should make recommendations to prevent the occurrence of similar incidents. These recommendations may apply to a particular situation or job or to the whole area. When looking over suggested recommendations: 1. Make sure that every recommendation lists: a. The person responsible for implementing it. b. The target date for completion 2. Check that recommendations say what supervision must do, not what the employees should do. If an injury has resulted from an employees carelessness, the recommendations should not be, Be more careful. It might be, Supervisors will discuss the injury with all employees and remind them of the consequences of inattention. 3. See that recommendations are feasible. They must make practical sense. e. Make an Injury Evaluation Report A form is provided to organize the evaluation findings and record them for future reference and follow-up. It can also be used to tabulate statistics that the supervisor or the Safety Department can use to analyze injuries. The attached forms contain the information outlined below. 1. Information about the injured employee. Typical information includes his or her name, Social Security number, Rig number, the employees supervisor, the employees occupation, service time in that occupation, and the length of service with the company. 2. Basic information about the injury. Typical entries are the date of injury or illness diagnosis, the time of injury or illness diagnosis, the time of injury, the time the employee reported for medical attention, the location of the accident, the nature of the injury or illness, the part of the body affected, the initial treatment rendered.

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3. A description of the incident. The details of the incident should include: a) Background information relevant to the injury description. For example, the fact that the incident occurred during a power outrage caused by extreme weather conditions may be of some consequence later in the evaluation. b) The employees position when the accident occurred. Was he reaching, stooping, bending, etc.? What was the injured employee doing when he was injured? This description should be very detailed. c) The unexpected event that resulted in the incident that caused the injury. d) What finally happened? For example, the employee was struck by something, he struck against something, he was caught between things, he fell, he inhaled, he absorbed, he swallowed, etc. Not every injury requires an account of all these topics. They should all be kept in mind, though, during the investigation of each injury. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. date. 11. The classification of the incident as a first aid case, a medical/recordable case, a restricted workday case, or a lost workday case. Copies of the injury evaluation report should be put in the rig files and copies sent to the Safety Department. A list of witnesses to the accident. A list of all existing unsafe conditions and the reasons for them. A description of any unsafe act that led to this accident. The causes of injury, including the underlying causes. How the employee or supervisor could have prevented this accident. The corrective action taken to prevent the accidents recurrence. The signature and title of the evaluating supervisor or manger and the

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f. Follow Up All the time and effort put in to an injury evaluation can be wasted if not one follows up on the recommendations. The Safety Department will follow up any lost workday case or a serious accident that might easily have resulted in a lost workday case. For less serious injuries, the Toolpusher involved in the evaluation should follow up. The easiest way to follow up is to set up a weekly reminder on the injury until all the recommendations have been implemented. 4. AFTER THE EVALUATION 1) COMMUNICATING RESULTS

After an incident or injury evaluation has been completed, the supervisor must ensure that employees know the facts and the recommendations to prevent recurrence. All employees in the area where the injury occurred and employees in other areas with similar operations or exposures should be informed of the important details. The Safety Manger should, therefore, develop a method for communicating: a) Facts b) Basic Causes c) Lessons to be learned d) Corrective measures recommended Effective communication of the results of evaluations should help prevent recurrence. 2. USING RESULT TO IMPROVE MANAGEMENT

a) Quality The quality of evaluations in each area will determine how useful they are. All the evaluation reports should come to the Operation Management. They can see where they are falling short and which areas or supervisors need more training in conducting and reporting evaluations. When assessing the quality of the reports, consider such questions as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Is the information accurate? Are the facts clearly defined? Has the root cause been determined? Are the recommendations for preventions adequate? Do they make sense? Are they being implemented? Is line supervision giving clear leadership? Are the right people involved?

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b) Information for Safety Action Plans Injuries and incidents are a measure of how well the supervisors are managing safety. They can use the information gathered through evaluations as a basis for safety decisions and action plans. Evaluations of near misses reveal potentially hazardous situations which can be corrected before an injury occurs. c) Pattern and Trends Incidents and injuries can be categorized under types, causes, and times of occurrence to identify trends, against which we can then take preventive measures.

5. CONCLUSION When something goes wrong, it must be corrected. Otherwise, an entire organization can be effected. A procedure for injury and incident evaluations is a means of correcting deficiencies in the management of safety. The evaluations show where rules and procedures need to be reviewed and how to develop new job plans. To be effective, evaluations must be: a) b) c) d) Prompt Thorough Include recommendations to prevent recurrence. Followed up

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INCIDENT EVALUATION
Name of Injured Rig# How Long Employed SSN# Incident Date Incident Time Date of Birth Length of Time Present Occupation Occupation Supervisor

Describe Injury / Part(s) of Body Affected ______________________________________________________________________________________ What Machine / Tool / Object Caused the Injury? _____________________________________________________________________________________ Exact Location of Incident _____________________________________________________________________________________ Was Employee Working Alone or with Other Employees at Time of Incident?

________________________________________________________________________
Was Employee Familiar With Job? Yes ____ No____ Was Employee Using Proper Safety Equipment? Yes ____ No ____ Other Conditions At The Time Of Incident (Rain, Ice, Wind, Seas, Fair, Etc.) ______________________________________________________________________________________ Hours Worked On Tour Prior To Injury? ______________________________________________________________________________________ Number of Consecutive Days Worked Prior To Injury? ______________________________________________________________________________________ Describe How The Incident Occurred And What Employee Was Doing When Injured? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________
Was incident scene visited by the Superintendent or Tool pusher, and immediate supervisor? CORRECTIVE ACTION TAKEN TO PREVENT RECURRENCE ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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H. RIG INSPECTION PROCEDURES PURPOSE: To conduct internal safety inspections to evaluate all installations for compliance with safety standards, as well as to identify safety discrepancies to be corrected. To maintain each rig operation within Orion Drilling Company, LP at the highest level of safety. 1. INSPECTIONS BY SAFETY DEPARTMENT 1. PROCEDURE A) Using the Rig Inspection Check List, one inspection per rig will be made by the Safety Manager each quarter. A closing conference will be held with the Tool pusher covering all deficient items. Within 15 days of the inspection, a correction sheet will be sent to the Safety Department. This will state the status of each item that was deficient. If the corrected copy is not received within 15 days, a memo will be sent to the Drilling Superintendent of that particular rig stating that the copy was not received.

B) C)

D)

2 Copies of inspections will be forwarded to: a) b) c) d) Drilling Superintendent District Manager District Operations V.P. Senior Operations V.P.

2. INSPECTIONS BY RIG PERSONNEL 1) An inspection will be made by the Tool pusher after each rig move and rig up. 2) The Rig Inspection Check List must be used. Every item that pertains to that particular rig should be covered. 3) The Tool pusher may assign his supervisors to make the inspection of the areas for which they are responsible. Always keep in mind that the Tool pusher is ultimately responsible for the entire inspection. 4) Copies of the Rig Inspection will be cross checked with the last inspection made by the Safety Department. If consistent variances are noted, these items will be discussed with the Drilling Superintendent and noted on the follow up Safety Department Inspection.

By following these rig inspection procedures, Orion Drilling Company, LP will achieve a safe working environment for our rig personnel. By cross referencing the rig inspections that were done by our supervisors, we will see our strengths and weaknesses and correct them as necessary.

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Orion Safety Manual I. RESPONSIBILITIES 1. REGIONAL SAFETY DEPARTMENT

The Regional Safety Department will assist management in updating and monitoring an effective overall Safety Program. Their objectives are to advise management and supervisory personnel in safe work practices, to supply information required to comply with the Companys Safety Program and OSHA regulations, and to ensure that records are maintained and submitted as required. The Regional Safety Department will assist management in determining that job supervisors and first aid attendants are qualified and trained to meet the special conditions in the field, safety personnel will visit each job as required or as directed and report their findings to management.

Safety personnel will assist management in the following specific areas: 1 2 Formulation of the Site Accident Prevention Program Review the Accident Record System, all reports of injures, and recommend specific actions to eliminate accidents to the appropriate Drilling Superintendent and District Manager. Formulate Safety Training Material for supervisors. Personally inspect jobs for the purpose of discovering unsafe work practices and unsafe conditions and recommend corrective action. Make certain all concerned are familiar with client, State and Federal safety regulations. Ensure that qualified first aid trained attendants are available on each job; arrange for training as necessary. Review selected safety equipment and first aid kits. Advise the Toolpusher of any apparent violations of the Safety Program.

3 4

5 6

7 8

2.

RIG MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY

It shall be noted that the management of the Company advocates a strong accident prevention (safety and health) program because it prevents human suffering and individual hardships to our employees and directly contributes to improvement of morale, which in turn results in better productivity and quality. Rig management must accept this same philosophy in addition to accepting total responsibility for implementation of the procedures and policies set forth within this manual. Rig management shall familiarize them selves with this manual in order to ensure adequate rig implementation procedures are in place. It shall additionally be the responsibility of the rig management to ensure that their positive safety and health philosophy is communicated to the workers.

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Orion Safety Manual 1. TOOLPUSHERS SAFETY REVIEW This in-depth safety review will enable the Toolpusher to quickly assess his rigs overall compliance with both State and Federal regulations as well as company policies and note deficiencies thereof. Any deficiencies noted as a result of this review should receive prompt corrective action. 2. OSHA Checklist Safety is a continuing concept, requiring daily attention to every detail. It takes only an instant to become unsafe and this very instant may cause an accident or injury. You also have an obligation to stay in compliance with OSHA. The following checklist is offered to assist you in your daily safety efforts: ____ Is the required OSHA poster properly displayed in conspicuous place? ____Are emergency telephone numbers posted near the telephone? ____Is the fist aid kit properly stocked? ____Are all personnel properly equipped with personal protective equipment? Is it insisted that this equipment be utilized? ____Is there a trained first aid provider present at all times? If so, does this provider possess an up-to-date card? Safety is a continuing concept, requiring daily attention to every detail. It takes only an instant to become unsafe and this very instant may cause an accident or injury. You also have an obligation to stay in compliance with OSHA. The following checklist is offered to assist you in your daily safety efforts: ____ Is the required OSHA poster properly displayed in conspicuous place? ____Are emergency telephone numbers posted near the telephone? ____Is the fist aid kit properly stocked? ____Are all personnel properly equipped with personal protective equipment? Is it insisted that this equipment be utilized? ____Is there a trained first aid provider present at all times? If so, does this provider possess an up-to-date card? ____Is fire protection adequate? Are extinguishers properly charged? ____Are appropriate caution signs, etc., properly posted (i.e., hard hat area, eye protection requirements, respiratory protection requirements)? ____Are petroleum storage containers properly marked? Are they the approved type? ____Are ladders and hand tools in good condition? Do ladders comply with OSHA regulations? ____Are electrical extension cords of the three wire type? Are they in good condition? Are all power supply panels properly grounded? Is temporary lighting properly rigged to comply with OSHA regulations?

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Orion Safety Manual ____Are scaffolds properly constructed? Are protective railings provided where required by OSHA regulations? Are all open sided floors guarded? Are floor holes properly covered? ____What about housekeeping? Is the site clean and orderly, free form debris, trash and other hazards? ____Are required records available and up-to-date? ____Is a copy of the Company written Hazard Communication Manual on site and properly filled out? ____Are all employees properly trained in the Hazard Communication Program and is this training out? ____Is there an open line of communication concerning correction of unsafe acts and conditions? ____Is there a positive attitude about safety? The above is only a partial checklist. It should not be construed as being all-encompassing. It will, however, serve as a good starting point. 3. SUPERVISORY RESPONSIBILITY It shall be the responsibility of each member of Supervision (Toolpusher and Drillers) to ensure that the safety and health procedures set forth in this manual are carried out. In addition, it shall be their responsibility to enforce safe work practices, as it is their responsibility to enforce practices to maintain productivity and quality. The line supervisor, must realize that he is the key to an efficient, effective Safety Program. The line supervisor provides the first line of communication and enforcement to the workers, therefore, he must set a good example for his subordinates by communicating the safety and health program philosophy of the Company and Rig Management to the worker. All members of line supervision, shall be held responsible and accountable for the work practices of his/her co-workers. It is therefore imperative that the members of supervision familiarize themselves with this manual and enforce the policies and procedures within. In addition to enforcing the policies and procedures within this manual, the supervisors have the responsibility to: 1) Plan each task, not matter how minor, with safety as an integral part. 2) Orient the worker in reference to: a) The work group (the new worker) b) The work area and hazards that exist c) General and specific safety hazards d) Accident (non-injury and injury) reporting standards and why e) The workers safety responsibility 3) Assign personnel to tasks for which they are qualified 4) Ensure adequacy of material prior to use (inspection) 5) Analyze worker and work group performance a) Quality of performance b) Safety equipment use c) Injuries and accidents

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Orion Safety Manual 6) Correct deficiencies noted through analysis a) Educate the worker b) Consult with management 7) Investigate accidents (non-injury and injury) a) b) c) d) Detect direct cause Implement corrective actions Communicate with co-supervisors and management Complete necessary reports

8) Train the workers and work group in safe work procedures a) Daily work planning sessions b) Safety Meetings 9) Understand ones own capabilities a) Consult with management b) Make self evaluations and corrections 10) Ensure that he worker has been informed of the potential health hazards created from exposures to hazardous materials or tasks. 11) Enforce good housekeeping, proper lighting and ventilation, and wearing of appropriate personal protective equipment. 12) Encourage crew members to actively participate in the Safety Program 13) Lead by Example!

4. SAFETY MANGER RESPONSIBILITY The Safety Manager has the responsibility as an advisor/consultant to management for the coordination and implementation of the Company and site specific safety and health policies and procedures. In addition, this individual is responsible for assurance of compliance with the governing Federal, State, Local, and Client safety and health regulations. The Safety Manager, as a member of the Management Staff, shall: 1) Analyze the site specific safety and health procedures for adequacy 2) Ensure orientation of management and supervision concerning this manual, and the protective equipment selected for employee use 3) Ensure orientation of the workers 4) Ensure compliance with al appropriate safety and health procedures through regular site inspection, documenting such with recommendations to management and immediate action on eminent danger situations 5) Ensure adequate investigation and analysis of accidents (non-injury and injury) 6) Provide safety and health training information for education of management, supervision and workers

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Orion Safety Manual a) Accidents analysis (cause, results, and corrective action) b) Inspection analysis and needed corrective actions c) Trend analysis d) Safe work procedures 7) Arrange publicity and coordinate Safety Award Programs 8) Ensure preparation and submittal of required safety and health recordkeeping information. 9) Ensure documentation of required safety and health recordkeeping information (i.e., inspections, training, illness and Accidents Reports, OSHA logs, etc.) 10) Provide safety evaluations of workers and supervisors to management as necessary or as requested

5. EMPLOYEE SAFETY RESPONSABILITY It is recognized that the employee and his/her acceptance of the established safety and health procedures is the key to the success of the overall program. Although the reason for some of the safety and health procedures and policies may not be apparent to the employee, it is felt that worker compliance can be achieved through worker training & motivation, and, if necessary, discipline. The employee must accept the responsibility to comply with procedures established for his/her safety and health. The employee is dependent upon management and supervision for leadership. The worker shall in turn assist management and supervision in the development of the co-workers safety attitudes. The worker shall always feel free to suggest improvements in methods and/or procedure because the primary goal is to prevent accidents, both non-injury and injury. 1) The Employee Shall: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Ensure adequate understanding of the task to be performed Ensure adequate understanding of safety and health procedures Ensure understanding of task and safety equipment use Report unsafe conditions Correct the unsafe acts of his/her co-worker Assist in the training of the co-worker Ensure self compliance with safety and health regulations h) Remember that the safety and health programs was developed to ensure a safe work place free form injury i) Report ALL injuries, no matter how small, to your Supervisor immediately.

2) Employee Accident Prevention The employees, are the prime asset of this organization. The accident prevention procedures that have been developed are designed not only to ensure compliance with Federal, State, Local and Client safety and health regulations, but also to reduce the probability of injury to them. For this reason, there are certain accident prevention responsibilities that must be accepted to make the program whole. Employee must: a) Always keep in mind that one of the primary responsibilities is to perform their duties in the safest manner. b) Learn the approved safe practices that apply to their work and observe them at all times. c) Ask for assistance from a co-worker, supervisor, or the corporate Safety Department when they are unsure of a work or safety practice.

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Orion Safety Manual d) Maintain an active interest in the Safety Program. Given their undivided attention to safety discussions which their supervisor may introduce from time-to-time to prepare them for new or different work. Request explanation of points which they do not understand thoroughly. e) Always be alert to safety and health hazards. Whenever possible, correct or eliminate an obvious hazard themselves. Report all hazards and any corrective measures taken to your supervisor. f) Never bypass the functions of a safety device. Report all safety device malfunctions to their supervisor as soon as possible and flag the device immediately to warn others of the hazard. g) Report promptly to their supervisor any injury they sustain while at work, no matter how slight they may consider the injury to be. h) Use the Companys Incident Evaluation Report Form to report details of an accident that did not result in personal injury or property damage but could do so if it should occur again. Remember the goal is to prevent occurrence. i) Never attempt to do a job alone when common sense and safe work tell them assistance is needed. j) Use protective equipment provided for the work they are doing. k) The work area is no place for clowning; never engage in scuffling, practical joking, or horseplay of any kind on the job. Such conduct will not be tolerated and will result in disciplinary action. l) Be cautious in walking or moving about the work area so as to avoid slipping, tripping, or falling. Be especially cautious when weather conditions create or aggravate hazardous situations. Running on the job is prohibited. m) Always plan their work and try to anticipate any hazards they might encounter. n) For their protection, they are urged to observe good, safe practices off the job as well as on the job. J. RIG SITE NOTICES AND POSTING REQUIREMENTS GENERAL: A copy of each notice described below must be posted at each work established. The notices should be prominently displayed, preferably on a bulletin board or at a location that would provide greatest exposure to employees. 1. Poster-Job Safety & Health Protection -It should be posted and remain posted for the duration of the project. 2. Emergency Phone Numbers List -Post the list in conspicuous locations such as near the telephone and show current emergency numbers for medical assistance, fire/police, ambulance, and hospital. 3. Summary of Occupational Injuries (OSHA 200)

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Orion Safety Manual -The last portion of the summary shall be completed, signed, and posted on an annual basis not later than February 1st, and it should remain posted for 30 days. The document shall be kept on file for five years. 4. Access To Employees Exposure and Medical Records Statement -It should be posted and remain posted for the duration of the project. 5. Federal Minimum Wage 6. Equal Employment Opportunity 7. Employee Polygraph Protection Act 8. Family and Medical Leave Act

K. OSHA INSPECTIONS 1. General Inspections by OSHA Compliance Officers (CO) may be initiated by an employee complaint, a serious or fatal accident investigation, special emphasis programs, or planned audits. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 authorize the Department of Labor to establish mandatory safety and health standards and to carry out a program of standards enforcement. The purpose of this instruction is to provide guidance on OSHA inspection. Anytime an OSHA representative arrives at the Rig site, the Regional Office, Regional Safety and Corporate Safety Departments shall be notified immediately! 2. Compliance Inspection The Occupational Safety and Health Act permits the following types of inspection: (1) regularly scheduled compliance inspections (2) inspections based on an employee complaint, or (3) where a death or catastrophic accident has occurred. 3. Warrants Federal and State court rulings allow employers to request an inspection warrant before permitting OSHA to conduct any compliance inspection. In general, we will not require an inspection warrant when: (1) the inspection is based on a valid employee complaint, (2) there is a death or catastrophic accident, or (3) there is a general compliance inspection. However, we may want OSHA to obtain an inspection warrant in some situations if it is evident that we are being harassed by unfounded employee complaints or suspiciously random inspections. Before deciding to request a warrant, the Toolpusher must consult with and receive the approval of the appropriate Drilling Superintendent. In any event, the Operations Manager, and the Corporate Safety Department must be informed immediately of all OSHA inspections. 4. Credentials Inspection An inspection begins when the CO arrives at the gate or establishment entrance. The CO will usually present his/her credentials at this time and ask to see whoever is in charge. If the inspector does not show his/her credentials, ask to see them. Should there be any doubt as to the individuals authenticity, call OSHAs area office for verification. Once the identity of the CO has been verified, he/she should be escorted directly to the Toolpusher office. 5. Opening Conference Once in the Toolpushers office, the CO should be again asked to show his/her credentials. The CO will usually then explains the purpose of the visit and outline the scope of the inspection. If the CO

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Orion Safety Manual is to conduct a general inspection, he/she may ask that all subcontractors on-site be present during the opening conference. Should the inspection be based on an employees complaint, a copy of the complaint should accompany the final report. After the CO has stated the purpose, the Toolpusher should outline the jobsite safety rules such as mandatory wearing of safety glasses, smoking areas, etc. Any site restrictions such as picture taking, etc., should be discussed. The CO should be advised of all safety and security requirements. 6. Note Taking During the walk-around, extensive inspection notes should be kept by the Toolpusher of Safety Representative. Notes should list all employees or witnesses with which the CO converses. If the CO takes photographs, a description of what was photo graphed should be recorded. If a jobsite camera is available, a photo should be taken of the same item. If an industrial hygiene survey is made, notes should be kept of the instruments used, calibration procedures, areas tested, and preliminary results, if available. It should also be noted whether the employees tested were performing their normal jobs. 7. Closing Conference Once the walk-around portion of the inspection is completed, the CO will hold a closing conference with the Toolpusher. During the closing conference, extensive notes should be taken since the CO will review what was found during the inspection. 8. Inspection Report Immediately after the CO has completed the inspection and left the rig site, the Toolpusher or Safety Representative must make a written OSHA inspection report. The report should include the following information: 1) Name and location of the Rig inspected 2) Date and time of inspection 3) Identification number of the CO 4) Reason for inspection 5) Names of opening conference participants 6) Description of Safety Program and material presented to the CO 7) Project safety and security restrictions such as photographs 8) Names of inspection party participants listing job functions or title 9) A general description of the area of items inspected and findings 10) Names of employees or witnesses interviewed by the CO 11) Description of photographs taken 12) Industrial hygiene measurements taken such as air sampling for toxic substances and preliminary results if available. 13) Names of closing conference participants 14) COs remarks during the closing conference 15) Citations alleged and proposed abatement dates

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Orion Safety Manual 16) Comments made to the CO during closing conference 17) Any additional information pertinent to the inspection 9. General Consideration Our chances of completing a Federal or State OSHA compliance inspection with few or no citations can be enhanced by following a few basic rules. 1 Safe Work-Our best defense against citation is to maintain a rig site that can withstand the toughest of OSHA inspections. Though this may not be possible in every instance, it helps protect us in the long term from needless citations and fines. 2 Professional Attitude-The manner in which the CO is handles will have a significant bearing on the COs final inspection report and citation recommendations. The CO should be treated in a courteous and professional manner at all times. 3 Required Posting and Records-Make sure that the OSHA informational poster is properly displayed and that all required records are accurately maintained. These items are examined almost always during an inspection. 4. Rig site Appearance-Orderliness and good housekeeping practices are a must. These are the first items a CO sees when entering a rig site. Usually, the sloppy job will be inspected more closely than one which is well kept. 5. Documentation-A documented policy of assuring safe working conditions for all employees must be established and maintained. COs look for documented proof that an employers safe program functions, more or less, as intended. Often these records will convince the CO that a citation is not justified or warrants a less serious classification. 6. Answering Questions-Answer questions as a straight forward as possible and do not volunteer any unnecessary information.

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Orion Safety Manual L. COMPANY MOTOR VEHICLES 1. RESPONSIBLITIES-The driver of a Company vehicle is responsible for: 1) Operating the vehicle in a safe and legal manner 2) Using the vehicle only for the purposes for which it was designed 3) The safety of his passenger or helpers. He is also responsible for the safety of workers helping load or unload, or otherwise working on, or around the vehicles, unless another immediate supervisor is in complete charge of the loading operations. 2. LICENSES-All drivers of Company vehicles must possess a valid drivers license as required by law for the vehicle they are operating. 3. LAW AND REGULATIONS-The Company expects all drivers to drive in accordance with the law. Drivers shall not operate equipment which is defective or which is not in compliance with the law. Drivers are personally liable and responsible for the consequences of their own violation. Example: speeding, running a red light, parking, etc. 4. SEAT BELTS-Shall be worn by all drivers and passengers in Company vehicles. Anyone not wearing a seat belt could endanger another individual should they be involved in an accident. 5. INSPECTION-Drivers of all vehicles should inspect the operating condition of the following before starting; tires, lights, horn, windshields, wipers, rear view mirrors, brakes, steering gear, headlights, tail lights, turn signals, gasoline, oil, coolant. Drivers shall walk around their vehicles, before starting, to check for possible obstructions or unfavorable conditions. Drivers shall yield to pedestrians and vehicles on the street when leaving a parking space, private road, alley or parking lot. 6. SAFE DRIVING-Drive defensively using the following driving principles: 1) Aim high in steering 2) Get the big picture 3) Keep your eyes moving 4) Leave yourself an out 5) Let others see you 6) The company expects each driver to operate a vehicle in a defensive manner, i.e., being always on the alert and trying to anticipate what might occur under the existing conditions, and then to drive in such a manner that hazards are avoided. Company drivers should be considerate of an courteous to the traveling public and/or pedestrians, and should be willing to yield the right of way as may be necessary to avoid accidents. One of the outstanding basic causes of motor vehicle accidents is following too closely. Drive at all times with sufficient space around your vehicle in order to allow yourself enough time to see conflicts arising and to react or to stop. 7. SAFE BACKING-The first rule in avoiding backing accidents is to look for parking space where backing will be unnecessary. 1) If you must look back, always check to be sure your path is unobstructed. Obtain a flagman if necessary. Keep a continual check on clearances so as to avoid objects while backing. 8. SAFE PARKING-A vehicle should be parked in such a manner or place that it will not be a hazard to other traffic. The ignition must be turned off. The hand brake must be set and the transmission left in gear or park. If necessary, chock blocks should be sued to ensure that the vehicle will not move. Vehicles parked on hill where curbs or banks exist should have their front wheels turned in to the curb or bank. When uphill, the back of the tire should be turned into the curb or bank and when down hill the front of the tire should be turned into curb or bank.

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Orion Safety Manual 9. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT-Tools or equipment shall not be left loose in the cabs or passenger compartments of cars or trucks. Workers have received injuries that would not have occurred had such objects been stored in their proper places. Notebooks, flashlights, loose chains and papers which may fall to the floor or blow around and distract the drivers attention while the vehicle is in motion shall not be allowed on the drivers seat. Proper storage for such items shall be provided in all cases. 10. LOADING-Trucks or other vehicles shall not be overloaded with passengers or materials. All loads shall be properly placed and secured, and projections properly flagged with a red flag. Flammable petroleum liquids shall be carried in safe containers outside the passenger compartments. 11. BREAKDOWNS-In the case of a breakdown, vehicles should be parked with all wheels off the main roadway, if possible. Reflectors shall be placed in the front and rear of the disable vehicle according to state laws. 1) Where it is necessary to tow equipment, no person shall be between the two vehicles while they are in motion. 2) No vehicle with defective brakes should be moved by any Company personnel. Where a public hazard exists, the vehicle should be moved under its own power only under the direction of the supervisor. 12. HEAVY EQUIPMENT-Only trained and authorized operators shall operate heavy equipment, such as forklifts. Choose gears which will avoid overloading the engine. Keep engine speed high by proper gear selection, and do not shift unless the engine can freely handle the next higher gear. When descending grades, select the lowest gear which will most effectively enable the engine to help check the vehicles speed. Use brakes to control equipment speed, and use care to see that the load does not cause the engine to exceed its maximum R.P.M. 13. VEHICLE ACCIDENTS-Report all accidents involving a Company vehicle or heavy equipment giving all details possible, such as number and length of skid marks, width of roads, the presence of traffic signs and vision obstructions, names and addresses of persons involved and witnesses statements. 14. In case of an accident involving a vehicle: 1) Pull off the road, if possible, to avoid obstructing traffic. 2) Place warning reflectors on the road as required by state law. 3) Render aid to any person who may be injured, if qualified. 4) Report the accident to your supervisor as soon as possible. 5) Do not enter into any argument or dispute with the driver of the other vehicle, pedestrians or by standards. 6) Make no admission of liability or offer any settlement of claims. 7) Use the Motor Vehicle Accident Form in the glove compartment to help gather the essential information at the scene of the accident. 8) Notify proper authorities (Police) 15. HITCHHIKERS-Giving a ride to a hitchhiker is not a good idea and is prohibited when driving a company car. 16. Driving while fatigued is very dangerous. Stop frequently for exercise and coffee, or another non-alcoholic beverage.

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Orion Safety Manual M. SAFETY LOCK OUT & TAG OUT PROCEDURE Stored Energy in the forms of electrical potential, fluid pressures and mechanical energy may present hazard to employees engaged in maintenance and repair operations. PURPOSE: To prevent injury to employees by requiring that certain precautions be taken before servicing or repairing equipment. This procedure provides a systematic method for insuring that powered mechanical systems, electrical systems and piping systems are safely shut down before starting work, and will remain so until the work is completed. 1. Each employee that performs duties described will be provided with an individual safety lock and one key. If more than one employee is assigned to a task, each employee will be responsible for placing his own lock and danger(Lockout) tag so the controls cannot be operated. If controls are so located that only one lock can be accommodated, a multiple lockout device should be available. Additional safety locks and keys should be available. Safety locks should be returned at the total completion of the project. Extra locks issued should be retuned on the completion of a repair or a hookup. In case an employee leaves his lock on and has been reassigned to another job, it will be the responsibility of the Toolpusher to check the area to be sure there are no hazards in the area. If you have a machine locked out and find it necessary to leave, RECHECK upon returning to make sure that he machine is locked out. Sometimes it is necessary to operate equipment, for purposes of making tests or adjustments, before the work is completed while danger (Lockout) tags are still in place. This is permissible only after consulting the Toolpusher. In the event you have equipment locked out and your tour ends before your task is completed, notify the Toolpusher, who will apply his own lock while you remove yours. Where it is impossible to lock the switch, the Toolpusher must remove the fuses or positively assure that the circuit is dead. A danger (Lockout) tag will be placed by the Toolpusher at the point where the circuit was killed. All locks used for lockout shall be identified by a letter stamp on the body of the lock which is unique to allow identification of the individual placing the lock. If it is determined that this procedure is not being complied with, the Safety Department will immediately initiate corrective action. The Toolpusher or designated personnel will have access to master keys for safety locks; and, under certain controlled conditions, the Toolpusher or designated personnel will be available to assist in the removal of safety locks, but only if the authorized employee is not available.

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Orion Safety Manual 12. The Safety Lock and Tag out procedure is not only a good safe practice, but lockout and tagging or circuits is required by the Company, as stated below: 1) equipment of circuits that are de-energized shall be rendered inoperative and have tags attached at all points where such equipment or circuits can be energized. 2) Controls that are to be deactivated during the course of work on energized or de-energized equipment or circuits shall be tagged. 3) Tags shall be placed to identify plainly the equipment or circuits being worked on. 13. Push buttons or butterfly start/stop controls of equipment should not be tagged out. The greatest hazard in using the local push button to tag is that the push button or butterfly switch merely controls a relay which in turn controls the main power source. A short circuit can occur between the buttons and relay resulting in rendering the equipment energized with full power. Also, in many instances, equipment is wired with dual controls and the isolation of one push button station would not render that equipment inoperable. 14. In cases where work is to be performed on tanks or piping containing dangerous or corrosive materials, the Toolpusher shall assure that valves are locked and tagged in the proper position, that materials have been removed and flushed from the parts of the equipment to be worked on, and that blanks are installed and lines broken when necessary. 15. In cases where equipment is electrically operated, the main power switch must be locked off. It is not sufficient to rely on a remote control switch. If it is not possible to lock out the main switch, an electrician will pull fuses and lock and tag the switch box. The Toolpusher will then assure the equipment has been properly disconnected by attempting to operate the starting control. This shall include pushing the reset button on switches containing overload devices. 16. In cases where equipment is driven by diesel engine, the Toolpusher will have the starting medium rendered inoperative. For battery starting engines, remove one battery terminal or disconnect the ungrounded lead form the starter. For air started diesels, close, lock and tag the starting air valve. Open, lock and tag a bleed-off to atmosphere between the closed supply valve and the engine to insure against pressure build up in case of leakage. 17. In cases where the equipment is operated by compressed air or is hydraulically operated, the Toolpusher will have the supply valves closed, locked and tagged, and the bleed or equalizing valves open and tagged and locked, or he shall have the line disconnected from the power cylinder. Where controls are remote from equipment, the Toolpusher shall attempt start-up. 18. After assuring that the equipment hands been shut down safely, the Toolpusher must lock the equipment with a padlock, for which only operating personnel have keys, at each strategic point on the equipment so that it is not possible to energize or operate. Locking hasps and chains may be used where the conditions require. 19. Any person who operated a valve switch or devise to which Danger tags are attached will be subject to immediate dismissal. The foregoing also applies to unauthorized removal of Danger tags.

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Orion Safety Manual 20. CONTROL OF STORED ENERGY-Take any of the following steps that are necessary to guard against energy left in the equipment after it has been isolated form its energy sources: 1. Inspect the system to make sure all parts have stopped moving. 2. Install ground wires. 3. Relive trapped pressure. 4. Release the tension on springs, or block the movement of spring driven parts. 5. Block or brace parts that could fall because of gravity. 6. Block parts in hydraulic and pneumatic systems that could move from loss of pressure. Bleed the lines and leave vent valves open. 7. Dissipate extreme cold or heat, or wear protective clothing. 8. If stored energy can re-accumulate, monitor it to make sure it stays below hazardous levels.

N. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY PURPOSE: To ensure safety for personnel entering and/or working in tanks and other enclosed spaces. 1. Hazards The hazards commonly encountered are: 1) Toxic vapors in unhealthy or fatal concentrations that may result form residue of know material in tank, (such as in mud tanks, water tanks, fuel tanks, cellar, etc.) by gradual release form sludge or scale, introduction by leakage form interconnected systems, or introduced by the use of cleaning solvents, welding, cutting, etc. 2) Flammable gases or dust with potential of fire or explosion. 3) Lack of oxygen, causing asphyxiation, may result from chemicals absorbing or replacing oxygen in the tank, or form insert gas used to exclude oxygen to reduce the possibility of explosions. Air in clean tanks closed for an extended period may become deficient in oxygen because of oxidation of the metal of the tank. Improper or inadequate ventilation during tank work may also result in a lack of oxygen. 4) Electric shock form portable lights, tools, or associated electrical equipment. Explosion-proof equipment shall be used. 5) Injury from mechanics equipment which may be defective or incorrectly operated. 6) Injury from direct contact with corrosives or dermatitis producing chemicals. 7) Physical hazards such as slipping, falling and falling objects. 8) Burn hazards resulting from accidental opening of a steam or product valve in a line which has not been blocked off or disconnected, or accidental contact with flame or hot surfaces during welding and cutting.

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Orion Safety Manual 2. Description: Personnel are at times required to enter enclosed spaces, hereafter called tanks, to clean, inspect, repair and perform other duties associated with the equipment. Enclosed spaces which are potentially hazardous include: 1) Enclosures with limited access openings for personnel, such as closed storage tanks, vessels, pits. 2) Tanks, pits or other confined spaces with one side open to the air but so deep as to require entrance and/or aid of an assistant in case of emergency. 3. General (Protective Personal Apparel and Respiratory Equipment): Supervisors and all personnel who may be required to enter tanks and other enclosed spaces shall review these instructions to ensure compliance with all applicable paragraphs. 1) Personnel with respiratory problems shall inform their supervisor. 2) All personal protective apparel and respiratory equipment herein specified will be safety approved and shall be won when entering any hazardous enclosure as required. 3) All personal protective wearing apparel and respiratory equipment will be maintained in good condition, preferably cleaned or sanitized according to good housekeeping and hygiene standards. Issuance of such apparel and equipment to specific individuals to use and maintain is recommended. 4) The Safety Department shall be consulted before entry of personnel into tanks in all cases involving extraordinary hazards. NO DEVIATIONS FROM THE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS SPECIFIED IN THESES INSTRUCTIONS WILL BE PERMITTED WITHOUT PRIOR APPROVAL FORM THE SAFETY DEPARTMENT. 4. Procedures for Tank Entry: The hazards inherent in tank entry can be avoided or overcome if the following principles are applied properly each and every time a tank is entered. 1) The Toolpusher at the Rig site will be notified of any upcoming Tank Entry. He, in turn, will make arrangements to have the confined space tested for its oxygen content and explosive atmosphere. 2) Section I, (Tank Entry), will be reviewed in a Pre-Job Safety Meeting with all employees involved, and appropriate training forms will be filled out. 3) A Hazardous Work Permit will be filled out and a copy sent to the Safety Department. If any problems were encountered on the Tank Entry, A written explanation must accompany the permit. 4) Supervisors responsible for work performed in tanks shall survey each tank and evaluate hazard potentials. All concerned shall agree to the detailed standards and procedures established. There should be not doubt as to exactly what is meant. Worker and supervisor must be fully informed on fundamental and specific requirements. Follow-up is necessary for full compliance. Close liaison and job planning between various groups such as drilling, maintenance, safety department and engineering is essential.

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Orion Safety Manual 5. Preparation of Tank a) Cleaning-According to the nature of the contents, the tanks should be emptied and made clean and void of residue by hot or cold water flush, by steaming, by chemical neutralization or by air purge. Protective clothing and respiratory equipment should not be used as a substitute for cleaning and ventilating. b) Ventilation-The tank should be thoroughly ventilated preferably by some positive method of mechanical exhaust to avoid recirculation contaminated air. All ventilation or air moving equipment shall be bonded and grounded. After the tank is cleaned and ventilated, the mechanical exhaust should be kept operating. Should decontamination involve flammable liquids, vapors, gases or dusts, all sources of ignition must be eliminated. c) Isolation-The tank should be completely isolated form all systems and equipment. Positive and adequate measures must be taken to prevent harmful material-solid, liquid or vapor-from entering the tank while workmen are inside. In all cases where lines have contained hazardous fluids or inert gases, or where they contain fluids at height pressures or temperatures, the lines should be physically disconnected. Disconnection should be carried out by removing valves and blank flanges placed in the lines as close to the tank as practical. d) Lock-Out-Line-disconnect switches supplying power to any mechanical mixers, agitators, pumps and cover or door actuators should be tagged and locked din the OFF position. It is not adequate to lock a push button station as it still may be possible to energize the circuit. The key should be kept by the man in the tank and he alone should be authorized to unlock the switch and remove the tag upon completion of the job. Where more than one man is exposed, each should place his own lock on the switch, In certain cases, it may be advisable to have an electrician pull the line fuses in the electrical circuit. 5. Precautions 1) Tools and Equipment-Hand tools should be clean, in good conditions and should be selected carefully according to the uses intended. Electrical tools and equipment, such as hand lamps and extension cords, should be grounded, and is the tanks is in a Hazardous Location under the definitions of the National Electrical Code, should be of explosion-proof type. Ladders used in tanks should be lashed at the top and, if possible, at the bottom. Welding and cutting torches must not be taken into the bottom. Welding and cutting torches must not be taken into the tank until ready to be used and must be removed from the tank immediately after use. Torch valves shall be closed if a break is taken (i.e. meals, coffee, tools, etc.) for any duration. Before re-entry, the tank should be tested for explosive atmosphere and oxygen deficiency. Hoses and leads shall be kept in good repair and periodically inspected for leaks or broken insulation. Cylinders of oxygen or other gas should never be taken into tanks, and should be turned off at the cylinder valve when not in use. Temporary Lighting-Temporary lights shall be equipped with guards to prevent accidental contact with the bulb is deeply recessed. Vapor-proof (explosive proof) light bulbs should be properly caged to prevent breakage. 2. Signs and Barricades a) Signs-signs posted near the tanks help keep unnecessary people away, ensure that potentially harmful operations will not be started independently nearby, and help guide rescuers should they be necessary. Consult the Safety Department regarding stock signs available and procurement of special signs. b) Barricades-Hazardous tank operations require barricading with substantial railing 42 high with toe boards or equivalent protection to prevent kicking objects laying on the floor into the tank. Rope with streamers at the 42 level is recommended for closing aisles in adjacent areas.

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Orion Safety Manual 3. Personal Protective Equipment a) Protective Clothing-Clothing may range form specially designed, complete coverage suits, for protection against highly toxic chemicals harmful by absorption through the skin, to chemical goggles, hard hats, gloves and safety shoes normally worn to protect against routine hazards. Employees should never unduly expose the skin when working in tanks, and should wear a full coverage of clothing at all times. b) Respirators-Certified breathing air, form self-contained units, should be supplied if the integrity of the atmosphere contamination of a harmful nature or of oxygen deficiency while employees are within a tank. Canister type masks, which operate on the principle of chemical absorption or mechanical filtration, may not afford adequate protection and should, therefore, not be used. For specifically recommended protection from hazards of contaminating materials, contact the Safety Department. 6. Emergency and Rescue: 1) Where potential exposure in the tank is acute or requires an employee to wear respiratory protection or where rescue may be difficult, the employee must be provided with a body har5ness with life line attached, and positive pressure breathing equipment. Where existing manholes are smaller than 20 in the largest dimension, consult the Safety Department for possible use of wrist harnesses. The free end of the life line should be secured to a fixed object and should be attended by an observer who will keep the man in the tank always within his vision. The observer may pass tools, but must have no other job which will take attention away from the individual in the tank and/or will interfere with the individuals attempts to withdraw the victim by use of the life line, or which will require the individual to leave the vicinity of the tank for any time whatever. 2) In case of an emergency, the outside observer must never enter the tank until relieved at his post. It is his job to summon aid immediately, to attempt to remove the victim by use of the life line, and to perform all other necessary rescue functions from outside. Upon arrival of help, the observer may enter the tank for rescue work only when assured that adequate outside assistance is present. Such safety observer should be well trained in basic First Aid principles, such as rescue breathing techniques. Rescuers entering the tank must be protected with the safety equipment required by the situation, (i.e. life line and harness, and proper personal protective equipment). For rescue purposes at least one unit of self-contained breathing equipment should be located outside and convenient to the tank, together with harness, rope and other such emergency equipment as may be required. The number of men in a tank, particularly at the time of burning or welding, must be reduced to the absolute minimum necessary for the work itself. 3) A clearly understood signal system shall be established prior to the start of the operation. 4) It will be the responsibility of the supervisor to determine the environmental condition inside the tank and prescribe the necessary precautions required for safe tank entry as outlined herein. 5) The supervisors concerned must be alert before and during the job to detect and correct, immediately, new and unique hazards or to stop the work until the new hazards are corrected. 6) OPERATIONS AND THE SAFETY DEPARTMENT SHOULD BE NOTIFIED BEFORE BEGINNING ANY UNUSALLY HAZARDOUS TANK PREPARATION.

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Orion Safety Manual O. FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL PURPOSE: Fire, the number one concern on a drilling rig, is best controlled at the source through fire prevention. In the event of fire, personnel should be prepared to combat the situation with properly maintained equipment. 1. Fire Prevention 1) Each supervisor should ensure that his crew members eliminate fire hazards, maintain the existing fire equipment and remain informed as to how the equipment is supposed to be used. 2) Promotion of good housekeeping around all areas of a rig should be the order of the day to eliminate the collection and littering of rags, rope, sacks, oil filters, etc., which can cause spontaneous combustion and / or spread a fire. 3) No Smoking or Open Flames signs should be posted around the rig and rigorously enforced. Placement of these signs should be at the outer perimeter of 100 feet from the well bore, on the rig floor, at the base of stairways leading to the rig floor, on the mud tanks, around the fuel and oil storage tanks, and in the engine compartments. 4) Engine oil should not be drained onto the ground. The oil should be drained into drums, labeled and removed from the location. 5) The daily practice of cleaning beneath a base where oil may be dripping from an engine or other piece of equipment is expected. Leaks should be repaired as quickly as possible. 6) Flammable liquids such as gasoline, naphtha, etc., should not be used as cleaning agents. 7) In the event diesel fuel or kerosene is used for cleaning, the area should be rinsed immediately with soap and water. 8) On wells where low ignition point hydrocarbons may be encountered, engine exhaust sprays or built-in spark arrests should be utilized. 9) Fire fighting equipment is not to be played with, but used only for the purpose of extinguishing fires or training and practical demonstrations. 10) Each piece of fire fighting equipment is to be kept in its designated location for ready accessibility. 11) Each fire station is to be clearly marked for quick recognition of both location and type of equipment present. 12) Each fire station and its equipment should be readily accessible at all times. Obstructions such as wearing apparel, hoses, rope, etc., are not to be placed on or over the fire fighting equipment. Obstructions such as pallets of chemicals, tools or equipment should not block the access to any station. 13) A quarterly equipment check is required to ensure the operability of all fire fighting hardware. Activity of the inspection should be recorded on the tag of the extinguisher placed there for that purpose and should be initialed by the inspector. 14) No fire extinguisher should be placed back in its assigned station after being discharged, even partially. The extinguishers must be recharged, inspected and tagged for readiness before being placed at a station.

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Orion Safety Manual 15) Every twelve months all fire extinguishers should be expected for damaged or deteriorated components. 16) Each fire extinguisher should be hydrostatic tested as per the manufacturers recommendations. 17) A fire watch shall be present, with a fully charged fire extinguisher, during welding and cutting operations. 18) Welding or burning should to be done on or around a drilling unit without a hazardous work permit (See details on hazardous work permit in welding section). Permits should not extend past the work shift in progress. All welding or burning should be stopped in the event a hazardous condition develops. 19) During refueling operations or transfer of fuel, all piping and connections should be checked to detect leaks that could lead to ignition. 20) Explosives, with the exception of those intended for down hole purposes, should not be allowed on the drilling unit. 21) In a potentially explosive area, before an explosion proof cover is removed, the circuit shall be de-energized and tagged out. 22) When appropriate, water sprays should be opened on all engine exhausts that do not contain spark arrestor. 23) Explosion-proof covers should be kept intact, unless under repair. 24) Care should be taken not to overfill tanks during refueling, as fuel can overflow out on the ground. 25) Electrical circuits should not be overloaded. 26) Rig heaters should be approved for the area and function properly. 27) Keep supply and changing rooms clean and in order. They should not contain greasy clothing, rags, paper, or any other combustible material. Good housekeeping should be enforced. 28) Investigate any unusual odor, especially smoke or gas. 29) Flammable and combustible liquids should be stored in approved safety containers and kept in their proper storage area. 30) Use of flammable liquids, as cleaning agents, should be avoided. 31) All fires, regardless of size, should be investigated. 2. Fire Control For fire to exist there must be a combustible mixture of three elements heat, fuel and oxygen. Once a fire has started, fire control consists of eliminating one or more of these elements. If possible, the fuel should be eliminated by closing fuel valves or otherwise removing fuel form the fire. If this is not possible, the air supply should be smothered by use of a cover, fire blanket or lid, or with a chemical agent which separates air from the fuel. Water can usually be used to quench or cool the fire below the ignition point.

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Orion Safety Manual 3. Classes (and Combinations) of Fires Fires are grouped into four classes, labeled A through D, according to their fuels, however, some fuels are found in combinations, and electrical fires always involve some solid fuel. Thus, for fire fighting purposes, there are actually six possible combinations of fire classes: 1) Class A Fires Fires involving common combustible solids such as wood, paper, cloth and plastics are most effectively extinguished by water, a cooling agent. Foam and dry chemicals may also be used. They act mainly as smothering agents. 2) Class B Fires For fires involving oils, greases, gases and other substances that give off large amounts of flammable vapors, a smothering agent is most effective. Dry chemical, foam and carbon dioxide (CO2) should be used. IF the fire is being supplied with fuel by an open valve or a broken pipe, a valve on the supply side should be shut down. This may extinguish the fire or, at least, make extinguishment less difficult and allow the use of much less extinguishing agent. In a gas fire, it is imperative to shut down the control valve before you extinguish the fire. If the fire was extinguished with out shutting down the valve, flammable gas would continue to escape. The potential for an explosion, more dangerous than the fire, would then exist. It might be necessary to extinguish a gas fire before shutting down the fuel supply in order to save a life or fire before shutting down the fuel supply in order to save a life or to reach the control valve; however, theses are the only exceptions. 3) Class C Fires Fires involving energized electrical equipment where safety to the operator requires the use of electrically non-conductive extinguishing agents. 4) Combined Class A and B Fires Water spray and foam may be used to smother fires involving both solid fuels and flammable liquids or gases. These agents also have some cooling effect on the fire. Carbon dioxide has also been used to extinguish such fires in closed spaces. 5) Combined Class A and C Fires Because energized electrical equipment is involved in these fires, a non-conducting extinguishing agent must be used. Carbon dioxide and dry chemical are the most efficient agents. Carbon dioxide dilutes the oxygen supply, while the others are chain breaking agents. 6) Combined Class B and C Fires Here again, a non-conducting agent is required. Fires involving flammable liquids or gases and electrical equipment may be extinguished with dry chemical acting as a chain breaker. They may also, in closed spaces, be extinguished with CO2. 7) Class D Fires These fires involve combustible metals such as potassium, sodium and their alloys and magnesium, zinc, zirconium, titanium and powdered aluminum. They burn on the metals surface at a very high temperature and often with a brilliant flame. Water should not be used on Class D fires, as it may add to the intensity or cause the molten metal to spatter. This, in turn, can extend the fire and inflict painful and serious burns on those in the vicinity. Fires in combustible metals are generally smothered and controlled with specialized agents known as dry powders. Dry powders are not the same as dry chemicals, although many people use the terms interchangeably. The agents are used only to extinguish combustible-metal fires. Dry chemicals may be used on other fires, but no on Class D fires.

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Orion Safety Manual 4. Extinguishing Agents 1) Water Water is primarily a cooling agent. It absorbs heat and cools burning materials more effectively than any other of the commonly used extinguishing agents. It is most effective when it absorbs enough heat to raise its temperature to 100 C (212 F). At that temperature, water absorbs still more heat, turns to steam, and moves the absorbed heat away from the burning material. This quickly reduces the temperature of the burning material below its ignition temperature, and the fire goes out. When fighting a fire with water, the fire fighter must use his hose and nozzle properly for the best effect. With outside large fires, he should approach the fire with a solid stream of water, giving him the greatest reach. He should aim high into the hottest area of the fire; sweep the hose back and forth to create a fog effect. As the fire and heat allow approach closer and shift to a fog pattern with the nozzle. Fog gives maximum cooling and smothers the fire. The fog pattern should be used on Class B fires as it does not splatter or gouge the fire as does a solid high pressure stream. Within interior fires, minimize the use of water. Use short bursts of fog. Be extremely careful, as steam generation in indoor or enclosed fires can create powerful back drafts blowing smoke and flame out to the fire fighter. The steam can also scald the fire fighter in these cases. 2) Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide is normally a gas, but it may be liquefied or solidified under pressure. At -43 C (110 F), carbon dioxide exists as a solid, called dry ice. The critical temperature of carbon dioxide is 31 C (87.8 F). Above that temperature, it is always a gas, regardless of pressure. Carbon dioxide does not support combustion in ordinary materials. However, there are some exceptions, as when CO2 reacts with magnesium and other metals.

3) Dry Chemicals Dry chemical agents extinguish fire by cooling, smothering, shielding or radiant heat and, to the greatest extent by breaking the combustion chain. Dry chemical agents are particularly effective with: a) Flammable oils and greases b) Electrical equipment (dry chemical is the least desirable for this application) c) The surfaces of baled textiles, such as wiping rags d) Certain combustible solids such as pitch naphthalene and plastics (except these that contain their own oxygen) e) Machinery spaces, paint and tool lockers 4) Foam Foam is a blanket of bubbles that extinguishes fire mainly by smothering. The bubbles are formed by mixing water and a foam making agent (foam concentrate). The result is called a foam solution. The various foam solutions are lighter than the lightest of flammable oil. Consequently, when applied to burning oils, they float on the surface of the oil.

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Orion Safety Manual 5. Portable Fire Extinguishers There are two types of hand-held fire extinguishers in general use; carbon dioxide, a vapor extinguisher which eliminates oxygen from fire and is used on Class B and C fires; and dry chemical, a powder type which eliminates oxygen from fire and is especially useful for Class B,C, and D fires. The ABC dry powder type extinguishers are good on all types of fires. These fire extinguishers, along with water, are the principal means of fighting rig fires. However, water and water-type extinguishing agents must never be used on Class C (electrical) fires, as water conducts electricity, and its use can cause death or injury by electrocution to the fire fighter, plus severe damage to electrical equipment. Thorough inspection and maintenance procedures must be performed on all fire fighting equipment at the prescribed intervals. The following procedure should be used when fighting fires with portable extinguishers (both dry chemical and CO2): 1) Remove the extinguisher from its station. If it is a dry chemical, it should be inverted to loosen the chemicals that have settled due to the vibration of the rig. 2) Use the handle to carry the extinguisher from its station. If it is a dry chemical, it should be inverted to loosen the chemicals that have settled due to the vibration of the rig. DO NOT RUN. Proceed to the upwind side of the fire. Stay well clear of the flames. When you are approximately ten (10) feet upwind of the near edge, stop, and remove the nozzle from its holder. Prepare the extinguisher for operation by either puncturing the cartridge on the cartridge operated type, or removing the locking pin from the discharge lever on the stored pressure type. Position yourself within eight (8) feet of the near edge upwind of the fire. From this position, the air currents help carry the agent into the fire, assure maximum visibility and provided protection form the heat. Activate the discharge lever, aiming your stream just short of the near edge and immediately start a side-to-side sweeping action across the full width of the fire. Make sure each sweep of the dry chemical stream is slightly wider than the hazard. Do not gouge a liquid fire. Sweep horizontally across the surface. Advance forward only as fast as the extinguisher action of your jet will permit. Do not outrun your protection. Advance cautiously- do not raise your stream to chase the flame. Keep it down in front of the flame edge. Stop short of the already extinguished fuel spill area. Do not become involved in the fire. Above all, maintain the side-to-side sweeping action until the fire is extinguished. Once the fire is out, stand by for a few minutes. Make sure there is no danger of reflash. Do not turn your back on an apparently extinguished fire. Normally the fire fighter should have himself covered by one other man with another extinguisher, ready to go in case help is needed. There should be an adequate supply of fire extinguishers on the rig, so do not be hesitant to attack a fire with several extinguishers at the same time, if needed.

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

10)

11) Avoid using a dry chemical extinguisher in an electrical fire. It will extinguish electrical fire effectively, but it can cause great damage to electrical equipment.

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Orion Safety Manual TYPICAL LAY OUT FOR LAND RIG FIRE EXTINGUISHERS AND SAFETY EQUIPTMENT

SACK STORAGE MUD TANK

21

MUD PUMP

CHANGE HOUSE

FUEL TANK

GENERATER SKID

*
MUD PUMP

16 MUD TANK

*
ENGINE-PUMP
CREW QUARTERS

MUD TANK

ENGINE
21

11
ACCUMULATOR

COMPOUND

1 3 * 18

TP TRAILER

ENGINE

11

4 5 15

* 14

*
4 5 9 15 *

DOG HOUSE

21

17

4 5 10 15

DRILL FLOOR

LEGEND * DRY CHEMICAL FIRE EXTINGUISHER # CO2 FIRE EXTINGUISER 1. RESUSCITATOR 2. STRETCHER 3. FIRST AID KIT 4. HARD HAT SIGN 5. NO SMOKING SIGN 6. DIESEL FUEL SIGNS 7. FLAMAABLEEQUIPMENT SIGNS ELECTRICAL 8. CHEMICAL SIGN 9. AUTORIZED PERSONNEL SIGN 10. LADDER CLIMBER SIGN 11. EAR PROTECTION SIGN 12. HIGH VOLTAGE SIGN 13. BOP SIGN (CELLAR AREA) 14. PRECHARGE WITH NITROGEN ONLY SIGN 15. EYE PROTECTION SIGN 16. CAUSTIC WARNING SIGN 17. THINK SAFETY SIGN 18. HAZARD COMMUNICATIONS/ MSDS CENTER 19. DOT DIAMOND 1993 DECAL 20. FIRE EXTINGUISHER ARROW LOCATOR SIGN AT EACH EXTINGUISHER STATION 21. EYEWASH STATION

A.

1. ELECTRIC CODE:

1) There are several regulatory agencies that establish electrical codes for equipment operating within their jurisdiction. These regulatory bodies can represent a city, a county, a state, or OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

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CAUSTIC BAR

2 4 15 *

5 6 7 19 *

# 5 11 12 #

HOPPER

4 5

15

48

Orion Safety Manual 2) These regulatory bodies usually use the National Electric Code for basic requirements, but will also amend the National Electric Code to cover specific areas of their concern. This usually results in the establishment of a standard more stringent than the National Electric Code. 3) It is, therefore, necessary to determine the regulatory body governing the equipment and the area of operation, and assure compliance with the appropriate electrical codes. The following American Petroleum Institution recommendations are based on the National Electric Codes. 2. CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS LOCATIOINS AS DEFINED IN THE NATIONAL ELECTRIC CODE, ARTICLE 500-4 AND 501 AND AS PER AMERICAN PETROLEUMM INSTITUE-RP 500B OR 46 CFR SUBCHAPTER J: 1. Hazardous Area Class I Division I

In an area: a) In which hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapors exist continuously, intermittently or periodically under normal operating conditions; or b) In which hazardous concentrations of such gases or vapors may exist frequently because of repair or maintenance operations or because of leakage; or c) In which breakdown or faulty operation of equipment or processes might release hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapors, and might also cause simultaneous failure of electric equipment. 2. Hazardous Area Class I Division II

In an Area: a) in which volatile flammable liquids or flammable gases are handled, processed, or used, but in which the hazardous liquids, vapors, or gases will normally be confined within closed containers or closed systems from which they can escape only in case of accidental rupture or breakdown of such containers or systems, or in case of abnormal operation of equipment; or b) in which hazardous concentrations of gases or vapors are normally prevented by positive mechanical ventilation, and which might become hazardous through failure or abnormal operation of the ventilating equipment; or c) that is adjacent to a Class I Division I location, and to which hazardous concentrations of gases or vapors might occasionally be communicated unless such communication is prevented by adequate positive-pressure ventilation from a source of clean air and effective safeguards against ventilation failure are provided. 3. Classification of Hazardous Areas on Drilling Rigs (American Petroleum Institute RP 500B, Section 4). The potential hazard of explosion and fire due to improper electrical installations or use of unapproved electrical equipment in hazard areas as described makes it imperative that only qualified, authorized personnel perform electrical work.

3. ELECTRICAL APPLICANCE AND SWITCH GEAR SPECIFICATIONS: 1) Not withstanding equipment specifications outlined in detail in the National Electrical Code, all electrical appliances and switch gear in hazard area designated as Class I Division I are required to be in explosion-proof, purged or pressurized containers National Electrical Codes 501-3 (a) 2) Not withstanding equipment specifications outlined in detail in the National Electrical Codes 501-3 (b) or 46 CFR subchapter J, all electrical appliances and switch gear in Class I Division II hazard

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Orion Safety Manual area are required to have enclosures approved for Class I Division I hazards in accordance with 3.1. above. Exceptions: General purpose enclosures shall be permitted if current interrupting contacts are: a) Immersed in oil; or b) Enclosed within a chamber hermetically sealed against the entrance of gases or vapors; or c) In circuits that under normal conditions do not release sufficient energy to ignite a specific hazardous atmosphere mixture. Refer to National Electrical Codes Section 500-511-8 or 46 CFR subchapter J for further detailed standards regarding wiring connections, fittings, etc. 4. OTHER SAFETY PRECAUTIONS: 1) The Toolpusher should ensure all high-voltage equipment and panels are properly marked Danger-High Voltage. 2) Electricians or authorized persons making repairs or adjustments to electrical equipment should shut off the power at the source followed by a lock and tag. The lock should only be removed by the person who applied the lock. Refer to Lockout and Tagout Procedures in this Manual. 3) Personnel replacing defective fuses should use a fuse puller. 4) The Toolpusher should ensure all electrical outlets, hand tools, extension cords, etc. are provided with grounds or removed from service. (Note: Double insulated or properly grounded.) 5) The Motormen should keep electrical cabinet doors closed unless the equipment is being inspected or repaired. 6) Rig management should ensure that al electrical cords have proper ground plugs and that cords found defective are cut in short pieces and discarded. 7) Before working on equipment, the Motorman should shut down the related rig equipment so it is inoperable. This should be coordinated with the Toolpusher, as he may prefer to have the drill pipe out of the hole. 8) Rig personnel should never assume electrical wiring is harmless. It should always be checked at the source to make sure the power off. 9) Do no stand in water when operating electrical equipment. 10) Any change or adjustment of electrical equipment must be reported to the Toolpusher. If you find a broken electric wire dangling down or lying around, do not touch it. Report it immediately to the Toolpusher who can either repair it or order it repaired. 11) Keep gin pole masts away from overhead electric power lines. 12) Do not use water or anything containing water to extinguish a fire in electrical equipment connected to power. First, disconnect the power if feasible. Carbon Dioxide and dry chemical extinguishers are safe on live electrical fires. See Section 1, Fire Prevention and Control. 13) Conductors are any materials that ALLOW electricity to flow through them. Some examples are water, metal and human flesh. Some materials are good conductors when wet or dam, (examples are) wet earth, wet rope, wet paper, wet cloth, wet wood, wet leather and wet skin.

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Orion Safety Manual 14) Insulators (non-conductors) are materials that RESIST the flow of electricity through them. Glass, rubber and plastic are insulators. Dirt, rope, paper, cloth, leather and wood are insulators IF THEY ARE COMPLETELY DRY. Of course, it takes several layers of cloth or paper to be a good insulator. NOTICE that insulators RESIST (they do not always STOP) electrical flow. Be certain that any electric power line, whatever the voltage, has insulation that is all intact and sound, and be certain such wires do not run where they will scrape and rub against anything. 15) Low voltage can be dangerous. The low 110 volts on a power hand drill can be as deadly as the 20,000 volts on a power transmission line. It does not take a very big charge across your heart to stop it. Most accidental electrocutions involve low voltage, perhaps because there are so many places where low voltage can be contacted. The point is, keep yourself insulated from all electricity, or, better yet, shut off the electricity. 5. RIG LIGHTING: 1) Rig lighting is to be bright enough at night so that a man could read newsprint in all work areas, 2) Rig lighting is to be placed and directed so that it or its glare does not blind workers. 3) A suitable supply of spare bulbs of various sizes that might be needed to replace broken or burned-out bulbs should be kept in stock. 4) Replace rig lighting bulbs only during daylight (when feasible) with the light fixture turned off. 5) When a bulb must be changed with the circuit on, wear rubber gloves to reduce the chance of shock. Safety belt protection must be worn where required. 6) Lighting fixtures and portable lamps are to be protected from mechanical damage by suitable guards. 7) Rig management should ensure aircraft warning lights are on top of the derrick or mast per regulatory requirements. 6. EXTENSION CORDS: 1) A flexible cord used on portable lams or appliances is: a) to be in perfect condition b) to be suitable for extra hard usage c) to be supported in a manner that prevents strain on its terminal connections d) to have seals where it enters explosion-proof boxes, fittings or enclosures e) to be of the 3-wire type having its own ground wire f) to be used only with receptacles and attachment plugs of the type providing for connection to the grounding conductor of the cord g) to be sued only with portable appliances whose metal frames and exteriors are connected to the grounding conductor of the cord 7. ELECTRICAL CONTROL PANELS AND SWITCHBOARDS:

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Orion Safety Manual 1) Each electrical disconnecting means, service feeder, brand circuit or over current device should be marked to indicate its purpose. 2) Dry rubber mats are to be placed in front of electrical control panels where one must stand to operate the switches. Also ensure that water does not collect under the mat. 3) Protective panels and enclosures are to be kept in place on switch boxes and other electrical equipment so personnel cannot touch exposed connections, terminals or other energized parts. 4) Electric switchboards and panels are to be ventilated to prevent overheating and to eliminate the need to remove a protective panel for cooling purposes. 5) Always replace a blown fuse with another fuse of proper amperage rating. Never use a penny under a screw-in fuse nor lay a piece of metal across two fuse terminals. 6) Do no re-set an automatic circuit-breaker before finding out what caused it to shut off. 7) Do not tie or prop an automatic circuit breaker switch so it will not open. 8) Spare parts and tools must not be left inside a control box. 9) All unused slots in electrical panels must be covered against accidental contact.

B. WELDING AND CUTTING 1. GENERAL SAFE WELDING AND CUTTING PRACTICES: Welding and Cutting are some of the most critical operations on drilling rigs, due to the danger of fire and explosion and the limited area in which such work can be performed. Due to these hazards, only API certified welders are allowed to use any type of welding or cutting equipment. The Toolpusher will confirm welder qualification. 1) The welder should not attempt to cut or weld on containers (drums, cans, fuel tanks, lines, etc.) that contain or have contained flammable substances until they have been thoroughly purged and tested for the presence of flammable vapors. 2) Prior to welding or cutting in an area not equipped with a gas detector, a competent person should first check the area with a (portable) gas detector to determine if it is safe. Should work be stopped for a period of time, a re-check should be made before continuing. 3) The welder and/or helper should check and remove any equipment containing hydrocarbons, flammable debris or substance within a 35 foot area where welding or cutting is to be performed to prevent hot sparks or slag from causing a fire. A lower elevation where slag, sparks, etc. could fall should be cleaned, as above, or covered with fire resistant material if impractical to move. 4) The welder and helper shall wear proper personal protective apparel to protect them against skin burns while welding or cutting. 5) Both the welder and helper shall wear proper eye protection when welding, cutting or cleaning to prevent eye damage. 6) All rig personnel should be advised not to directly watch the arc or its reflections off a wall, as this too can cause eye burns. 7) The welder should support a piece of metal being cut.

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Orion Safety Manual 8) The welder or helper should hose down oil-saturated areas prior to starting welding and cutting operations to prevent fire. 9) The fire watch must have in their possession, fire fighting equipment in a useable condition while the welder is welding or cutting. 10) The welder should check both welding leads and burning hoses regularly to ensure that they are in good condition. Splices should be discouraged. 11) The welder and helper should keep welding leads and hoses routed through areas where they will be protected from damage. 12) Welders and helpers should wear proper respiratory equipment when cutting or welding materials such as galvanized metals, brass, bronze, etc. in a confined space. 13) Care should be exercised by the welder when using the cutting torch so that he does not run a lighted torch across his or anyone elses body. 14) The welder should use a tip cleaner to clear foreign particles form inside the cutting tip. The cutting tip should not be rubbed flat on a surface while the gas or oxygen is on. This can cause a flashback to occur. 15) The Toolpusher should make it know that no welding or cutting will be done on the derrick sub base, high pressure lines, pumps or lifting devices such as forklift tines. 16) The welder should not allow anyone other than himself to adjust gauges on his cutting equipment. 17) Rig personnel should always secure individual oxygen and gas cylinders when rack is not available to prevent them form tipping over. 18) Rig personnel should not use oxygen or gas cylinders, whether empty or full, as rollers to move equipment or as supports. 19) Should a leaking cylinder arrive on the drill site, the cylinder should be removed form the area immediately. 20) The Toolpusher should check oxygen and gas cylinders for dates tested and contents identification. Such markings are usually found on the shoulder of the cylinder. 21) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 2-49-1 (1973 Edition) and National Fire Prevention Association (NFPA) Bulletin 51-B should be referred to for additional details on welding, where compliance is required.

2. SPECIFIC SAFE WELDING AND CUTTING PRACTICES: 1) Soapy water instead of an open flame is to be used to detect leaks in cutting equipment. 2) Neither compressed gas nor oxygen is to be used for cleaning purposes. 3) A striker instead of cigarette lighter, hot metal, etc., is to be used to light the torch.

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Orion Safety Manual 4) Oil, grease, soap or other petroleum-based products should not be used on oxygen and compressed gas equipment connections. This can cause an explosion. 5) Regulators gauges with cracked or damaged lenses must be removed from use immediately. 6) Flashback protection equipment is to be used in the cutting torch and hose assembly. 7) Pressure regulators are to be used in all oxygen and acetylene assemblies. Oxygen pressure regulators are to be used on oxygen cylinders, and acetylene pressure regulators are to be used on acetylene cylinders. 8) Oxygen and acetylene gauges and regulators must be repaired by authorized representatives only. 9) Union nuts and connections on regulators and hoses are to be checked for faulty seats prior to being connected. 10) Connections on hoses and regulators should not be forced in the event of all ill fit, but changed for correct connections. 11) The downstream side of an acetylene regulator should never be more than 15 PSI. 12) Never use torch hoses for any other purpose than for carrying oxygen or acetylene and never swap connections so you can use the red colored hose for oxygen, or visa versa. C. ENGINES AND GENERATORS 1. Maintenance personnel should ensure all moving parts on engines, fly wheels, fan blades, belt drives, counterbalances, torque converters and compounds are properly guarded. The Toolpusher should have heat shields placed over engine exhausts that are low enough to cause a person to be burned. Motormen should keep areas below engine skids and beneath the sub-base clear of drained motor oil and filters. The Toolpusher should ensure water spray or spark arresting mufflers are present in exhaust during Drill Stem Testing, completion of H2S work. The Toolpusher should ensure eater spray or spark arresting mufflers are present in exhaust during Drill Stem Testing, completion of H2S work. When engines equipped with water spray in the exhaust are shut down, the water spray should be stopped. Motormen should ensure that engines fitted with air box drains are drained as per the manufacturers recommendations to prevent air box explosions. Motormen should completely clean and dry re-usable air filters before placing them back in the engines. All rig personnel working around rig engines shall use hearing protection. The Toolpusher should ensure that floor openings around the engines and compounds that are large enough for a persons foot are covered.

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Orion Safety Manual D. WATER HEATING TANKS 1. Each hot water tank is to be equipped with a combination temperature and pressure relief valve set at not more than 125 P.S.I. and 200 degrees. This valve is to have a lifting lever for testing and is to be placed so that the thermometer probe vertically enters the top six inches of the tank. The discharge piping from the valve is not to be smaller in diameter than the discharge orifice of the valve, and such piping is to be long enough, so secured and so directed that nay discharge will not be where personnel stand or pass. All dip tubes, nipples, baffles and heat straps are to be those specified to withstand at least 400 degrees.

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E. FORKLIFT SAFEY FEATURES: 1) The forklift should be equipped with a warning horn or siren to indicate the vehicle has been placed in reverse gear. (Hand power operated industrial trucks are excluded.) An oscillating, or strobe, light should be on top of the forklift to indicate the vehicle is in operation. (Hand power operated industrial trucks are excluded.) No one will operate the forklift unless he has on-the-job training, is familiar with the forklift and is certified. Forklift tires should be of the proper size and tread for operational safety and traction. Holes should not be cut in the ends of the lift tines for the purpose of attaching lift slings or chains. The forklift should be serviced daily to ensure it remains in good mechanical condition. Following adjustments or repairs, all guards should be replaced on the forklift before it is placed back in service. Broken lift tines should be replaced, not repaired by welding. Items such as the steering wheel, seat, muffler and operating levers should be replaces with original equipment when broken or worn out. Makeshift parts should not be permitted. All forklifts should have rollbars installed before placing into operation.

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7) 8)

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2. SAFE FORKLIFT OPERATING PRACTICES: 1) 2) The forklift operator should refrain form hot rodding the vehicle. The vehicle should not be driven forward while transporting a load that blocks the view of the driver. The vehicle should not be operated while the headache rack or overhead protective frame is off the forklift. The operator should not get off the forklift and leave it running. The operator must lower the tines to the ground, with or without load, set brake and stop engine before getting off the machine. The operator will make a pre-start safety inspection at the beginning of each tower.

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Orion Safety Manual 6) In areas where vehicle traction is doubtful, provisions should be made to offset the condition. Drilling gel and other slick substances should be removed from the driving surface as quickly as possible. Iced surfaces should be sanded. The vehicle operator should make a practice of driving the forklift in the reverse gear. The vehicle operator should reduce the speed of the forklift and sound the horn when starting around corners. When the vehicle begins moving, the horn should be sounded to alert people in the area that the forklift is in motion. Caution should be taken while operating the forklift in areas with low ceilings, overhead pipes, etc. Lift tines should be lowered to avoid damaging overhead structures. The vehicle operator should be extremely alert when maneuvering the forklift around fuel oil or chemical containers, high-pressure lines, etc. to prevent ramming and/or puncturing them with the lift tines. The vehicle operator should not permit anyone on the forklift or lift tines. NO RIDERS. All personnel should be standing well clear of a forklift in operation, as the weight and sharp maneuverability of the vehicle can easily trap and crush a person. Personnel should not place hands or any other parts of the body or around the forklifts hydraulic lift frame when it is in operation. Personnel should be alert and not place their feet beneath the lift tines when they are being lowered. No one should position himself between the forklift body and hydraulic lifting frame for any reason. The vehicle operator should not stack pallets of material over three pallets high. At no time should pallets or nay other equipment be stacked in front of fire stations. Forklift tines, while not in use, should be lowered to the ground to prevent tripping hazards. Forklifts should not be used for staging as a work platform or personnel lift. While moving material with forklift, loads should be kept as close to the ground as possible, to avoid top heaviness.

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Orion Safety Manual F. WATERBLASTING 1. Know your equipment. Know the capabilities of the equipment. Maximum operating pressures should be stamped or marked clearly on the equipment. Never exceed the operating pressure of pumps or hoses and nozzles. All personal protective equipment shall meet (American National Standard Institute) standards and shall be won at all times during waterblasting operations. Lifelines, safety harnesses and/or safety nets shall be used when working above ground. The waterblasting tip shall never be pointed towards any part of the human body. A dead man or fail closed valve shall be operational on the waterblast hose. Hoses and nozzles must be inspected daily when in use. Hoses with outer cover separation or exterior cuts and bruises should be replaced. Prior to operation, relief valves must be tested. Tests are required weekly when in use. Proper test procedures must be followed. Repairs shall only be made by qualified personnel. Equipment not operating properly shall be repaired by qualified repair personnel only.

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Orion Safety Manual A. BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND CONTROL Unless specified otherwise, blowout prevention systems should follow the American Petroleum Institution recommended practices, American Petroleum Institution RP 53. Within the jurisdiction of the Government of the United States of America, blowout preventive and kick handling operations shall follow the regulations found in 30 CFR 250 and 256. Within the jurisdiction of another country, the orders of the MMS will be observed unless the local jurisdiction has laws compelling different practices. Blowout and well control practices shall comply with the laws of the jurisdiction within which the facility is located. The Toolpusher shall inform himself and the appropriate members of his crew about the laws and recommended practices for his locale. He shall provide at least whatever training is required by law of reach employee who is assigned to his facility. The use of the BOP controls, including remote controls, should be the subject of one of the first safety meetings on a job. The Toolpusher shall ensure that: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Blowout preventer control lines and valves are clearly identified. A test plug is available to test the BOPs to the expected surface pressure. (Provided by Customer) All studs and nuts are inspected each tour. Every crew member knows how to maintain the BOP equipment which he must control or observe. His crew has BOP drills under a variety of conditions. The duties for each crewman during a BOP drill are conspicuously posted. Personnel are clear of hydraulically activated BOPs Pickup lines are in good condition and properly secured, if used to handle a BOP. The lines should hold the BOP well above its center of gravity. DO not use chains. Test pressure is bled slowly through the choke before opening the BOP assembly. Rig personnel are away from the rotary table when the BOP assembly is opened, after its having been closed against pressure. A remote BOP control is located at least 75 feet away from the rotary table, or maximum allowed by configuration of location if less than 75 feet. The hydraulic system fluid corresponds to the manufactures recommendations for the climate of the work site. One set of BOP controls are near the drillers position. If possible, mud weights are to be determined from degassed mud. Running amixture of a mud sample mixed with several drops of diesel oil saturated with aluminum stearate through a marsh funnel procedures degassed samples of mud. Mud scales are to be calibrated at known low mud weights (8.33 pp gal.) and at known high mud weights.

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Orion Safety Manual 16. The Toolpusher should be informed about the history of pressures encountered in the well location. The Toolpusher and his Driller(s) should share this information, especially the depths and geological sections that might have abnormal pressure. This information is available in the Operational Plan for the well and from other communications. Unnecessary engines and motors are shut down during kill operations. Anyone using the BOP controls operate only one valve at a time to determine whether or not that valve has operated correctly by noting the number of gallons pumped.

17. 18.

Before any drilling occurs, The Toolpusher shall beet with the Company Representative to agree on the steps, personnel, and stations involved in handling the killing of a kick of the diverting of a blowout. They will also agree on how to rid the stack of any gas trapped in it before nay drilling occurs. Methods for these well control procedures are suggested in the Well Control Manual. The Toolpusher shall post on the rig floor the procedures for diverter drills and later procedures for handling kicks, under the expected conditions. 19. Drilling should not continue if the amount of barite on the rig drops below the number of sacks needed to raise the density of the mud in the system by one pound per gallon or below the number of sacks agreed upon with the operator prior to commencing drilling. B. PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN WHILE PERFORATING 1. Before any gun is armed, required authorities should be notified of impending radio and cellular phone silence. 2. Toolpushers and Drillers will assure only necessary service company personnel are on the floor and in catwalk areas until armed guns are below ground level. 3. All rig personnel will stay clear of the drill floor while wire line logging or perforating are underway. C. TYPICAL WELL TESTING SAFETY PROCEDURES GENERAL: 1. A pretest meeting will be held to ensure that all personnel concerned are fully familiar with test safety procedures and are fully aware of their duties and responsibilities. No smoking, matches or cigarette lighters will be allowed outside designated smoking areas. Anyone found breaking this rule will be subject to immediate dismissal. All hands will be informed when the well is to be opened for test. Gas explosion meters, a hydrogen sulfide detector and breathing apparatus will be checked and made ready. Key personnel will be taught the operating procedures for same. Produced fluids will be monitored continuously for hydrogen sulfideif H2S is detected, the company representative and the Toolpusher must be informed immediately. Adequate killing fluid of the correct weight should be available. An emergency kill line will be connected.

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Orion Safety Manual 6. Working areas around the control head on the rig floor and around the choke manifold, separator, etc., will be kept clear and there will be unobstructed access to these areas at all times. When work is to be carried out on the control head, a suitable platform will be erected.

D. CREW ORGANIZTION AND DUTIES DURING WELL TESTING 1. The Toolpusher has final responsibility on the rig for rig and crew safety. He must approve safety procedures and can make overriding decisions in cases of doubt or emergency. The Operators Representative will coordinate and control testing operations, and will work closely with the Toolpusher to ensure he is kept well informed on test progress and any changes to the agreed test program. All service company personnel will report to and be under the control of the Operators Representative. Rig Floor- The Driller and two floormen will be on the rig floor at all times. The Driller will be responsible for monitoring annulus pressure during test periods. He will report immediately to the operator representative should he observe any adverse developments.

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E. DRILLING LINE 1. Due to the weight and stiffness of the drill line, rig personnel should use caution when manhandling sections and coils of the line, as the line can twist unexpectedly and strike a person. While reeving the drill line, the Driller should oversee the placement of a snake on the drill line to ensure it is properly done in order to prevent slippage. Rig personnel should keep all excess drill line properly spooled, so that it will not get in the way of other equipment and operations. While stringing up, sufficient slack should be fed from the drill line spool to prevent stripping or breaking the snake off the lines end and causing the drill line to fall back to the floor. Rig personnel should always remain alert to the possibility of the drill line and snake parting during the reeving process. Rig Toolpushers should ensure the slip and cut program for each rig is followed. Rig Toolpushers should ensure that a minimum of 10 wraps be present on a grooved drum when the blocks and elevators are at the pick up point at the rotary table. The Derrickman should make practice of observing the condition of the drill line while he occupies the derrick to report any unusual condition or breaks in the line. Rig supervisors should ensure that the drill line guide remains in good condition and is tracking properly for protection of the drill line. All personnel should continually be on the lookout of the possibility of the drill line rubbing girts, braces, etc. in the derrick. This could cause severe damage to the line and / or girts. The Derrickman should inspect the drill line at the crown sheaves each tour of running for lubrication, wear, broken wires, sheave wear. Should the operations consist of jarring on pipe or increased trips, the drill line at the crown and sheaves should be checked more often. If the drill string is shock loaded and the traveling block and line jumps then the drill line at the crown should be checked for possible damage and / or displacement.

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Orion Safety Manual 12. Whenever a man is on the crown block for any reason, the Driller should stop the draw works and chain the brake. Rig supervisors should ensure an emergency stop device (Crown-O-Matic) be installed for the purpose of preventing the traveling block from running into the crown. The Driller should check the Crown-O-Matic daily and prior to each trip to ensure its operability. The device should be reset upon completion of slipping and cutting the drilling line or any other activity requiring the disengagement of the system. Daily checks may be done by tripping the control valve with a stand of pipe. Each time a trip is made the Crown-o-matic is checked or adjusted. This should be noted in the Daily Drilling Report by the Driller. Rig Toolpusher should ensure that welders using cutting equipment do not weld or cut objects that are lying next to a drill line. For added protection of the drill line, the Driller should ensure the turn backs positioned on each side of the drum housing remain in good operating condition. Once a section of drill line has been slipped and cut, crew personnel should coil the line and tie it for discard. Mark the drill line at the drill line anchor so it can be checked for slippage. All drill line spools should be fitted with a positive lock to stop undesired rotation.

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F. SLIPPING AND CUTTING DRILLING LINE 1. The procedure of slipping and cutting drill line can be performed without hazard to any rig personnel provided all safety precautions are acknowledged and proper procedures are as follows. 1) The main beam under derrick sheaves (water table) should have a pad eye permanently attached. If it does not, wrap wire rope around the beam enough times to achieve the required strength and use no less than four cable clips to clamp the ends together. Attach the appropriate eye bolt to the top of the traveling blocks. Most traveling blocks have an eye bolt insert provided by the manufacturer. For those traveling blocks too large to be supported in this fashion, pad eyes should be welded to the top of the traveling block sides. Welding should be in accordance with manufactures requirements or specifications. A manufactured handoff line or sufficient length to suspend the traveling block assembly should then be attached to the pad eyes or hangers attached to the crown beams (water table). Care must be taken to ensure that all pad eyes, eye bolts, hangers, shackles and wire rope are of sufficient strength and in good repair to hold the load that will be placed on them.

2)

3)

4)

2. Where wire rope and clips (clamps) are used, the wire rope clips (clamps) should be checked each time prior to use as per the manufactures recommendations.

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Orion Safety Manual 3. The following steps should be followed when hanging the traveling blocks on a hang-off line: 1) Send a floor man up in a riding belt on a hoist line and not on the cat line to connect the service line and traveling block. Once connected, the person on the blocks should move away from the area by swinging to a side of the derrick or mast. The Driller or hoist operator should partially rest the weight of the traveling blo9cks on the service line. Once stopped, the person on the riding belt should return to the top of the traveling blocks and re-tighten all wire rope clips used in the connections. Once all clips are tight, the person making the connection should be lowered to the rig floor. After the person is on the rig floor and clear of the area beneath the traveling blocks, the remainder of the blocks weight should be rested on the service line.

2)

3) 4)

5) 6)

4. The Toolpusher should ensure that the old drill line is not cut into short sections and used for drill pipe stripping on pipe racks. Drill line will allow pipe to shift. Stripping boards should be used.

G. DRILLING FLUID HOSES 1. Rig Supervisors should ensure that the rotary hoses have a safety clamp and chain or cable on each end securing the hose to the drilling swivel and stand pipe. Additionally, rig supervisors should secure shock or bumper hoses in the same manner, except they should be secured to pump and adjacent structure(s). Rig supervisors should ensure that clamps are secured to hoses approximately 18 inches from the ends and in such a manner that they will not damage the hoses. The Drilling crew should continually observe the rotary hose to ensure that it does not come into contact with derrick or mast members and other objects that can cause damage. Rig supervisors should replace a rotary or shock hose showing questionable damage or excessive wear. The Drilling crew should wash the inside of the usable rotary or shock hoses that are discontinued form service and allow them to dry prior to storage. Rig personnel should be cautious about throwing or dropping sharp objects on rotary or shock hoses. Welders should not be allowed to cut or weld near theses hoses. Spare drilling hoses should not be hung off in such a manner that the weight of the hose is suspended by the safety clamp; this will damage the hose.

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Orion Safety Manual H. MUD PUMPS 1. The Derrickman should ensure that the work area around pumps is clean, free of parts and tools etc. Sure footing is essential while working on pumps. Watch your step while stepping over suction lines and working on pumps. The Derrickman should ensure that all drive gears, belts, and chains remain properly guarded. The Derrickman should ensure that all fluid head bolts and studs are intact before the pumps are engaged. All personnel should be informed that mud pump pulsation dampeners to be charged with nitrogen only. The Derrickman should ensure that the mud pumps are not operated in excess of their safe operating pressures. Rig personnel should ensure the safety clamps and chains remain intact on the pumps shock hoses at all times. The Driller should ensure that the mud pumps, test pumps or service company pumps are not operated in excess of any valves safe operating pressure recommended by the manufacture. The Derrickman should ensure that each mud pump is fitted with a pressure relief valve. The Derrickman shall ensure that there is no valve of any kind in the discharge opening of a pressure-relieving safety device or in the discharge pipe connected to it. The Derrickman should ensure that the piping connected to the pressure side and discharge side of a pressure-relieving safety device is in accordance with the manufactures specifications. The Derrickman should ensure pressure relief lines leading form the pressure relief valves are properly anchored and are directed to a place where they will not endanger workmen. The Derrickman should ensure pressure relief valves are set to discharge at a pressure below the mud pumps or systems safe working pressure and the shearing pin and spindle are adequately guarded. The Derrickman should ensure pressure relief valves and associated lines subject to freezing are protected. The Derrickman should check the mud pumps pressure relief valves regularly for barite plugging when weighted mud is in use. Where piston-type pressure relief valves are in use, the Derrickman should ensure only shear pins recommended by the valve manufacturer are used. Steel Allen wrenches should never be used. The Driller should pull the shear relief valve pins each week and pump through shear relief valves and lines to prevent plugging; This should be on the IADC report. The Toolpusher should ensure that a low pressure relief valve set on 100lbs is installed on each mud pump suction. The Derrickman should ensure pressure relief valves are covered with protector caps to deflect sheared pins in the event that relief valve goes off.

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Orion Safety Manual 19. Prior to working on a mud pump fluid end, rig personnel should ensure that pressure inside the pump is relieved, and the power source is isolated and locked out. Personnel attempting to remove a pump liner should not do so by placing an object between the Liner and pony rod and engaging the pump. No hydraulic jacks should be used without consent of the rig Toolpusher. Should hydraulic pressure be applied to a pump liner for removal purposes, a heavy metal bar or wooden bumper block should be used for shock impact. Rig personnel should not attempt repairs to the mud pump without notifying the Driller so he can lock out the pumps power supply. Rig personnel should not attempt to adjust the gland packing nut or anything else while the pump is in operation. Rig personnel should respect pressure contained inside the mud pump. No one should stand in front of the fluid end heads or around high-pressure lines while the pump is in operation. When washing down the mud pump with rig wash, rig personnel should not attempt to stand on slanted mud pump housings. Rig personnel should request help during mud pump repairs for lifting liners, fluid heads, etc. Prior to putting a mud pump on the line, rig personnel should check to see the correct valves in the manifold are open to prevent possible pump or line damages. While washing down an electrically driven mud pump, rig personnel should not direct a water hose stream into the motor blown. When breaking out or making up fluid heads on the piston rods, rig personnel should not place long cheater pipes on the pipe wrench and swing on them to turn the nut. Rig personnel should not place wrenches on a swab piston for tightening or loosening purposes while the pump is in motion. Chain falls, monorail, or other lifting devices should be used for lifting heavy pump components. A vice should be available for changing swabs or pump rods. Proper protective equipment must be worn when required for the job being performed, i.e., safety glasses, face shield, apron, etc.

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I. RIG FLOOR HOISTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Driller should ensure that all anchor bolts on the hoists remain secure and in good condition. The Driller should ensure that each hoist drum is provided with a drum guard and line-guide. Rig personnel should refrain from attempting to spool the hoist line with their hands. The Driller should ensure that hoist brakes remain strong and in good conditions. Prior to lifting a load, the hoist operator should cause the brake to drag heavily in order to remove oil film or other substances that could cause the brake bands to slip.

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Orion Safety Manual 6. 7. 8. Rig personnel should not attempt to lift a load greater than what the hoist is rated for. Rig personnel should operate the hoist at a safe speed. A flagman should signal for the hoist operator when the hoist line is attached to any object beyond the hoist operators vision. The Driller should ensure that each hoist line and hood assembly remain in good condition and are properly assembled. The hoist operator should ensure a safe hookup of the hoist line to the object to be lifted proper to commencing with each lift. The airhoist operator should se the drum brake anytime a load is in suspension. The operator should not leave the hoist unattended. The airhoist operating lever should return to neutral locked position when the operator releases it. The hoist line operator should observe to see that the hoist line bearing a load has not run over sharp edges or into cracks that could cut the line or distort the eye clips or makeup. The hoist operator should not allow the hoist line to wad up on one side of the drum, possibly weakening or damaging the hoist line. Once the work had been completed, the operator should secure the hoist line to a solid object before walking away from the hoist.

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J. ROTARY TABLE 1. The Driller should ensure that the hole cover is placed in the rotary table, whenever the table is not in use. Rig floor personnel should check the oil in the rotary table on a per tour basis and keep it filled as per maintenance instructions. Rig floor personnel should not attempt to engage the rotary table locks while the rotary is turning. Rig floor personnel should not place bars in holes in the rotary table to turn the rotary. When drilling, precaution should be taken not to step on the rotary while it is turning. When drilling, rig floor personnel washing the rig floor or related equipment should assure that the water hose has been adjusted to prevent the hose form coming within 6 of the Rotary Table. When the rotary is turning, rig floor personnel should not swing the catline or hoist lines near the rotary, rotary bushings, or spinning Kelly. Rig floor personnel should secure the pipe tongs back and away from the rotary area when the rotary is spinning. Floor personnel should ensure that a non-slip surface is provided around the rotary table for sure footing while performing their required duties.

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Orion Safety Manual 10. Should the rotary have to be removed from its position for BOP or any other type or work, pick up lines or sufficient strength and condition should be used. The pickup lines should be placed properly on the rotary table and evenly spaced in the block hood so a level lift can be made. Once lifted from its floor position with the pickup lines, a tugger line should be routed through a snatch block at the edge of the floor so the table can be pulled to the side. This prevents floor personnel from having to push on the table and chance slipping and falling through the floor opening. Any time a rotary is lifted or lowered by the pick up lines, the hoist operator should ensure that everyone is in a safe position and should move the table slowly. Before this operation begins, the Driller should ensure that the rig floor is hosed off to remove drilling mud or any other slick substance that can cause a person to slip and fall while the rotary table is being handled. When a rotary table is set out of the floor slot, all support beams should be hosed to remove caked mud so personnel will not slip and fall from the beams when they climb down into the area to perform work. Rig personnel who climb down into the open rotary slot in the rig floor should wear a safety belt and line to prevent falling into the cellar area while performing work. A protective barrier should be erected around the rig floor rotary opening once the table is removed so personnel will not slip and fall through. No one should physically get inside the open rotary slot while the rotary table is being guided and lowered back into the slot. No one should get between the rotary table and the rotary floor opening when a rotary, supported by pickup lines and subbed by a tugger, is being lifted. No one should get on top of the rotary table while it is supported by pickup lines or being moved. The Driller and drilling crew should ensure that drilling tools such as stabilizers, subs, etc. being removed from the string are not dropped on the rotary cover guards, as the tools can bend the guards, damaging the rotary and making uneven footing for working personnel.

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K. DRAWWORKS 1. The Driller should ensure that each Floorman learns the proper lubrication procedures of the drawworks and sees to it that the equipment is serviced every tour. Improper lubrication of the drawworks can lead to problems that can cause injury as well as costly operational interruptions. The Driller should ensure all applicable guards for moving parts on the drawworks (clutches, couplings, sprockets, etc.) remain intact and in good condition. The Driller should not allow repairs or adjustments to the drawworks until the power has been shut off and the brake chained down. Rig personnel should not attempt to repair or adjust the drawworks without approval of the Driller. Rig personnel should report all defective zerk and alemite fittings for replacement.

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Orion Safety Manual 6. No one should be allowed to stand on top of the drawworks or inside the sand line or main drum guard when the drums are moving. The Driller should have the brake blocks, linkage, pins, cotter keys, etc. checked for operating efficiency on each tour. Rig personnel should not direct a water stream onto the brake bands when washing the drawworks. The Driller should use the hydromatic as required to prevent heat from building within the brakes and causing unnecessary wear. The Driller should report defective air control valves, levers, regulators, etc. for prompt repairs. The Driller should not leave anyone alone at the drawworks controls unless they have received previous instructions in the operating of the equipment. Each time the Driller walks away form the drawworks, the brake lever should be chained down. The Driller should not stand directly over the brake lever when engaging the drawworks.

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L. TRAVELING BLOCKS 1. The sheaves of a traveling block shall have guards that will prevent any person or thing from making accidental contact with the sheaves or with the nip point where the hoisting lines run on to and off the sheaves. Traveling block sheave guards shall be securely fastened to the traveling block to prevent them form becoming accidentally displaced under the most severe operating conditions. Every traveling block hook or other hook or open link suspended from a traveling block to which an elevator, elevator link, swivel bail, or other equipment is either directly or indirectly attached, including the open hooks or links of such attached equipment, shall be equipped with a safety latch or device that will provide a completely and securely closed hook or link. Every traveling block, traveling block hook, elevator, elevator link, and other similar item of traveling equipment shall be reasonably free of projecting bolts, nuts, pins, or other parts on which the clothing of employees may be caught or that may foul the derrick members or other equipment of material in the derrick. The Driller, along with the assistance of the drilling crew, should observe traveling blocks daily to assure all covers and guards remain intact and secure. The drilling crew should report and attempt to correct bent sheave guards on the traveling blocks so they will not rub on the drill line when the blocks are in motion. The Driller should pay particular attention to the business at hand while running the traveling block. They must be run as smoothly as possible to avoid striking the derrick or mast members in their ascent or descent. Do not distract the Driller while he is operating the Drawworks. The Driller should ensure the draw works is turned off and the brake chained down when a man is attempting to perform work, of any type, on or around the traveling blocks. Drilling crew personnel should ensure that all lines, rope, etc. in the derrick are secured in such a manner they cannot become entangled in the traveling blocks and drill line while the blocks are in motion.

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M. DRILLING SWIVEL 1. Rig personnel should wear safety belts when working atop the swivel to change packing, wash pipe, etc. No one should be on the swivel if the bail is to be moved. No one should be on the swivel while it is in motion. Rig personnel should observe to see if the safety line and clamps connecting the rotary mud hose and swivel remain intact. Rig floor personnel should not stand beneath the swivel while someone on top is using a sledge hammer or hand tools. Rig personnel working atop the swivel should have tools secured to themselves with safety lines to prevent dropping them during repair operations. Rig personnel should grease the swivel regularly to prevent premature failure that could cause escaping mud pressure to endanger personnel and create slipping hazards. When the swivel is being set back, crew personnel should not place hands on or near the kelly or rotary bushings as they enter the rathole. Rig personnel should not stand near the pull-back line for the swivel.

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N. PIPE ELEVATORS 1. The Driller should ensure that the pipe elevators used are in good condition at all times. Should damage to this equipment be suspected, the Toolpusher should be alerted so the equipment can either be repaired or replaced. The latches, springs, hinge pins, and elevator shoulders should be inspected daily to ensure they remain in good condition. The elevator ear locks should be fitted with proper size steel bolts. Crew personnel are not allowed to ride the pipe elevators as a means of access into or out of the derrick. Floormen should strive to perfect their moves when working with the elevators to raise or lower pipe in and out of the well bore.

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Orion Safety Manual 6. USING DRILL PIPE ELEVATORS SAFELY 1. To latch the elevators onto pipe in the rotary table (coming out of the hold during a trip), the floorman should grasp the handle on the back side of the elevators as they are lowered within reach and pull toward the draw works. This causes the elevators to clear the pipe box protruding from the rotary so the elevators will not strike the tool joint box.

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Simultaneous to 6.1 above, the Floorman standing in front of the rotary should place his hands on the elevator horns to help push the elevators clear of the tool joint box. This is called breaking the elevators open. The elevators will swing down and open, ready to receive the pipe. The hands should be placed on the elevator horns palms down with the fingers pointing sideways instead of grasping the horns. Should a person grip the elevator horns while the elevators are being lowered past the tool joint, the elevators could kick forward due to brakes being applied, and hand injury could result. As the elevators reach the latch on level of the pipe, the horns should then be grasped to pull the elevators toward the pipe for latching. The floorman behind the rotary releases the grip on the elevators as the elevators being the inward swing and places the hands approximately 18 inches up the elevator bales or links and then pushes to assist in latching the elevators onto the pipe. AT NO TIME should anyone attempt to grasp the elevators or bales in the area of the eyes. The elevators can bounce or twist form being struck or shaken by the traveling block action and cause injury to the fingers and/or hand. The Driller should lower the blocks and elevators steadily when applying the brakes so they will not bounce or jerk in different directions, causing the floormen to get a hand or finger caught between the elevators and the pipe. Once the elevators are latched onto the pipe, two floormen should place their hands approximately 18 inches up on the elevator bales or links and help break the swing of the traveling blocks prior to the Drillers engaging the drum. The Derrickman will also be required to latch the elevators while going in the hole. At the monkey board it is customary to do this while the elevators are on the move or traveling upward toward the crown. Several steps are involved which should be learned for the function to be successful.

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UNLATCHING ELEVATORS Once the pipe has been set in the slips, the Floorman in front and behind the rotary table should grasp the elevator bales or links approximately 18 inches up on the links to break the swing of the traveling blocks and position the elevators for the Derrickman. This step requires approximately three seconds but can save a great deal of time and helps the Derrickman. Once the traveling blocks have been steadied and the Driller slacks off the elevators approximately 2 inches, the Floorman in front of the rotary opens the elevator latch, places the hands palms down on the elevator horns, (without gripping), and pushes backward away from the tool joint. If the crew is running pipe into the hole, a good hobble should be placed on the elevators which will hold them level, making it easier for the Derrickman to catch the stand of pipe at the monkey board.

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Orion Safety Manual 4. The Floorman behind the rotary table should keep his hands on the elevator bales until the elevators are unlatched form the pipe. Once unlatched, grasp the elevator handle behind the elevators and assist in pulling the elevators away from the pipe in the rotary fro clearance as the traveling blocks are hoisted. Prior to and periodically during a pipe trip, the inside of the elevator latch and spring should be oiled so the equipment will function freely. The Derrickman will also be required to latch the elevators at the monkeyboard during this operation. This will be covered under Section titled Working Derricks. Welding or cutting is not permitted on the elevators, bales, or links without proper approval.

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O. CATHEADS 1. A cathead, on which a rope is manually operated, shall be equipped with an anti-rope-fouling device which will keep the first full encircling wrap of rope from contact with the pinch point of the on-running rope at its first point of contact with the cathead. The anti-rope-fouling device shall have its edge nearest the friction surface of the cathead fitted and adjusted to within not more than one-quarter of an inch from the friction surface of the cathead and shall be maintained free of sharp edges which can cut or materially abrade a rope. The friction surface and flanges of a cathead, on which a rope is manually operated, shall be smooth. The friction surface of a cathead shall have a uniform diameter across its entire width between the inner and outer flanges not to exceed a tolerance of plus or minus three-sixteenth of an inch. Only hemp or manila rope will be used at the catheads. The catheads operator should place no more than two wraps on the cathead until all of the slack has been taken up in the catline. Having done this, he should first ensure that the end of the line has been securely and correctly fastened with the hook facing in the right direction before proceeding with the lift. He should then add one wrap at a time until the load can be lifted and controlled with ease. When a rope or line is being used on a cathead, the excess line shall be coiled or spooled in a suitable location. All other ropes and lines shall be placed so as not to come into contact with the cathead or the rope or line in use of the cathead. Cathead controls should be kept in good operating condition at all times. Only qualified personnel should operate the catheads. Rig personnel should not attempt to learn how to operate the cathead unless an instructor is present. The Driller should not leave the drawworks controls when the cathead is in operation. Rig supervisors should change out a cathead rope when it shows any sign of defect or wear. Rig supervisors should maintain the catlines, lifting hooks, swivel eye, etc. in good condition. Catlines should not contain splices that will feed onto the cathead. A flagman should be available for the cathead operator when the operator cannot see the lifting end of the catline in operation.

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Orion Safety Manual 15. The cathead operator should not engage in the practice of catheading (expression for flipping wraps off the cathead fast to land a load), but should operate the equipment correctly. The cathead operator should not walk away from the cathead while the catline is wrapped around the cathead spool. Rig personnel should not be lifted into the derrick by use of the catline. The cathead operator should not place his hands on the wraps on the cathead nor allow the catline to coil around his feet while the cathead is in operation. Rig personnel should coil the catline for proper storage following its use.

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P. TONGS 1. GENERAL: Most drill pipe tong injuries occur because inexperienced personnel do not understand the operating procedure of the tongs or the placement of the tongs on the drill pipe. Four basic requirements of safe drill pipe tong operations are: 1) Driller and floor personnel must work as a team. The Driller must ensure that floor personnel have adequate time to position the tongs on the drill pipe and maneuver into a safe position before engaging the catheads to pull the tongs. When tongs are to be used, the Driller must take the time required (as often as necessary) to explain the procedure to inexperienced floor personnel. Tongs, jerk lines, hang lines, and safety lines should be the correct size and properly maintained. Appropriate equipment should be used for each job.

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2. Schedule of Recommended Sizes and Makeup of Tong Lines. 1) Both lead and backup tongs (where 4-1 to 5 drill pipe and collars above 8 sizes are in use) should be provided with safety lines of 1 wire rope. 3/4 wire rope safety lines are acceptable where 3-1/2 or smaller drill pipe and collars below 8 are being used. Tong safety lines should be secured in concurrence with the specifications for Wire Rope Clips in Section IV of this manual: Preferred means of securing wire rope eyes is by swaged sleeve (machine steel press) and machine splice. Breakout lines used for 3-1/2 and above drill pipe and 8 and above collars should be made up of 5/8 wire ripe.

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3. Drill Pipe Tong Maintenance 1) Ensure that counterbalances are balanced with the proper amount of water or acceptable weights. This is important because the tongs must move up and down freely during a trip or connection. Tongs are secured on the opposite end of the counterweight, and safety lines are required to be slung beneath the tong line sheave to prevent the counterweight and tongs from falling in the event the sheave fails.

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Orion Safety Manual 2) 3) Floorman shall inspect tongs every tour to ensure that they remain in good condition. Tong lines must be checked every tour to ensure that they remain in good condition and are properly connected at both ends. Ensure tong dies remain in good condition for prompt biting action. Ensure tong die slots remain in good condition and die pins and cotter keys are present. When changing tong dies, safety goggles and face shield must be worn. Only tong die remover tools should be used to change tong dies. Tongs must remain properly balanced at the tong hanger for latching ability on the tongs. Each tong jaw hinge must be properly lubricated for movement. Ensure each tong jaw hinge pin is in good condition, in place, and keyed so the pin will not work out. Ensure the jaw do not contain cracks or breaks. The tong jaws must not contain excessive wear which will cause them to fly open when tension is applied. Keeper pins in the rear of the tongs must be in good condition with safety key attached Ensure each line attached to the tong is placed the proper way for going in or out of the hole. Ensure tie backs are available to secure the tongs aside when not in use. Old bits, bolts, or other objects should not be hung on the tongs or counterbalances for balancing purposes. Tape all ends of wire rope to prevent puncture wounds (shop made eyes are preferred).

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4. SAFE TONG OPERATION Tongs and related equipment present numerous hazards to rig personnel if not handled correctly. The following are recommended practices and operating tips, which will enable employees using tongs to do so safely. 1) A rope can be attached to the tong counterbalance so a third person can stand away from the tongs in operation and help lift the tongs each time the spinning chain is thrown while going in the hole. When two sets of tongs are needed to makeup or breakout a connection, one set of tongs should be placed on the pipe momentarily behind the other. Extreme caution must be exercised as this is where hand injuries often occur. Tongs will not be placed on pipe at the identical height each time or the pipe could move after one tong has bit and the other is being maneuvered into place. Both tong operators should coordinate their moves with those of the Driller and practice perfecting the routine for teamwork. While the tongs are being operated on the pipe, each Floorman should observe that he does not stand between the Driller and the pipe connection at the rotary. The Driller must always be able to see the tongs movements.

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Orion Safety Manual 5) 6) 7) Tong operators should not allow tongs to remain on pipe that is being pulled out of the hole. Tong operators should not attempt to operate the tong or latches with his feet. The Driller should not attempt breaking out pipe by spinning the rotary and running into a breakout tong. The Driller should not allow pipe to turn in the slips when pulling on breakout tongs. A backup tong should be used. Each time a stand of drill pipe is broken out, the tong operator should remove the backup tongs before the rotary table is engaged to spin out of the connection. When a connection is to be broken and it is above normal working height in the rotary, the tong operator should not remain on the tong to work it once it is hoisted into the air. The tong operator should not ride a tong that is being hoisted into the air to break a tall connection. When tearing down or removing a tong from service, a hoist line should be secured to raise the counterbalance so the tong can be lowered. Once this tong is on the floor, the hang line can be disconnected. A person should not be hoisted on a tong to disconnect the hang line. Once tongs are latched onto a connection for breaking out of making up, no one should stand between the tongs. Tongs can backflash, causing a dangerous scissor effect. The safety lines should not be removed from the tongs at anytime while the tongs are in operation. During back-torquing of pipe, the person operating the tongs should remain outside of the swing circumference. This can best be achieved by using a soft line to hold the tong in position. Once the back-torquing is completed, the tong operator should get clear of the rotary area. Only the Driller should operate the brake during this operation and only necessary personnel are allowed on the rig floor during this operation. The Driller should not operate the cathead pulling the tongs faster than his men can function safely. Should the drill pipes or collars torque bind a tong, a bar should not be used to open the latch on the tong. Crew members operating the tongs should not grasp the tongs except by the provided handles. when tension is placed on the tong, the person operating the latch should remove his hands until the tension on the tong has been released. When breaking out a galled or stubborn break, the tong can be double lines. The Driller should remain at the cathead control, and floor personnel should move to a safe location.

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Orion Safety Manual 5. POWER TONGS 1) The power tong operator should not attempt to work on or adjust the tong without first shutting the power off at the source. (See Power Lockout and Tagout Procedures in this manual). The power tong safety door should be kept closed and air supply disconnected at all times except while receiving pipe or removing pipe. Only the assigned power tong operator should operate the tong. The floorman helping the tong operator place the unit on and off the pipe should do so in a safe manner. Slamming the power tong on the pipe and pushing it off roughly should not be permitted. A safety line should be connected and checked by the tong operator before each job or tour. Where a power tong is to be used above normal height, a sturdy work scaffold should be erected on which the operator can stand. Power tongs should be hung in a safe area on the rig floor to prevent crew members from being struck during regular operations on the rig floor. A Power tong spring should be installed on tong line.

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Q. SLIPS 1. Floormen should ensure all pipe and collar slips remain in good condition for reliable functioning. Keys, pins, dies, handles and bodies should be checked regularly for wear. Floormen should ensure that pipe slips contain all the handles and that none are bent. Floormen should not permit makeshift handles such as wire or rope to be used on the slips. Rig personnel should not place their feet around slip handles when the rotary is in motion. Rig personnel should not allow chains, rope, etc. to be become fouled in slip handles while going into the hole or while the rotary is turning. Rig personnel should not place hands or feet on or around slip bodies as the slips are being set. Once the slips are pulled, rig personnel should move them far back on the rotary, so the pipe elevators will not strike them when lowered to the rotary table. When breaking out a hard drill pipe or collar break, rig personnel should remember that pipe slips can be thrown form the rotary drive slot when the pipe is jerked hard. When finished with the slips, rig personnel should place them out of the work area so they will not get in the way. No individual should try pulling the slips alone. Slips should be lowered by the handles, not kicked into place. Slips should not be set when pipe is moving in or out of the hole.

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Orion Safety Manual R. DERRICK 1. Rig personnel should continually observe to see derrick members and components remain in good condition and should report deformities when observed. The Driller should have a designated schedule for inspecting the derrick for loose girts, braces, bolts, and nuts, sheave and clamps, working platform structures, etc. The Derrickman should ensure all sheaves in the derrick (catline, tong line, hoist line, etc.) are provided with safety lines or chains in the event the sheave or housing breaks or works loose. Rig personnel should not secure lines to derrick members to swing traveling blocks, support drill collars, or pull heavy loads that may bend or weaken the structure. Connecting pins should be checked regularly, especially after pipe jarring exercises for pins that may have vibrated loose. Rig personnel should wear safety body harnesses when working at heights of more than six (6) feet unless protected by approved handrails. Where fingers are used at the monkeyboard on a rotary rig: 1) Such fingers shall be capable of safely withstanding the total normal stresses imposed; and A safety wire rope of not less than one-half inch in diameter or other fastening of equal strength attached to the derrick shall be secured to the outer end of each finger.

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Each time the Derrickman or any other employee climbs or descends the derrick ladder, the derrick climbers assist (counterweight) should be used unless a cage is provided and the ladder is offset at least every 30 feet. The Derrickman should not slide down the fast line, dead line, stand of pipe, collars or ladders side rails. The person using the climbing device should use both hands going up and down, and no one should attempt to slide down the sides of the ladder with their feet. The Derrickman should check the derrick clumbers assist each tour to ensure the safety harness and lanyard, lines and counterbalance are in good condition and properly secured. The derrick climbing assist should reach all the way to the crown. The Derrickman should put the derrickmans safety harness and lanyard on before attempting to perform work at the monkeyboard. The Derrickman should inspect each of his safety harnesses and lanyards at the monkeyboard for fit, condition, and proper attachment before attempting to perform his work. The Derrickman should inspect all pull-back and tie-back ropes, racking fingers, safety chains, and mule lines before attempting to use them. Handrails should not be used to anchor the pipe or collar pull-back rope. During inclement weather, the Derrickman should ensure the derricks weather curtains or wind walls are in place and properly secured.

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Orion Safety Manual 17. The Derrickman should ensure that the monkeyboard is in proper condition (not twisted or bent) and a mat, if present, is properly secured to the end of the board to prevent slipping. Any hand tool, grease gun, or other object the Derrickman carries aloft for service, repair, or adjustments should be returned to the rig floor or safely secured in the derrick. The Derrickman should remain properly clothed with gloves, safety shoes, hard hat and a safety line attached to his person while performing work in the derrick. Objects sent by the elevators to the monkeyboard from rig floor, and vice versa, should be secured to the elevators with a safety line. All floor personnel should move to a safe location during such an activity. The Derrickman should leave the derrick and be on the rig floor before any attempt is made to pull on stuck pipe. The Derrickman should not throw objects at personnel on the rig floor, make unnecessary noises or movements, or engage in any form of horseplay that would distract the Drillers attention. While in the derrick, the Derrickman should continually be on alert for abnormal conditions that might develop in connection with the traveling block guards, drill line, crown operations, derrick legs and braces, smoke form other equipment and around the rig, tong lines and sheaves, etc. Every platform erected on the inside of the derrick, except the stabbing board, shall completely cover the space form the working edge of the platform back to the legs and girts of the derrick. The grating on the working side of each such platform shall be secured to the derrick girts with U or J bolts. A wire rope, not less than one-half inch in diameter, shall be securely fastened with U or J bolts under each working platform above the rig floor, and both ends of the rope shall be secured to girts at the same height in the derrick as the platform. The Toolpusher should ensure that the Drill Line Anchor is checked as well as the Weight Indicator Sensor before pulling on stuck pipe. Rig Supervisors should instruct personnel in the proper use and maintenance of the Derrickmans escape line. The Derrick Escape line and Escape Device will be rigged the first time at the Derrickman climb-s the derrick. A visual inspection of the escape device should be performed prior to each trip by the Derrickman. The device should be installed according to the manufactures specifications. The Toolpusher will verify the line is the correct diameter for the device used. The device should be used only in the event of any emergency. The safety device should be inspected periodically. The ground end of the derrick escape line should be staked at a distance of 1 times the distance from the ground to the attachments point on the derrick. Where location size or configuration restricts staking, the minimum distance to the stake shall be 1 times the ground to derrick point distance.

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Orion Safety Manual S. WORKING DERRICK GENERAL: Working in the derrick can be hazardous if basic safety precautions are ignored. It should be remembered that most activity in the derrick is in conjunction with activity on the rig floor; therefore, teamwork and alertness is of the utmost importance. Working in the derrick can be accomplished safely, provided precautions are exercised and procedures are followed. 1. Coming out of the Hole 1) The Derrickman should adjust his safety harness and lanyard prior to pulling back pipe so he will have support and not have to rely on balance and strength alone to maneuver the pipe to the racking fingers. 2) As the Driller sets the stand of pipe on the floor, the Derrickman should have already placed his pull-back rope around the stand of pipe about head high as it is being lowered so when the stand is actually set down on the floor rack, the rope will be around waist high. The Derrickman should not attempt to pull back pipe by use of the hands alone. 3) Once the pipe has been set on the floor racking area, the elevators will continue descending as the traveling blocks are lowered to the floor to pull another stand from the well bore. At this time, the Derrickman should have the pull-back rope in the right hand (if he is right handed), reach crossway with the left hand, and pull the latch open. Immediately both hands should be placed on the pull-back rope to pull the stand of pipe sideways (toward whichever fingers are being used) to clear the monkeyboard and traveling blocks. 4) Once the stand of pipe is clear of the monkeyboards end section, one had should be placed back on the taut pull-back rope about three feet from the pipe. Hold a firm grip on the ropes end and push down on the taut sections, pulling the stand of pipe toward the back of the board. Slack will become available in the ropes end that should be gathered immediately. As this is done, the pipe should be traveling favorably toward the racking fingers, and the Derrickman should then make a strong pull on the rope which should cause the pipe to continue. Once the pipe is moving in such a manner, the Derrickman should drop the rope, place both hands on the pipe (behind for leverage), and guide it into the racking fingers. 5) Once the Derrickman has landed the stand of drill pipe in the racking fingers, he should secure each stand of pipe with a section of sash cord of locks provided for that purpose. This is to prevent pipe form shifting as a result of high wind, or other disturbance that could cause the pipe to fall across the derrick. 6) After each stand of drill pipe is secured in the racking fingers, the pull-back rope should be made ready for the next stand of pipe so the Driller and floor personnel will not have to wait on the Derrickman. Keeping a working rhythm while making a trip is very important. 7) When racking drill collars, communication and coordination is essential between the Derrickman, Driller, and the mule line operator. 8) When a drill collar is pulled to the monkeyboard to be set back, the Derrickman should be ready with his pull-back ropes (provided the collars are small enough to man handle). 9) The Derrickman should not attempt to pull on the drill collar until the collar has been broken and spun out at the rotary table.

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Orion Safety Manual 10) In the event the drill collars extend well above the Derrickmans head from overheight collars or stabilizer in the string, making the elevator latch difficult to reach form the board, a section of rope should be tied onto the elevators latch handle. With this the Derrickman can unlatch the elevators without having to climb up the collar. 11) Once the drill collar elevators are unlatched and free of the lift nipple, the Derrickman should: a. Position himself so he will not get caught between the collar being set back and other collars already set back or the derrick or mast braces and leg. Flag the mule line operator or talk to him over the communication system (if present) so he will know how and when to pull the hoist line. Once the drill collar is in place, secure the collar with selected drill collar tieback ropes. Allow the drill collar to rest against the securing rope to test the tie-back rope.

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2. Going in the Hole For going in the hole with drill collars, the Derrickman should: 1) Have previously worked out operating signals among the Derrickman, Driller, and cathead/hoist man for maneuvering the drill collar with each lead-out rope (provided the collar is too large to manhandle) so the collar will not get loose and go across the derrick while letting them out to the elevators. Secure the drill collar in place at the end of the monkeyboard by half-hitching the ends of the lead-out rope onto the taut section before trying to latch the elevators onto the pickup sub. Once the elevators are latched onto the collar, remove the hold-back rope only fast enough to prevent the weight of the collars form pulling the elevators across the derrick. By leaving one wrap of the rope on the drill collar, the weight can be controlled by letting the rope out slowly, simultaneously with the Drillers picking up, and the collar will not swing across the rig floor. Do not attempt to latch onto a drill collar while the blocks are traveling up. When making up Drill Collars, the Derrickman must watch the lift nipple so it does not back off.

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When running drill pipe into the hole, the Derrickman should have an adequate lead-out rope so he can maneuver the pipe into position for the catch with minimum problems. Hold the drill pipe along the side of the monkeyboard when preparing to latch the pipe instead of the front where the traveling blocks run close to the board. This will prevent the lead-out rope and the employees hands form possibly being caught between the pipe and the blocks. Do not attempt to hold the pipe in front of the monkeyboard with the hands alone while the traveling block is climbing past the board. Do not lay down on the monkeyboard and position the torso over the front edge of the monkeyboard in an attempt to catch a joint of pipe lower than the board. Hold back on the drill pipe once it has been caught in the elevators so the swing can be broken in the stand as it is lifted off the rig floor pipe rack. This step helps the floor personnel lead out, stab, and make up the pipe.

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Orion Safety Manual 8. Get the attention of the rig floor personnel whenever the elevators latch has not closed after picking up a stand. This means the pipe has been snagged, and men on the floor should move to the side of the rig floor until the pipe has been set on the floor and the Derrickman has had the opportunity to relatch the elevators. When attempting to retrieve a stand of pipe that has gone across the derrick, move to the back of the monkeyboard so as to not be struck by the stand of pipe when it is pulled back by the floor crew. As quickly as the stand is pulled back to the board and stopped momentarily, the lead-out rope should be placed around the pipe to hold it for removing the hoist or catline. Once this is done, the pipe can be led out to the elevators and latched. Secure all items at the monkeyboard such as working ropes, adjustable finters or platforms, etc. prior to leaving the derrick.

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T. CROWN BLOCK 1. Operating Precautions 1) The draw works brake should be chained won before a person climbs onto the crown block for any reason. Hand tools carried to the crown block should be secured to the person doing work to prevent dropping them to the work area below. The Derrickman should check turnbuckles, anchor bolts, etc. for security each time the crown is serviced. The Derrickman should be extra careful getting in and out of the derrick climbing safety belt at the crown, especially during freezing weather. The Derrickman should ensure there is adequate lighting on the crown for night work. The Derrickman should ensure standard handrails and toeboards are affixed to the crown area. The Derrickman should ensure lights, pulleys, etc. on the crown are supported by safety chains or cables. The crown block assembly shall be securely fastened to the crown block beams in such a manner that neither the sheaves, sheave bearings, or housing can be accidentally dislodged under normal operating conditions. There shall be no openings between the beams or main supporting members or framework of a crown block large enough to permit a workman to fall through. Where bumper blocks are attached to the underside of crown beams, they shall have a safety cable fastened along their full length and to the derrick at both ends.

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Orion Safety Manual U. RUNNING CASING GENERAL: When running casing on the drilling rig, all personnel should function as a team due to the rapid pace of work and the number of activities being conducted at the same time. This section pertains to such activities on the rig floor and at the casing stabbing board. Safety procedures described herein should be acknowledged by all personnel involved, including contracted casing crews. A three to five minute operations meetings should be held prior to the commencement of the job. 1. Due to the size and weight of casing tools, rig supervisors should ensure pickup lines used in handling are in compliance with the Riggers Bible as far as size, strength, and connections are concerned. Heavy casing equipment shall be hoisted to the rig floor utilizing the air hoist line. NEVER USE THE BOOM LINE FOR THIS PURPOSE. Casing tools pulled through the V-door onto the rig floor should be snubbed with holdback lines to prevent the equipment from swinging across the rig floor, possibly striking someone or existing equipment. When removing regular drill pipe elevators form the links, the Driller should lower the elevators onto the rotary table once the elevator keeper bolts have been moved. When attaching the bails to the elevators or slips do not hold the latch ears out with hour hands. Attach a rope to the ears and use the rope to pull the latch out. This keeps your hands free of a pinch point. Once the droll pipe elevators have been set aside, the casing elevators can be placed on the rotary table to attach the links. Personnel should not place their hands near the link eyes or elevators ears while the links are being hoisted. The Driller should not move the traveling blocks/line without advising those making the hookup. Rig personnel placing the casing spider and slips on the rotary table should be careful not to set the equipment on their fingers or feet. Rig supervisors should ensure a work scaffold is erected over the casing slips at a height that will allow the personnel to run casing without over bending or overreaching and will allow the slip operator to function without interference. When lowering the drill pipe tongs and hanging the casing power tongs, the counterweight should be raised so both hookups can be made from the rig floor. No one should ride either set of tongs into the derrick. The casing tong operator should attach the tong safety or snub line and make sure the line is clear of obstruction before commencement of operations. At all times when the casing tong is not in operation, the casing tong operator should ensure the safety door remains closed. Only the casing tong operator should operate the casing tong unless another person is authorized or appointed to do so. The casing tong operator should not attempt to make repairs or adjustments to the power tong without first shutting off the power at the source.

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Orion Safety Manual 14. In the event casing scratcher or centralizers are to be placed on the casing, the items should be so placed on the rig floor that they do not interfere with floor personnels walk and work areas. No one should hold onto a centralizer when the casing is being spun up. Place the centralizer or scratcher on the pipe after the casing has been made up. Should the casing string in the questions be of sufficient depth and weight, provisions should have been made to string the traveling blocks to accommodate the load. Before starting the casing job, the person operating the casing fillup line should ensure the assembly is properly placed so it will not interfere with operations. Casing pickup elevators are to be used. When pulling casing through the V-door, a floorman should have a holdback rope (suggest I) placed across the V-door (head height) and secured by a post on each side of the V-door to prevent the incoming casing from swinging across the rig floor into the personnel. Personnel working around the rotary should remain aware of the casing being pulled through the Vdoor and not turn their backs on the joints in motion. The holdback rope should remain on the joint of casing until floor personnel can remove the casing thread protector. As the casing thread protectors are removed from the casing, they should be placed where they will not clutter work areas. They should not be thrown out of the V-door. Floor personnel should wear eye protection or turn their backs to the area where welding is being done on the casing. The welder should attach a ground to the casing being welded. The rotary, traveling block assembly, and connected equipment should not be regarded as a ground. The electric arc can damage bearings in such equipment, causing it to fail at a later date and possibly contributing to an injury. If an endless rope is used to spin casing, 1) 2) The cathead man should be experienced and operate the cathead in a safe manner. The Driller should remain at the control while the cathead is spinning and be prepared to stop the equipment instantly. The person operating the rope on the pipe should not allow the endless rope to cross over itself while spinning. An individual around the rotary should assist each time in placing rope on the joint to be spun and making sure the running end does not become fouled.

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Due to the size of the backup tong, two individuals should place it on the lower joint of casing and make the tong bite before the power tong is engaged. Stabbing casing tasks should be done by those When running casing, the Driller picks up off of slips. The Traveling Block should not be moving form side to side. After picking up weight off casing, the Driller stops with hand brake and checks electric brake. Again the Driller must stop before setting slips. When slips are set, the Driller must slack off weight on casing.

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Orion Safety Manual 27. The hydromatic or electric brake should be engaged at the start of the job and adjusted for the weight of the string as it increases. Upon reaching the bottom with the string of casing, the rig floor should be cleared of unneeded tools while cementing preparations are being made. Rig personnel should not stand beneath the cementing head as it is being hoisted to the top of the casing To screw the cementing head in place, rig personnel can latch the casing elevators onto the casing after the head has been started and turn the cementing head with the elevator links. Should a Floorman have to be raised into the derrick, it should be done on a hoist line and not a catline. Rig personnel should stand clear of the area below (rig floor) when someone is hammering the union for the cementing line and head. Rig personnel should secure a safety chain to the cementing line and elevator links before cementing operations are begun.

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V. CASING STABBING BOARD (MECHANICAL) GENERAL: A mechanical stabbing board should be checked before each casing job to ensure that it is in safe operating condition and structurally sound. 1. Check all structural mounting brackets, nuts, and bolts necessary for securing the stabbing board frame to the mast or derrick are present, tight, and in good condition. Check to see that a safety cable (suggest a minimum of 5/8) or equivalent chain is affixed at the top of the stabbing board structure and secured to a main mast or derrick member to prevent the structure from falling. Check to see that all adjustable platform guide tracks spacing configuration have not been damaged. All 90-degree metal angles used for safety catches along the inner guide tracks must be present in the even the adjustable board drops. The lifting hook connecting the hoist line and the adjustable working platform must be a closedmouth safety hook or shackle. The safety stop on the adjustable working platform must be in good mechanical condition and remain operable. Ensure that handrails for the adjustable working platform are in place, in good condition, and will not fall off the platform to the work area below. Check to see that all hoisting components used to adjust the height of the working platform remain in good condition. When not in use, the motor (if electric) should be covered or weatherized. Check to see that the stabbing board safety belt and tail rope remain in good condition and ready for use. A stop bar (suggest 2) should be installed at the base of the adjustable guide tracks to prevent the working platform form falling to the rig floor in the event the safety lifting device and platform safety catch fails.

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Orion Safety Manual 10. The casing stabbing board operator should, prior to working on the adjustable platform, ensure that the safety belt is on correctly and that the safety tail rope is not tied to the adjustable platform, but to a derrick main member. The casing stabbing board operator should not at any time bypass the adjustable platform safety device by taping the spring loaded retractor level in the open position. The casing stabbing board operator should not begin rigging up any type stabbing board overhead until floor personnel have finished coming out of the hole. The casing stabbing board will be aluminum pencil board type. The following is required: 1) 2) 3) Scaffold will be secured at both ends. Chain handrails will be installed. Means for securing safety harness will be provided.

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W. TRIPPING PIPE GENERAL: Since tripping pipe on the drilling rig is the greatest single work phase which crew personnel will face, it is in the interest of all concerned to learn and proactive the basic steps involved so the necessary safety and time factors may be obtained. 1. Preparation for a Trip 1) Place a sufficient amount of drill pipe and collar dope (and brush) in front of the draw works for the entire trip. Check the inside BOP (safety valve) that should always be in front of the draw works for operability. Ensure adequate crossover subs are placed by the draw works so that the safety valve can be fitted into any of the tubular boxes. Make certain the access route to the device is clear. Check the drill pipe and collar slip inserts, handles, keys, and pins to ensure each is in proper condition for upcoming work. Check the pipe tongs dies, jaws, hinges, pins, counterweights, all wire rope, clips, eyes, and connections for the same purpose as above. The following should be readily available: a. Bit breaker b. New bit (if for bit trip) c. Hobble (for running in hole) d. Drill Collar clamp and wrench e. Hammer (for sounding fluid level in pipe) f. Pulley bone (for pulling rotary bushing inserts) g. Block hook latch bar (for locking and unlocking the hook)

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Orion Safety Manual h. Bit fluid jets i. Change-out items for bottom hole assembly stabilizers, blades, collar, etc.) j. Mud bucket k. Lift nipples l. Lift subs m. Collar elevators n. Hand tools o. Pine racking jack p. Crossover subs q. Wiper rubber r. Derrick tape and tally book s. BOP Test plug t. Marking chalk

A trained employee should line up the stand pipe so that the hole can be filled with drilling mud at intervals pointed out by the Driller. The Driller should have the Derrickman line up the pumps to fill the trip tanks.

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Derrickman 1) 2) Should prepare to pump the slug. After the slug has been pumped and Driller has shut off pumps, the water and other additives going into the mud should be shut off. If hoppers are being used, they should be closed. The Derrickman and Driller should watch mud flow to ensure well is no longer taking or rejecting mud. If mud flow has stopped, the desander, desilter, and degasser, if not needed, should be shut off. Stop the shale shaker after mud circulation has stopped.

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Driller 1) 2) Take a flow check and prepare to pump the slug. After the slug has been pumped, the Driller should taken another flower check before pulling the first stand. The Driller should then ensure that drill string is free.

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Orion Safety Manual 4. 5 Commence the trip once all checks are positive. The Driller should keep the hole topped off with drilling mud at least every 5 stands. Because of varying circumstances, equipment, hole activity and size, each well will have to be filled as its required rate. The mud flowing into the well should be monitored by a trip tank or cy counting the pumps strokes. While pulling out of the hole with drill collars, each stand, the hole should be filled and monitored.

4. Tripping out of the Hole 1) The Driller should pull pipe out of the well bore slowly enough to prevent swabbing the hole. 2) The Driller should check the mud tank fluid level indicator regularly or if the indicator is not available, he should measure and log the tank as least every 5 stands. A check for flow should be made once the collars in the drill string are reached. 3) While coming out of the hole, one floorman should tap the pipe with a hammer several times on each stand to determine the fluid level inside the pipe after ht slips are set. 4) Should the drill pipe not come dry, the mud bucket should be used on each break. 5) The Driller should stop the pipe before allowing the Floormen to set the slips in the rotary so that the tool joints will not be too high or low from the rotary. 6) Once the drill pipe slips are set, both tongs should be made to bite. To prevent finger and hand injury, the tong operator should place the hands on the provided tong handles only. 7) Floormen around the rotary should not have their hands placed on the drill pipe when tongs are placed or are being applied on the drill pipe. 8) The Driller should operate the cathead smoothly when pulling on the tong(s) to prevent injuring the tong operator and other floor personnel. 9) Once the tool joint has been broken, the lower tong should be removed from the drill pipe before the rotary is engaged. 10) When the stand of drill pipe jumps clear of the joint of pipe in the rotary, the breakout tong man and the pipe racker should work together in pushing the pipe back into the pipe rack. 11) Tongs removed from the pipe should be restricted in their swing away form the rotary and observed to ensure neither swings back toward the rotary, striking anyone. 12) Floormen pushing a stand of drill pipe to the pipe rack should make sure their feet remain clear so if the pipe drops out of the elevators, it will not land on either persons feet. 13) As the Driller causes the stand of drill pipe to be lowered to the pipe rack, both persons racking the pipe should take care not to have their feet where the pipe is to be set.

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Orion Safety Manual 14) Should a stand of drill pipe require jacking because it was not racked straight, a pipe jack made for that purpose should be used to: a. Prevent back injury. b. Prevent damaging the pin end shoulders of the drill pipe. 15) The Driller should observe the pipe being set down on the pipe rack for the safety of those involved, and immediately after the stand has landed, observe the Derrickman releasing the stand from the elevators. The draw works brake should be applied at the slightest sign of problems in either of the aforementioned areas. 16) Floormen should wash down each stand of pulled drill pipe with a water hose to prevent excess build up of mud on the rig floor and pipe rack, unless oil-base mud is used. Drilling mud will become a slipping hazard. 17) When the pipe is strapped coming out of the hole, the Derrickmans end of the tape should be equipped with a wooden handle (broom handle) and a strap attachment to hang the tape in the derrick so it will not fall to the rig floor. 18) Should anyone attempt to hold a conversation with the Driller or vice versa while the draw works is in operation, the Driller should first stop the draw works, tie the brake down, and then conduct the conversation. The Drillers concentration should not be broken during such a period. 19) The Driller should not walk away from the draw works without first tying the brake down. 20) As drilling mud drains out of the racked stands of drill pipe, the mud should be hosed or squeegee off the pipe rack to eliminate a slipping hazard. 21) Should a joint of drill pipe be removed from the string to get back in the break, the joint should be laid down and not left in the mousehole where it will interfere with tong operations and the Floormens movements. 22) Each time work involving the mousehole is completed, the mousehole cover should be put back in place. 23) Rig floor personnel should be very cautious each time the Driller engages the rotary to spin out a stand of pipe. Feet should not be placed around the slip handles or the turning surface of the rotary. 24) The tongs should be placed around the tool joints immediately following the setting of the slips. It is then that the backup tong operator can determine how high or low the tong must be adjusted to properly fit the bottom tool joint. When the Driller is operating the draw works properly, the connection should stop at approximately the same height each time. 25) The tong operators should grasp the tongs by the provided grip handles only to prevent finger and hand injury. 26) Floormen should help one another with the tongs, slips, and pipe activities and concentrate on what is taking place on the rig floor. 27) Once the tool joint is broken, the Driller should allow the backup man adequate time to remove the tong before engaging the rotary.

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Orion Safety Manual 28) When the pipe remaining in the hole becomes too light to spin out without the aid of tongs, the following should be exercised: a) The breakout tong should remain on the top tool joint while the rotary spins the bottom tool joint out. b) Once spun out, the backup tong man should unlatch the breakout tong, push the tong away from the pipe, swing the stand sharply toward the pipe rack man, wipe, inspect shoulders and threads of tool joint box, and then dope the tool joint box shoulders and threads in the rotary. c) The breakout tong man assists the pipe racker in pushing the stand to the pipe rack and setting it down. d) The tong operators return to the rotary to latch the elevators around the tool joint in the rotary. e) When the Driller picks up on the pipe, all three men should be present to pull the slips. 29) Before pulling the collars, a flow check should be made and the drill pipe wiper rubber should be removed before pulling the collars. When the drill collars come through the hole, the drill collar slips should be set when and where the Driller designates-usually at the third break. The drill pipe slips should have been set back out of the way. 30) While Floormen are attaching drill collar clamps, the Driller should not slack all weight off the drill collars on the slips. 31) The Floormen should place the drill collar clamp on the collar after the slips have been set and make it tight to prevent the collar from falling back into the hole should the slips fail. This clamp should set 1 above the slips. 32) While placing the drill collar clamp on the collar, the Floormen should be cautious not to place their knees, hands, feet, etc. under the clamp for support while making up the clamp. The collar could slip in the collar slips. 33) After the drill collar clamp is on the collar, all personnel should be cautious not to place their feet beneath the beneath the backup tong because, again, the collar could slip while attempting to break the connection. 34) The Driller should not pull a collar over an employees head until the collar clamp is removed. 35) Rig personnel should use the hoist line to lift up drill collar pickup subs. This prevents having to manhandle the object, possibly mashing fingers and hands, or causing a strain. 36) The Driller should see that the drill collar pickup subs are made up in the collars with tongs because: a) The drill collar will be hanging on the sub in the elevators when backing the collar out of the rotary. If the sub is not tight, it and the suspended collar could come unscrewed, thereby dropping the collar. b) The pickup sub will remain on the drill collar over the heads of the people on the rig floor while the collar is in the derrick. 37) Floormen should remove clay or formation mud from around drill collar stabilizer blades and other areas before collar are set back in the derrick. There is a danger that mud, dried by the heat contained in the collars, will jar loose and fall to the rig floor. 38) When setting drill collars back, teamwork is required. Depending on the weight of the collar, all floor personnel may be required to push it onto the pipe rack. Coordinating this activity with that of the Driller, the Floormen should jointly push the collar toward the set down spot at the same time the Driller sets the collar down.

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Orion Safety Manual 39) Floor personnel should be extremely careful not to: a) Fall under the collar as it is being set down b) Push one another between the collar being set down and one already on the rack c) Place feet beneath the collar being set down d) Get hands or heads caught between two collars on the rack 40) Should the attempt to set the collar back be unsuccessful, every attempt should be made by the Floormen to break the swing of the collar back across the floor. Care should also be taken not to get between the collar as it swings back across the floor and other object. On large diameter collars, a pull-back line should be used. 41) When faced with a stubborn break, the Driller can allow the breakout tong to be double lined at the cathead, but no one should be allowed to hit the tong handle with a sledge hammer while under tension. After this type of stubborn connection is broken, the Driller should inspect the threads. 42) When tongs are double lined for hard breaks, Floormen should move to safe location. 43) When removing a stabilizer, reamer, or other part of the downhole assembly from the drill string while suspended in the air, the suspended drill string should be pushed to the side of the rotary table and lowered so it almost touches the floor. All floor personnel should assist in tuning the tool to back it out. This will prevent the tool from falling over when the threads release. 44) Floor personnel should not attempt to manually lift a downhole tool. Use the hoist line after the proper lift hitch has been applied. 45) In large-diameter holes, the rotary inserts or bushings will have to be removed from the rotary in order for the drill bit or wear ring to clear as it is pulled out of the hole. Before pulling the bushings on any size hole, personnel must ensure that all tools and equipment are away from the hole. The floor personnel should use the pulley bone or provided tool to accomplish this. The rig floor hoist should be attached to the tool for lifting purposes. 46) When placing the rotary inserts back in the rotary, often times the inserts will go in lopsided and will require straightening so both bushings (split) will fit. Personnel should not attempt to straighten either of the inserts with the hands. Should an insert suddenly fall into place, the hands can become trapped beneath the ledge of the rotary insert causing severe injury. 47) Once the drill bit clears the rotary table, the hole should be filled and then the blind rams should be closed. 48) To remove the pulled drill bit from the bottom collar, Floormen should place the bit breaker in the rotary opening, open the bit breaker door, and remove his hands. The bit should be guided into the bit breaker. Once stopped, the breaker door should be closed. Should the Floormen have to turn the bit or rotary to close the breaker door, hands should be kept off the breaker until the collar is still again. 49) Should the pulled bit be difficult to break, the Driller should place the weight of the collar stand on the bit, and all personnel should clear the area before necessary tension is applied. 50) After the bit connection has been broken the bit should be removed from the bit breaker. Place the hole cover over the hole and lower the bit close to the floor and back the bit our by hand. 51) Bits should not be muscled around. A lift cap nipple should be screwed onto the bit pin and a hoist line attached for lifting and moving. Small-hole bits and tools are a different matter and may be hand carried.

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Orion Safety Manual 5. Tripping (In the Hole) Tripping pipe into the hole is basically the tripping out procedure in reverse. There are some variations that the personnel should be aware of. 1) The procedure of making up the drill bit to the collars is the exact reverse of the breaking out procedure. 2) Prior to starting in the hole, the trip-gas pressure that may have built up against the underside of the blind rams should be considered and pressure relived before opening the rams. 3) Personnel should not look down the hole until after the rams are completely open. Built-up gas or fluid pressure may blow drilling mud, etc., into ones face. 4) When running collars and drill pipe in the hole, the foregoing associated points in this Section will apply in reverse except for the following points. 5) The Floormen should place a hold-back rope around each drill collar on the pipe rack so when the Driller picks up the collar, it will not swing uncontrolled toward the rotary and possibly injure someone or damage equipment. 6) If a stabbing guide is not available, possibly three crew men will need to be present to assist in stabbing a heavy drill collar to prevent setting the suspended collars pin on the shoulder of the collar sitting in the slips. Damage to the shoulder, which is the sealing area, can cause problems in the hole while drilling. 7) Should rig personnel need to change stabilizer blades, eye protection should be used when hammering on the blades. The hole in the rotary around the collar should be covered by whatever means so neither of the blades nor set screws can fall in the hole. 8) In the event the drill sting contains bumper jars, shock subs, stroke subs, or any tool with a sliding mandrel, rig personnel should take extreme caution when working with the tool. Hands should not be placed on or around the mantle when the jars are open. Should the jars close while on the rig floor, hands can be seriously injured from the impact. 9) When setting drill collar slips going in the hole, Floormen should wait until the Driller has stopped the collar completely before placing the slips around the collar. 10) When running drill pipe, the pipe racker should hold back momentarily on each stand that is hoisted from the pipe rack to break the swing and then lead the stand out to the rotary. By working with the Derrickman, the swing in the pipe can be broken so the stabber can handle the pipe. For 4- and above size drill pipe that is racked to the backside of the pipe rack, another Floorman should assist the pipe racker to lead the stand out. When running the B.H.A. in hole, the Driller should not reverse into the make-up drill collar. 11) Once the pipe stabber receives the stand for stabbing, the pipe racker should continue to assist holding the pipe until it is set in the box. 12) When a power tong is used to make up the stand of pipe, the pipe stabber should guide the tong onto the pipe as an assistance to the tong operator. The Driller should keep drill pipe and torque cylinder pumped up fully and working properly.

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6. Spinning Chain 1) Where a spinning chain is in use, the pipe stabber should assist the chain man and pull the slack from the cathead each time the chain is to be wrapped on the tool joint in the rotary for the next make-up. 2) Each time the spinning chain is thrown, the pipe stabber should step back to avoid the climbing chain, pull the makeup tongs up onto the tool joint of the stand being made up, and make the tongs bite while the spinning chain is removed from the pipe. 3) The spinning chain man should not let the chain go while it is pulled off the pipe but keep it contained so the chain will not get loose and strike someone. 4) To keep a spinning chain from getting loose, the spinning chain man should, when he runs out of tail, close both hands around the spinning wraps and catch the chain as it comes off the running side. 5) When the chain is not being used, it should be placed out of the way.

7. General Precautionary Measures 1) Teamwork and coordination is the key to safety on the rig floor. Each employee should assist the other when handling drill pipe, collars, slips, tong, etc 2) Where two sets of tongs are being used, the tongs should be spaced on the tool joint (box and pin) so sufficient room exists to prevent the tongs from touching one another when in motion. Hands will less likely be caught where 2 to 3 of space is obtained. 3) The Driller should pay close attention to the spinning chain, men, and tongs on every connection, and at the slightest sign of a problem, he should stop the cathead. 4) The pipe stabber should not stand between the Driller and the pipe being stabbed. The Drillers view should not be blocked. 5) Once the pipe is torqued to desired tightness and the cathead released, the pipe stabber should unlatch both sets of tongs. 6) The makeup and backup tong operators should hold onto their tongs to break the swing as the tongs leave the pipe so neither will swing back into an individual attempting to pull slips.

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7) Floor personnel setting the slips should not set the slips until the drill pipe has been stopped by the Driller and the pipe is at the connection working height in the rotary table. 8) When the elevators are unlatched from the tool joint in the rotary, the makeup tong man should unlatch the elevators (the pipe racker if power tongs are in use) and push the elevators back away from the tool joint by the elevator horns. 9) Floor personnel handling the elevators should position the elevators for the Derrickman and the backup tong man and should then pull the elevators back by the handle grip on the back of the elevators to clear the pipe in the rotary. 10) The Floormen and Driller should observe to see neither of the tong lines interfere with the elevators or the Derrickman as the traveling blocks are climbing. 11) All floor personnel should remain alert to the possibility of a stand of drill pipes being snagged in the derrick, should this occur, floor personnel should stand back and the Driller should slowly lower the stand to the rig floor. No one should place any part of their body in the area beneath the pipe. Severe injuries will be sustained should the pipe become un-snagged before it is set down on the floor. 12) Should a stand be snagged and remain in the elevators, no one should attempt to stab the stand into the tool joint in the rotary table. 13) In the event a stand of drill pipe missed by the Derrickman goes across the derrick, a chain should be tied to the base of the stand and secured to a solid structure to prevent it from sliding when the floor personnel try and swing it back to the Derrickman with a hoist line. 14) When the Driller engages the cathead to activate pipe tongs, floor personnel should make sure they are clear of all of the tong lines. 15) Should a back pressure valve be used to prevent fluid from flowing out of the drill pipe while going in the hole, the hand chain should be so attached to the hook assembly that the chain will not work loose or the components strike on the rig floor. 16) Floor personnel should make sure then they open the back pressure valve pet cock that no one is standing in line with the stream of pressure.

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17) In the event flush joint pipe is in use, everyone on the rig floor and in the derrick should be careful not to get fingers between the bottom of the lift nubbin and the elevators as the Driller picks up on the elevators. 18) The lift nubbins used with flush joint pipe should be made up tight with a bar and hammer before leaving the rig floor as the nubbins will be above a work area when the pipe is racked in the derrick. 19) Lift nubbins should be in containers while on the rig floor and not lying around creating tripping hazards. 20) When picking up the drilling swivel, a hoist line should be used to position the bale for the hookup in the event it is not properly aligned. No one should get on or around the swivel bale when the hook is swung for the hookup. 21) No one should place their hands around the rat hole, top, kelly bushings, etc., while the kelly is being picked up or set back. 22) The hold-back line (pull-back line when setting back) should be used when picking up the swivel and kelly to prevent the kelly from swinging uncontrolled across the rig floor when it clears the rat hole and possibly striking someone.

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X. 1.

HANDLING OF DRILL PIPE TUBULARS General Many activities around a drilling rig center, around drill pipe tubulars. Safety and work efficiency can be obtained simultaneously when proven work practices are acknowledged and used by crew personnel. Omission of such practices can lead to frustration, temper flare-ups, and having to do the work over again, all of which increases potential injury exposure and reduction of equipment life. Because of drill pipe and collar weights and sizes, personnel should learn how to work with these drilling tools. Points to keep in mind: a. Drill pipe can weigh approximately 500 pounds per joint b. Drill collars can weigh from 2,700 pounds to 5,000 pounds per joint, depending on size used c. Box, pin faces, and shoulders provide the seal areas for the joints when screwed together. If scarred or damaged in these areas while being handled, washouts and other failures can occur to the drill string while drilling in the hole. This results in additional handling of the pipe for replacement or adjustments, increasing injury exposure that could have been prevented.

Practices contained in the following sub-sections involve drill pipe and drill collar work on the pipe racks and catwalk, making connections, and tripping pipe. 2. Pipe Rack 1) Rig personnel should keep thread lubricant on the threads of all tubulars at all times to prevent rust. Rust can cause difficult thread make-ups and break outs and increase the possibility of pipe tong backlash or wire rope failure. 2) Rig personnel should ensure the pipe rack stripping boards are kept stacked in a central location to prevent breakage and cluttering of work areas. 3) Rig personnel should ensure stripping boards instead of sections of drill line are used as pipe tier strips to prevent pipe from shifting on the racks. 4) Rig personnel should ensure all pipe stop pins remain in good condition on elevated pipe racks, and personnel should use them when pipe is stacked on the racks.

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5) Rig personnel should ensure a pipe stop is used at the base of the V-door ramp to prevent pipe placed in the V-door from sliding back down to the catwalk. 6) Rig personnel should not permit support equipment for various operations to be placed on top of pipe stacked on the pipe racks unless absolutely necessary. 7) Rig personnel should not ensure no more than three joints of 5 drill pipe or four joints of 4- drill pipe or one joint of casing are lifted from the catwalk and placed in the V-door with rig hoist lines. 8) Rig personnel should ensure unnecessary objects such as stabilizers, bit, tools, etc., are kept off the catwalk and from underfoot while work is being performed. 9) Rig personnel should ensure pipe protector containers are provided to prevent cluttered conditions. 10) Rig personnel should ensure that sledge hammers, bars, and other hand tools used on the catwalk are returned to an assigned place when the work is completed. 11) The person pulling pipe into the V-door with the hoist line should do so at a safe speed. 12) While items are being hoisted or lowered on the V-door ramp, personnel should remain away from the base of the ramp. 3. Getting Tubulars from the Catwalk into the Mousehole 1) When pulling a single joint of pipe through the V-door, a screw on cap and swivel (Order Number 3682T74 Master Car, Page 518, 1300 lb. working wt. with 2.2 throat opening) should be used.

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2) All rigs should use a rope to a tail all tubulars in the V-door by using the following procedures: a. Tie one end of the rope to the pad eye next to the V-door, with the other end running through a pad eye on the opposite side of the V-door. Allow enough rope so the tubular can be tailed to the mouse hole. Ensure the travel pad eye has rounded edges, making sure the rope will not be cut. Ensure that the men handling the rope wear proper and protection. b. Prior to the hoisting of the tubulars up onto the rig floor, ensure the rope is under it. c. The employee on the air trugger must pick up on the pipe with clear sight of the man on the tail rope and catwalk personnel. d. The employee on the tail rope must, as the pipe is picked up, pull excess slack out of the rope spanning the V-door. Note: Ensure feet are clear of the rope on the deck, so it will not get tangled. e. After pipe end is elevated above the floor and suspended vertically against the tail rope, the pin protector can be removed. Two employees should be present one to steady the pipe and one to remove the protector. Care should be taken not to hold the pipe over either employees feet. Hold the pipe and work at arms length. f. Once the protector is removed, the joint should be doped and guided (at arms length) over the mousehole and lowered at a safe speed. g. When the joint of pipe is landed in the mousehole, the hoist line should be removed and secured to another joint of pipe in the V-door or the hoist frame so the line will be clear of the rotary area. 3. Rig personnel should ensure the V-door chain remains secured at all times when work is not being performed in the V-door.

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4.

Making a Connection (with Drill pipe) 1) While making a connection, the Driller should hoist the drill string as many times as necessary to ensue the pipe is free in the hole. Stuck pipe can result in numerous hours/days of potentially injurious activities. 2) Rotary personnel should not place drill slips in the rotary when making a connection until the Driller gives the signal. Setting slips too soon can cause severe pipe damage. 3) Once the drill pipe is on the slips, the valve in the mud-saver sub (lower kelly cock) should be closed to prevent loss of mud which will make the rig floor slippery. 4) Prior to placing drill pipe tongs on the pipe to make the break, the position of all tong lines should be checked by rig floor personnel to ensure none is beneath a sub or other object that could be thrown into the air once the cathead is engaged. 5) Once the connection is broken, the tong latched onto the kelly saver sub should remain latched, and tension applied by the tong operator while the rotary is unlocked and tuned to the right, thus spinning out the kelly complete with kelly saver sub. 6) Floor personnel should unlatch the pipe tong when the kelly has been screwed out and jointly push the kelly across to the joint of pipe protruding from the mousehole for stabbing. 7) Prior to stabbing the kelly into the joint of pipe in the mousehole, the backup tongs should be placed on the tool joint of the drill pipe in the mousehole. They are put on for two reason: a) To keep the drill pipe in the mousehole from turning when the kelly saver sub is made up b) To provide a supporting hand hold for the crew member stabbing the kelly into the drill pipe in the mousehole 8) the stabber should not place the hands near the box or pin of either pipe when stabbing. 9) The best method for controlling direction of the kelly is to push against it with ones shoulder.

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10) If a kelly spinner is used on the rig, it should now be applied to rotate the kelly saver sub into the joint in the mousehole. After the kelly spinner has made the connection, the makeup tongs should be applied to torque up the connection to specification. If a pipe spinner is used, it should be attached and applied to make up the connection. The pipe spinner should then be removed and the makeup tongs should then be applied and the connection made up to specified torque. 11) if a spinning chain is used, the chain operator should wrap the chain around the tool joint box of the pipe in the mousehole on top of the backup tongs before the kelly is stabbed. Once the kelly is stabbed, the chain should be thrown up onto the kelly saver sub. If it cannot be thrown onto the kelly saver sub, the chain should be pushed up by hand. The Driller can now engage the cathead and make up the connection, making sure that no ones fingers are in danger of being caught in the chain that the chain is under control to prevent the end from flipping off and hitting anyone. 12) Another method that can be used in making up the kelly saver sub to the joint in the mousehole involves holding the kelly saver sub with the makeup tongs after the kelly has been stabbed and spinning up the connection with the spinning chain wrapped around the drill pipe in the mousehole. This procedure can be used for making up drill pipe only and should not be used to makeup drill collars as their extensive weight will damage the pin end threads if turned. If using this procedure, the following sequence of steps should be taken: a. Place the spinning chain wraps around joint in mousehole so that the chain will spin pipe counterclockwise b. Place makeup tongs on kelly saver sub c. Engage cathead to pull spinning chain to spin drill pipe in mousehole onto the kelly saver sub d. Once the connection has been made up and spinning chain is removed, attach the backup tongs if necessary, and torque up the connection to specification

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13) Periodically, the kelly will not line up with the joint in the mousehole. When this occurs, the joint in the mousehole will have to be spun backward so it will make up on the kelly. Should this be the case, the hoist line should be wrapped once around the kelly and tied off to a solid structure so the kelly can be pulled over to line up with the mousehole joint. The spinning chain should then be placed around the mousehole joint to pull to the left (counterclockwise). 14) Once the connection is spun up, one Floorman positioned between the rotary and mousehole should keep the tongs on the connection and cocked, and the remainder of the Floormen should move away from the area as the Driller applies the torque. 15) Before the Driller begins pulling the new connection from the mousehole, the Floormen should be given adequate time to remove both sets of tongs from the pipe and the lower kelly valve should be opened and adequate time given to allow to drain. 16) The makeup tong man should place the makeup tongs on the joint of pipe in the rotary while the new connection is being pulled from the mousehole. One person should be ready to hold back on the pipe as it clears the mousehole to prevent it from swinging into the chain or makeup tong man. 17) Prior to stabbing the new joint into the string, the threads should be cleaned and pipe dope generously applied for an easier and safer makeup. 18) Similar to the stabbing process at the mousehole, the stabber should have a tong latched on the tool joint in the rotary table for a good hand grip while attempting to stab the pipe. The feet should be spread slightly apart for additional balance.

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19) Should the pin of the pipe being stabbed sit on the edge of the tool joint box in the rotary instead of in the hole, the Driller should, upon determining the degree of bow in the pipe, either: a. Have the stabber and remainder of the floor personnel step clear of the rotary area so the pipe can be picked up and re-stabbed b. Have the stabber and another Floorman steady the pipe by holding onto it once it is picked up, provided the bow is not that great 20) Once the pipe is stabbed, the stabber should be given adequate time to get clear before the Driller engages the cathead and spinning chain. 21) Should a spinning wrench be used, the stabber should assist putting the wrench on after the stab is made or assist the spinning wrench operator. 22) Whenever one Floorman is assisting another Floorman in placing a tong, or spinning wrench on the pipe, neither should place one of their hands on the pipe for balance while pulling the tongs in place. This bad practice has contributed too many hand and finger injuries. 23) Once the pipe is spun up and one or both tongs are engaged to torque up the connection, the Floorman should step away from the immediate area of the tongs to prevent being struck should the tongs backlash or line break while the connection is being made up to specified torque. 24) Each Floorman should coordinated his moves so that once the pipe has torqued and the tongs unlatched, he will be in the position to grasp one of the slip handles for pulling the slips. Each person should pull an equal share of the slips weight so as to not throw an overload on one of his fellow workers. 25) When pulling the slips, each person should place their feet slightly apart, squat, and use the legs instead of the back to support the weight of the slips when lifting. 26) As the slips are removed from the rotary, they should be set far enough back on the rotary table so they will not be struck should the hook assembly be lowered farther than is intended.

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27) The pipe doper should periodically dope the back sides of the pipe slips and inside of the rotary bushing to prevent the slips from sticking inside the bushing as the pipe is picked up following a connection. Complete rotary tables have been lifted out of the floor slot as a result of these items not being adequately greased. 28) In most cases drilling mud will splash out when a connection has been made, causing a slippery condition. The floor should be washed down as quickly as possible to eliminate this hazard. 29) Following a connection, another joint of drill pipe should be pulled in and placed into the mousehole for the next connection. Care should be taken so the hoist line being used does not come in contact with the rotating kelly. 5. Racking Back Heavy Weight and Drill Collars 1) A Pre-Job Safety Meeting should be held before starting this operation. 2) Break and back out the connection. 3) Connect Drillers mule line to the Heavy weight or Drill Collar before picking it up out of the box. 4) Pick up Heavy Weight or Drill Collar from the box and lower it to the Rotary, to adjust the mule line. 5) Pick up Heavy Weight or Drill collar from the Rotary to the minimum height required for free movement to racking area while being pulled back. 6) Pull back at a controlled rate to reduce whipping action, which causes slack in mule line. 7) The person guiding the collar into place on the pipe rack should flag the Driller when the collar is in the right position to se down. The Driller should not set the collar down until so instructed.

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Y. LAYING DOWN DRILL PIPE 1. Floor personnel work in close quarters when laying down drill pipe, and the pace is usually rapid. Other than breaking each single, the process of coming out of the hole and laying down will be the same as in making a trip. Once the connection is unscrewed at the rotary, the following should take place. 1) A thread protector is placed on the pin of the single. 2) The single is pushed out the V-door. 3) Some prefer to drop the single in the mousehole rather than go directly to the V-door once it has been removed from the string. The hoist line will then be required to lift the single from the mousehole and place it in the Vdoor. 4) When a hoist line is used to handle the single in the mousehole, the person working the elevator latch should be alert to the activities as the single will be hoisted from the mousehole behind his back while he is latching the elevators around the tool joint in the rotary. In this case, the elevators should be turned to face the V-door. 5) The hoist operator should observe the movements of the Floormen and be prepared to stop the hoist whenever the single being removed from the mousehole endangers anyone working near the rotary. Z. MUD PITS AND SHALE SHAKERS 1. Mud Pits 1) Rig supervisors should ensure stairs or steps with handrails are placed on mud pits four or more feet off the ground. 2) Rig supervisors should ensure mud pits are equipped with wing-walkways (with standard handrails) or the pits are covered with grating (and standard handrails) where personnel will be required to walk while tending the pits. 3) Rig supervisors should ensure crosswalks are provided between mud pits to prevent personnel from having to jump from one tank to the next. 4) Whenever possible, rig supervisors should have flow line countersunk or placed below walkways on mud pits to prevent tripping hazards. 5) Rig personnel should keep mud gun unions and connections tight at all times.

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6) Rig personnel should ensure each mud gum is equipped with a handle for maneuvering the gun. 7) Rig personnel should. Under no circumstanced, attach a hose of any type to the pressure end of a mud gun for gunning purposes. 8) Rig supervisors should ensure chemical-mixing containers are present on the mud-mixing tank along with eye, hand, and face protection. Signs should also be present advising the user thereof. Rig personnel should acknowledge the instruction signs and wear the protective equipment. 9) Rig personnel should ensure the agitators are isolated and locked out at the power source before attempting to go into the mud pits for repair or cleaning purposes. 10) Rig personnel should store water hoses, so they do not become tripping hazards on the mud tanks walkways or steps. 11) Rig personnel should paint mud gate handles that protrude above the mud pit walkway yellow for quick recognition of possible tripping hazards. 12) Rig supervisors should provide small winches on the mud tanks for raising equalizing lines inside the tanks. 13) Adequate mud pit cover grating is to provide safe access for servicing all equipment on top of the mud pit. 14) All mud-tank walkways should have guard rails, (handrails) on both sides of walkway. 2. Shale Shakers 1) Derrickmen should ensure that all drive couplings to agitators are properly guarded. 2) Rig personnel should ensure shale shaker counterbalance wheels, drives, and belts are properly guarded at all times. 3) Rig Derrickmen should have raised metal ledges or handrails placed in front of the shale shaker dump chute to prevent someone from falling into the chute. 4) Mud hopper are should have: a. Eye protection b. Face protection

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c. Rubber gloves d. Rubber apron e. Eye Wash Station AA. HIGH PRESSURE PUMPING OPERTAIONS The procedures and safety precautions necessary prior to commencing pumping operations are as follows: 1) Discuss and plan each operation with the operator representative prior to starting the job. 2) All high pressure pumping systems will be equipped with a pressure relief device. 3) High pressure lines shall be chained or tied off by means of cable or chain to prevent movement should the line rupture or break. 4) Check valves should be installed as close to the well as possible during high pressure pumping operations. Both ends of lines will be secured. 5) Pressure tests the lines to the well to the maximum anticipated pressure. All personnel should remain clear of lines during pressure tests. 6) Smoking is not allowed in the operation area. 7) Adequate fire extinguishers should be within 30 feet of the operation. 8) Employees will not stand near discharge lines under pressure.

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A.

HOUSEKEEPING GENERAL:

House keeping means orderliness as well as cleanliness. It means a place for everything and everything in its place. It means not leaving tools, planks, packing materials, drums, rags or other materials lying around in a careless manner. It means to flatten down or remove nails from boards not in use and deciding early what is or is not rubbish, instead of accumulating stacks of junk to be sorted out later. It means always separating waste material from good material; disposing of the waste and putting the good material away. Some housekeeping rules to follow are listed below: 1) All catwalks, steps, and stairways should be kept clean and clear of trash, tools, boards, barrels, mud and chemical cans, steel plate, hoses, etc. 2) Rig floors, and other work areas should be kept clean and clear of hand tools, drill string subs, sacks, boards, hoses, pump liners, chemical pallets, etc. 3) Once a job is completed, all tools should be cleaned, checked for damage, repaired if necessary, and stored in the appropriate place. 4) Racks and retaining chains should be provided for the placement of bit subs, stabilizers, reamer, fishing tools, inside B.O.P. equipment, etc. so they will not be lying on the rig floor, or catwalks. 5) Once a bit trip has been completed, the old bit, bottom hole assembly subs, wiper rubber, dope bucket and brush, etc. should be properly stored in their designated place. 6) Following thread preparation of casing, drill pipe, tubing, etc. on or open rack, protectors, brushes, etc. should be properly stored, and, if present, grease or dope spots should be removed from the deck. 7) Should a wet connection be made, the rig floor should be hosed down immediately to ensure good footing. In the event of a wet string, the floor should be hosed as often as possible. 8) Pipe on racks should be stored and chocked in an orderly manner with stripping boards for safety and appearance. 9) Drums should be painted, marked trash, and placed around the rig. The barrels should be emptied regularly. Cutting torches shall not be used for removing tops of drums.

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10) Derricks and rum-a-rounds should be kept clean by removing old rope, rags, and soft line, etc. 11) Sanitation and Hygiene 1. Toolpusher & crew quarters, dining areas, and frequent gathering centers should be swept and mopped on a daily basis. Rig personnel should assist by keeping articles picked up and using provided trash containers for litter. 2. Food should be properly stored and covered, checked daily for spoilage and kept at a safe temperature. 3. All dining areas should be cleaned as needed. 4. All dished used in serving should be washed. 5. Change rooms should be cleaned daily as needed. 6. Personnel using change room facilities should keep the areas clean and orderly. Work clothing should be properly stored and work boots placed to air and dry. 7. Toilet facilities should be kept clean and sanitized. 8. Portable water coolers used for drinking water should be cleaned before use. They should be kept covered, equipped with a spigot and used for the above purpose only. Disposable cups should be used. 9. All septic systems must be covered to prevent an employee from falling into the pit. They should be located at least 10 ft from the trailers.

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B.

LADDERS Supervisors should instruct personnel in the proper use and maintenance of ladders. 1) The safety of a ladder depends on four (4) important factors: Selection, Condition, Position, and Use. 2) A ladder must be of the proper length for the job to be done. If it is to be used for access or as a working place, it shall rise to a height of at least three (3) feet above the landing place. 3) Metal ladders, ladders with metal reinforced side rails and ladders which are wet shall not be used around electricity. 4) Ladders must be maintained in good condition; when portable ladders are used on hard surfaces they must be equipped with safety shoes and securely tied off at the top or held in place by another person. 5) All permanent ladders shall be securely fastened at top and bottom. Long ladders should also be secured at intermediate points. 6) Wooden ladders must not be painted; they should be coated with clear varnish or shellac or treated with boiled linseed oil. 7) Ladders must not be placed in front of doors which open toward the ladder unless the door is locked. 8) When climbing or descending a ladder, the person should face the ladder and have free use of both hands. He should not carry tools or other objects in his hands. A hand line should be used to raise or lover heavy or bulky objects. 9) Never lean from a ladder to each work. Move the ladder. 10) Check condition of ladder before use (cracks, bends, rivets, pins, etc.) and correct any defects. 11) Most ladders are designed to bear safely the weight of only one man at a time. More than one man should not be on a ladder at the same time. 12) Never work on a high ladder in a strong wind.

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13) It is good safety practice for someone to hold or steady a step ladder for a person working near its top. 14) Always hold to the ride rails rather than to the rungs of a ladder when climbing up or down. 15) When raising a ladder, make sure it will not contact an electrical line. 16) All derricks should be equipped with approved fixed ladders to provide access to all work areas from the floor to the crown platform. The Derrickman should be able to ascend or descend onto solid flooring before detaching the climbers safety belt and putting on the derrick working safety belt. 17) Ladders shall not be supported on their rungs or cleats. Rungs or cleats shall not be used to support scaffold planks. 18) Do not take extension ladders apart for separate use of the pieces. 19) Step ladders are not to be used as straight ladders. 20) The top platform of a step ladder is not to be used to stand on. 21) Wherever possible, ladders shall be set at an angle of 75 degrees (1 out to 4 up). 22) The distance between rungs, cleats and steps shall not exceed 12 and shall be uniform throughout the ladder. 23) Fixed ladders must have a clear space of not less than 7 inches behind the ladder. 24) All ladders shall be inspected frequently and those which have defects shall be withdrawn from service. 25) Ladders shall not be placed on boxed, barrels, or any other unstable bases to obtain additional height. The area at the base of a ladder must be kept clear. 26) Where an extension ladder is used fully extended, the minimum overlap of sections shall be four (4) rungs. Splicing or lashing ladders together shall not be permitted.

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27) Personnel should not climb higher than the third rung from the top on extension ladders or on the second rung from the top on step ladders.

C.

STAIRWAYS AND HANDRAILS Supervisors should instruct personnel in proper use and maintenance of stairways. 1) All stairways should be maintained and in clean condition. 2) Stair treads should be slip resistant. 3) Standard handrails should be provided for all stairways. 4) A non-slip surface should be provided at the bottom of all stairways. 5) Handrails on stairways should be inspected for cracks, burrs, etc. and stanchions should be checked for secure mounting. 6) Running up or down stairways is not allowed. Sliding down handrails is prohibited. 7) All stairways should be free of hazardous projections. 8) Debris and other loose materials should be eliminated as soon as possible. 9) Slippery conditions on stairways should be eliminated as soon as possible. 10) All stairways should be well lighted. 11) A rise height and tread width should be uniform throughout any flight of stairs. 12) Use handrails when climbing stairs. 13) Do not carry heavy loads up or down stairways. Use hoist equipment provided. 14) Wooden pallets should not be used as stair landing and walkways.

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D.

FLOORS AND WALKWAYS

Supervisors should instruct personnel in the use and maintenance of floors and stairways. 1) Openings in floors should be protected or provided with covers when not in use. Use caution tape around temporary openings until they can be closed. 2) Guardrails should be provided on all raised floors and catwalks over 4 feet in height and adjacent to tanks, pits and other hazardous equipment. 3) Personnel should not run on catwalks. 4) Any raised floors or catwalks should be provided with toeboards.

E.

HAND TOOLS Supervisors should instruct personnel in use and maintenance of hand tools. 1. General 1) The Rig should be provided with individual tool and locker to aid in the prevention of tool loss. Rig personnel are expected to return hand tools to the proper place once a job is completed. Tools should not be left lying on the ground, decks, overhead beams, in the derrick, steps, stairways, etc. as they can be lost or cause injury. Rig personnel should be trained by Supervisors in the proper use and inspection of hand tools prior to use. Rig personnel should turn in tools with worn or sprung jaws, broken gauges, springs, bent handles, etc. to their supervisor for replacement or repair. Once work is completed in the derrick, personnel should lower all hand tools to the rig floor level. Tools are not to be left in the derrick unless properly secured. Personnel carrying tools aloft should have them properly hobbled to their person to prevent them from dropping to a work are below.

2)

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7)

Frequently inspect driving faces of chisels, driftpins, bars and similar tools for mushroomed heads, broken faces and other defects. Brass sledge hammers should be used in an explosive atmosphere in high gas concentration to prevent sparking.

8)

2.

Hammers 1) All hammer handles should be inspected regularly for cracks. If found cracked, the handles should be replaced immediately. Hammers should not be used until broken or cracked handles are replaced. 2) Wedges should be in the hammer handles to prevent the hammer heads from flying off the handles during use. 3) Hammer handles should not be used for pry bars. 4) When using hammers, the handles should be clean, and gloves should be worn. 5) Hammers should be turned in for replacement once the driving heads become mushroomed. 6) Hammers should not be set down in a work area with the handles pointing up. A person can accidentally squat down or fall onto the handle and sustain bodily injury. 7) Hammers should not be used around the rotary table or bell nipple while the B.O.P. rams are open, unless it can be reasonable ascertained that the hammers will not be dropped in the hole. 8) No one should stand or be in direct line with a hammer swing.

9) Hammers should not be slid down the V-door ramp. Hammers will most often propel in an unexpected direction. 10) Hammers should not be used to chock equipment or drilling tools as they will slide and allow the load to shift. 11) Correct hammer sizes should be chosen for the job at hand.

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12) Claw hammers should not be used other than for carpentry or nail work. Ball peen or sledge hammers should only be used to drive bars or hit steel equipment and not for carpentry or nail work. 3. Hatchets and Axes 1) Hatches and axes should not be used for hitting steel, cutting wire rope, cleaning mud off collars or pipe, or chiseling. 2) Hatchets are not toys and should not be played with. 3) When swing a hatchet or ax neither should be swung back toward the body as a glance of the blade can cause injury. 4) A hatchet or ax should not be used in close quarters. 5) Hatchets and axes should not be stored with the blade pointing up. 6) Persons who cannot swing a hatchet or ax accurately should not be allowed to use them. 4. Pipe Wrenches 1) Pipe wrenches should not be used as a substitute for tubing tongs on tubing being tripped in or out of the hole. 2) Wire rope or hemp rope should not be attached to pipe wrenches for pulling purposes. 3) Pipe wrenches should not be slapped on pipe but properly adjusted and placed for the proper bite. 4) When tightening pipe, swab nuts, swab rods, etc. a person should not stand on the wrench for additional force. Objects to be tightened should be anchored or placed in a vice when possible. 5) Pipe wrench handles should not be used as pry bars. 6) Pipe wrenches should not be placed on moving pump rods or other items subject to move or backlash. This precaution pertains especially to catheads. 7) Pipe wrenches should not be placed on objects with the intention of using the tool for a step.

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8) Pipe wrenches should not be used as a substitute for a hammer. 9) Pipe wrenches should not be thrown down as they tend to deflect unpredictably and will cause injury to bystanders. 10) Pipe wrenches should not be struck on the handles with sledge hammers for additional leverage force. 11) Pipe wrenches should not be slid down the V-door ramp. 5. Crescent Wrenches 1) Crescent wrenches should not be used as a substitute for hammers. 2) Crescent wrenches should be properly adjusted to fit nuts so as not to deform the nuts shoulders. Hand injury can result from a Crescent wrench slipping off a nut. Nuts with damaged shoulders should be replaced. 3) Crescent wrenches should not be hammered on for extra tightening of nut. 4) Crescent wrenches should not be used around electrical equipment. 5) Crescent wrenches should not be used around moving equipment. 6) Hanging holes in crescent wrench handles should not be used to attach leverage devices. 7) Cheater pipes are not to be used on crescent wrenches. 8) Correct size crescent wrenches should be used for the job intended. 9) Crescent wrenches should not be used for pry bars. 10) Placement of a crescent wrench on a nut should be such so the force is against the slid top and not on the moveable jaw.

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6. Screwdrivers 1) Only properly insulated screwdrivers should be used for electrical work, and then only by a qualified electrician. Caution should be exercised. 2) Screwdrivers should not be used as a substitute for a chisel. 3) The handle end of screwdrivers should not be struck with hammers for driving purposes. 4) Screwdrivers should not be used to test for electrical current by placing the shaft across terminals or in any other way. 5) A screwdrivers point should not be turned toward the body or limbs by the user. 6) Screwdrivers should not be used as pry bars. 7) Screwdrivers with deformed heads should not be used until the heads have been reshaped with a grinder. 8) Screwdrivers should not be used around moving machinery. 9) Screwdrivers should not be carried in persons pockets. 10) Screwdrivers should be handed, not thrown, to a fellow worker. They should be handed handle first. 11) Screwdrivers should not be used to open non-lid cans and like containers. 12) Screwdrivers should not be used as a substitute for chippers and scrapers. 7. Knives 1) Jackknives with push button spring releases are prohibited. Such knives can open unexpectedly in pocket. A jackknife with a safety lock to prevent accidental closing of the blade is mandatory. 2) Knives should not be pulled or pushed toward the body or limbs when in use. 3) Open-blade knives should not be used to punch or gouge holes in objects as the blade can close on the hand.

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4) Open knives should not be tossed to a fellow worker. The knife should be handed handle first. 5) Knives should not be used to work on electrical components. 6) Knives should not be used to cut wire or metal. 7) Personnel should not play with knives. 8) Open knives should not be lying around. 9) Personnel should not cut towards other workers. 10) Straight blade (hunting) knives should be carried in a scabbard with securing straps secured. 11) A knife should not be used in an area above other personnel. Personnel should remain clear of an area directly beneath where a knife is being used. 12) Knives should be kept sharp at all times since a sharp knife requires less force to make a cut. 8. Pliers 1) Only electrical-designed pliers should be used on electrical equipment and then only by a qualified person. 2) Pliers should not be used for lifting batteries. 3) Pliers should not be hammered on to drive objects. 4) Pliers should not be used to tighten nuts as this will damage the shoulders of nuts making it difficult to use proper wrenches on the nut in the future. 5) Sharp nosed pliers should not be carried on the person in clothing pockets. 6) Only wire-cutting pliers should be used to cut wire. 7) Vice-grip pliers should not be placed on or left attached to an object that is subject to turn.

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8) Always check pins and nuts on pliers for tightness as jaws can slip and cause injury. 9. Files 1) The correct design fire should be selected for the job at hand. 2) Files of any design should not be hammered on. 3) A protective handle should be placed on the tail of all files to be used. 4) Files should not be used as pry bars. 5) Objects being filed should be placed in vice if at all possible. 6) Files should not be used as substitutes for punches or chisels. 7) Knives should not be made from files for use on the job site. 8) Files should not be tossed, but handed to fellow workers. 10. Bars 1) To prevent tripping and falling hazards, bars should not be left lying on the floor, decks, and ground or near openings in floors or decks. Nail, crow, and wrecking bars should only be used for jobs for which they are intended.

2)

3) 4)

Bars should not be poked into moving machinery. Bars should not be used in close proximity to electrical panels or wiring.

5)

Bars should not be placed in the ends of cheater pipes for additional leverage or jacks that are too small for the load being lifted. No one should place and continue to hold a bar beneath a heavy load being lowered.

6)

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7)

An adequate number of persons should assist in barring a heavy load to prevent strain. Bars should not be used around a turning rotary or to push rotary inserts into the rotary. Personnel should not attempt to lift drill pipe or collars by placing a bar in the ends of same. Drill pipe and collars should not be permitted to roll off the racks onto a bar being held by someone. Bars should not be used to turn engine fly wheels in an attempt to start same. Personnel should not stand or sit on top of bars to gain additional leverage. No rope should be placed on a bar under tension for the purpose of exerting additional pull. Bars should not be placed inside mud pump swab rod cages for the purpose of tightening gland packing while the pump is in motion.

8)

9)

10)

11)

12)

13)

14)

F. GRINDERS 1. No employee is to operate a grinder without having received safe operating instructions. 2. Goggles will be worn when working on or near a grinder. If the grinder has a spark shield, be sure it is in place and is clean and not cracked. 3. The work rest shall not be more than inch from the abrasive wheel surface. The peripheral protecting member shall be maintained inch from the edge of wheel surface.

4. Grinder wheels with an irregular grinding wheel surface shall be brought to the attention of the Driller or Toolpusher. 5. Stand to one side when the grinder is started and let it come up to full speed. When you are finished grinding, shut off the power before leaving the machine.

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6. the grinder shall not be used to grind soft materials such as brass, aluminum, lead, wood, etc. These non-porous materials can cause the grinder wheel to explode. A good rule of thumb is: If it doesnt spark dont grind it! 7. check with the Toolpusher prior to installing new grinder wheels to insure that the proper size and RPM rated wheel is used. A grinding wheel of the wrong size or RPM rating may explode if installed on a grinder other than the one it was designed for. 8. do not use the side of stone for grinding. 9. do not use so much force on the stone that it bogs down. G. PORTABLE POWER TOOLS 1. Electrical Power Tools: 1) Select the right tool, (example: drill, saw blade, grinding wheel, etc.) for the job. 2) Dont use a portable electric power tool with a broken plug, defective insulation, missing or defective guard or with a defective control. 3) All portable electrical powered tools should be grounded or double insulated. 4) When working with an extension cord, string the cord either overhead or out of the traffic area to avoid a tripping hazard, being crushed or being cut. 5) Dont apply excessive pressure to the toll to hurry the work. 6) Dont use an electrical tool in wet locations without the protection of an insulating mat. 7) Wear eye protection when grinding, drilling, sawing or sanding. 8) Guards on electrical equipment should not be removed. 9) Object worked on should be secure.

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10) All electric power tools should shut off when pressure is released from trigger. Locking devices on triggers should be removed. 11) Do not use electric powered tools in gaseous or explosive atmospheres. 12) Disconnect cords by pulling on the plug, not the cord. 13) All portable power tools should be turned off before connecting or disconnecting the power source. 14) When using power tools, do not exceed manufacturers recommendation.

2.

Pneumatic (Air) Powered Tools:

1) Select the proper tool for the job. 2) Remove or repair any tool connections with defects. 3) Safety wires all hose connections. 4) Always keep tool under control. 5) Never hammer or beat on tools. 6) Wear proper personal protective equipment. 7) Bleed air off at tool before disconnecting. 8) All pneumatic powered tools should shut off when pressure is released from trigger. 9) Do not squeeze the trigger until the tool is on the work. Do not apply pressure until the tool has gained the desired speed. 10) Watch for pinch points and position your body in case of a tool hang up. 3. Power Actuated Tool: 1) Select the proper tool for the job. 2) Only qualified operators shall use the tool.

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3) Do not use in gaseous or explosive atmosphere. 4) Wear personal protective equipment. Goggles are required. 5) Refer to manufacturers handbook for fastener, charge and operating instructions. 6) Always place fastener in tool before placing charge in the breech of the tool. 7) Always point tool in a safe direction. 8) Always keep tool in clean safe working order. 9) Never leave a loaded tool unattended. 10) Charges that will not fire should be disposed of in water or oil. 11) Never fasten to cast iron, tile, glass or other known brittle materials. 12) Make sure the proper size load is used for the job, so it will not shoot through the material and injure someone on the opposite side. H. COMPRESSED AIR AND EQUIPMENT 1. Compressed air streams shall not be brought into close or direct contact with any part of an employees body because there is a danger of air entering the bloodstream. Do not use compressed air to clean clothing. 2. Check hoses and couplings daily before use. Use only hoses designed to handle compressed air. Air hose and fittings shall be maintained in safe operating conditions. Air hose couplings shall be of the quick disconnect with check valve or safety type with lock pins installed to prevent accidental separation. 3. Never crimp a pressurized hose in order to couple and /or uncouple it. Shut off the valve at the source and bleed sown the hose. 4. Water traps in air lines and tanks should be checked at least daily to prevent the accumulation of water, oil or rust.

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5. Air compressor tanks are to have a relief valve on the tank and have a hand lever for testing the operability of the relief valve. The relief valve is to be situated so that it directs any expelled pressure away from where personnel are apt to be standing or passing. 6. Pressure should be released on air tanks when they are not in use for an extended time. 7. Each compressor is designed to produce a maximum output of pressure. Do not alter the compressor to gain additional pressure output (the maximum manufacturers rating is noted on unit). If a compressor is altered to produce additional pressure it may explode and/or catch fire. Also, do not exceed the maximum working pressure of the system. 8. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed 30 PSI. 9. Never engage in horseplay while using compressed air. 10. A valve should not be installed between the tank/compressor and the relief valve. 11. Rig supervisors and personnel should check the air-pressure relief valve on air vessels at least once annually or as per governing regulatory requirements. 12. Rig personnel should not attempt to redirect new air lines from the vessels without consulting with the Toolpusher to prevent bypassing the pressure relief valve. No valve should be placed between the pressure relief valve and the pressure vessel. 13. Rig supervisory personnel making repairs to air compressors, relief valves, etc. should do so according to the manufacturers specifications and recommendations. 14. Rig personnel should store air hoses in the proper places after use and not leave them lying in walkways or work areas. 15. When air hoses are in use, care should be taken not to drop metal or other sharp objects on the hose that could cause a cut or rupture. 16. Rig personnel using air equipment should wear eye protection. 17. Rig personnel should not use air hoses for hoisting or securing purposes.

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I. EQUIPMENT GUARDS 1. All moving machinery that presents a hazard to employees working in its proximity shall be adequately guarded. 2. Any removed guard will be replaced before the machinery is returned to operation. 3. Lockout and Tagout procedures will be used before removing guards. 4. All discharge piping that cause burns should be insulated or guarded. 5. All portable tools with exposed moving parts should be equipped with proper guards. J. HIGH PRESSURE LINES 1. Crew personnel should learn which lines (steel and rubber) throughout the rig are intended for and/or continually contain high pressure (i.e., air, hydraulic, drilling mud, etc.). 2. Crew personnel should continually observe high-pressure line anchors, clamps, safety chains, etc. to ensure that the fixtures do not vibrate loose. 3. Crew personnel should learn to tell when high pressure lines are under pressure (i.e., by observing pressure gauges, compressors or pumps operating). 4. Crew personnel should not attempt to tighten unions or other connections under pressure. Hammering on lines, unions, etc. while under pressure, should not be allowed. 5. Supervisors should not request a person to tighten a pressurized line before pressure can be relieved. 6. Rig supervision should ensure that blooey or relief lines from the well are securely anchored and pressure tested prior to drilling out of any casing shoe. 7. All personnel should remain clear of high-pressure lines placed across the deck or drill floor during cementing, oxidizing, well testing, etc.

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8. Crew personnel should secure all high-pressure lines placed across the deck or drill floor during cementing head connections during cementing operations. 9. Crew personnel should ensure that sufficient chiksan sections are present fro maximum play in pipe movement during cementing or similar operations. 10. While the pipe is being worked up and down, chiksan sections should be closely observed by all personnel to prevent their getting caught on objects. 11. Periodically and particularly before use, crew personnel should check the rubber seals in each chiksan section to insure a good fit. They should be checked periodically for leaks. 12. Crew personnel should connect each section of chiksan before attempting to carry or store. Each section should be drained prior to storage. 13. At least two persons should be available to manually carry a section of twelve-foot chiksan. 14. To prevent hand and arm injury when lifting chiksan sections with hoists, care should be taken that the sections unfold freely from the floor and do not twist in the air. 15. Crew personnel should grease the chiksan swivel joints on a regular basis to prevent foreign matter from penetrating the bearings and to allow free movement of the swivel. 16. Designated personnel should check the pressure release valves in each high-pressure system regularly to prevent rupture of lines, pumps, or vessels. 17. Rigging of chiksan lines should be such that excessive weight is not placed on any connections. 18. High pressure systems will be fitted with high pressure fittings. During repairs caution should be taken to ensure any replacement fittings are of high pressure type.

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K. MANUAL LIFTING 1. Back Injuries

The majority of back injuries can be prevented by using proper lifting techniques. The biomechanics of lifting show that the worst lifting situation occurs when the body is extended over the load. The lower back becomes a fulcrum supporting the weight of the body plus the load, thereby inviting injury by any movement in that position. The key point to remember is, to BEND YOUR KNEES DO NOT BEN OVER to pick up a load. There are 6 steps to proper lifting techniques: 1) Get a firm footing, 2) Bend your knees do not bend at the waist, 3) Tighten your stomach and abdominal muscles to support your spine, offsetting the force of the load, 4) Lift with your legs do not use your weaker back muscles, 5) Keep the load close to your body, 6) Keep your back upright avoid twisting. MEMORIZE THESE STEPS. Mentally lift the load and know where you are going and the paths you will take. If you need additional help or think you may, notify your supervisor. Do not take a chance with a back injury. The back you save may be your own. Remember: DO NOT LIFT ANYTHING YOU FEEL YOU CAN NOT HANDLE. GET HELP!! 2. Before manually lifting any object, the following methods must be followed. 1) Prior to lifting an object, it should be first determined if one or more persons are required on the lift. 2) Help should be sought on lifting difficult objects that are hard to handle. 3) Since some mud additives come in 100 pounds bags, a forklift truck (if available) or other means should be used to raise a pallet of such bags to a level so that a man can grasp the bags without having to lift them from the ground level. 4) Individual should not attempt to impress fellow workers by lifting and carrying more weight than is required in the course of work.

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5) The majority of lifting around a rig should be done by hoist lines instead of manpower. 6) Avoid manual lift of heavy or awkward objects. Mechanical advantage should be used or request help. 7) When lifting an object with another person, coordinate the lift by using good communication. 8) Check youre footing before lifting or carrying an object. Make sure the area is clear of slip or trip hazards. 9) Proper lifting techniques should be followed when lifting any object. 10) Over-reaching, lifting over shoulder height, or twisting the body should be avoided while lifting or moving an object. 11) Carrying objects up or down stairs or steps with two hands should be avoided. L. WIRE ROPE 1. Wire rope sent to a rig or warehouse should be stored in an area where it is protected from the elements. A thin coat of preservative should be put on the wire. 2. Wire rope should not be thrown or placed on objects where sharp edges can cut into the wraps when stored on a spool. 3. Sections of wire rope that are to be used for tong safety lines, jerk lines, mud hose safety lines, tong weight lines, etc. should be measured for correct length so that excess rope will not snag, whip around or become entangled in surrounding equipment. 4. Wire rope should be visually checked each tour to detect any broken strands, excess wear or weak (core damaged) lines. 5. Wire rope should not be permitted to drag across or around sharp metal edges while being pulled. 6. Wire rope should not be allowed to fall into floor cracks, deck cracks or lodge beneath structural edges because of the possibility of injuring personnel or damaging equipment when a pull is made.

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7. Wire rope reeled onto hoist drums should not be allowed to stack up but should be reeled in smooth layers to prevent damage to the wire and prevent dropping of loads. 8. Wire rope with a dry rusting appearance will often prove to be brittle when bent. Such wire should be discarded. 9. For proper wire rope clip attachment, refer to the table on page 31 of this section. Wire rope eyes should only be made using the following three methods: a) Wire rope clips b) Factory splice c) Pressed steel sleeve 10. For proper wire rope socket application, refer to the manufacturers specifications.

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M.

RIGGING General Safety Rules Lifting with Hoisting Equipment (Dos and Donts)

DOS
DO give safety first consideration in all handling of materials. DO know weight of piece being lifted. DO know capacity of lifting equipment in the method it is to be used. DO familiarize yourself with types of slings available for easiest and safest lifting. DO inspect lifting equipment before and after it is used to make certain it is in good condition. DO report any lifting Equipment that appears to be unsafe. DO remove damaged lifting equipment so it cannot be used to make another lift. DO report all accidents causing damage to lifting equipment, operating equipment and products. DO store lifting equipment in proper racks and places so it does not become damaged. DO have operator refuse to move a load if he is not satisfied with the way the load is attached

DONTS
DONT neglect to put safety first in all material handling. DONT lift a piece without knowing its weight. DONT make a lift without knowing capacity of lifting equipment and the method to be used. DONT try to make one type of sling do everything. DONT take maintenance inspection for granted. DONT leave lifting equipment that appears to be unsafe where someone else can use it. DONT use lifting equipment that is damaged to lift loads lower in capacity than the original rate capacity of the equipment. DONT neglect to report accidents even though you might feel there was no danger. DONT leave lifting equipment at locations where it can be accidentally damaged by bending, cutting or crushing. DONT let anyone over rule the judgment of the operator. Higher authority should be considered.

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Proper Use of Chain and Wire Rope Slings (DOS and DONTS) DOS
DO protect sling from cutting action in making lift by using padding, blocks, or corner protectors. DO avoid tip loading hooks. DO choose a sling one size larger where conditions will subject the sling to severe wear, abrasion, impact, or corrosive conditions. DO select the proper style hook or attachments. DO stand clear while a sling is being drawn from beneath a load. Hooks and slings may catch and suddenly fly free or tip the load. DO when making choker hitches, always face the hook opening out and away from the pull of the sling.

DONTS
DONT subject sling to cutting action by making contact with sharp edges. DONT point load (tip load) standard sling hooks. DONT underestimate the conditions a sling might be subjected to. DONT subject hooks or attachments to a bending action. DONT let the load lay directly on a sling wrapped around a load (lower the load on proper blocking). DONT assume in a choker hitch that the hook is going to stay in place when slack is being taken out of the sling.

Fitting hooks, shackles (DOS and DONTS) DOS


DO check fittings for cracks, nicks, bending, or excessive wear. DO check the hook throat opening to determine if the hook has been point loaded or over locked. DO avoid tip loading hooks.

DONTS
DONT use any fittings that show cracks, nicks, bending or excessive wear. DONT use a hook that appears to have been spread open. Any increase in the hook opening should be reported and hook removed from service. DONT ever points load a standard eye hook or sling hook. (This reduces the safe working load drastically). DONT weld anything to a hook. Do not use any hook that has been welded or burned in any way. Report the condition immediately.

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Shackles DOS
DO make certain the bolt in a screw pin shackle turns easily, and then tighten it. (Use oil on the threads). DO use safety shackles wherever possible. (They are safer). DO use the largest bearing surface possible on the shackle pin. This will reduce the bending movement on the pin.

DONTS
DONT use any screw pin shackle where the bolt is very difficult to turn. (The pin is either bent due to overload or the threads have been damaged). DONT use round pin shackle in preference to safety shackles or screw pin shackles. DONT use too small a bearing surface in the center of shackle pin.

Proper Use of Nylon Webbing Slings (DOS and DONTS) DOS


DO inspect the surface and stitching of the sling for cuts and abrasions. DO use nylon slings in the presence of oils, greases, hydrocarbon and degreasing solutions. DO use nylon slings or wire cloth slings for higher temperature. DO inspect hoist hooks to make certain they are smooth.

DONTS
DONT attempt to inspect nylon fibers of the webbing. This is not necessary because these fibers are protected by the outside fibers, and it may damage the sling. DONT use nylon sling in acid pickling solutions and concentrated alkaline solutions. (Dacron or Polypropylene webbing slings are normally used in these solutions). DONT use nylon slings at temperatures above 250 F. DONT use nylon slings on hoist hooks that are gouged or nicked. (There could be sharp edges that could cut the sling.

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2.

Inspection of Wire Rope

Wire rope inspection should never be routine, casual, or superficial. One of the difficult problems confronting the inspector is deciding just when a wire rope has reached the limit of its safe usage and when it must be discarded. Naturally, it is poor economy to discard and expensive hoisting rope before it is necessary. Likewise, it is dangerous, and may prove even more expensive, to continue its use beyond a certain stage. The following illustrates the major classification of wire rope abuses. The effects and causes are not complete but serve to indicate general areas where most damaging situations exit. EFFECT
Crushed or Bruised a. b. c. d.

CAUSE
Crossover on drums Poor drum winding practices Pinching of rope Penning against equipment

Doglegs and Kinks a. b. c. Jumping sheaves Operating over small diameter sheaves Pulling out loops in line when clack, causing either open or tight kinks Lifting sharp cornered objects without corner protection Bad drum winding Dividers on drums Lack of lubrication Corrosive fluids Atmosphere Momentary compressive fore on rope which pushes strands apart Hitting the fluids in a well at high speed Bending over small sheaves Crushing on drum

d. e. f. Corrosion and Rust a. b. c. a. b. c. d. Excessive Abrasion a. b. c.

Popped Core

Improper reeving Pinching grooves Improper alignment of sheaves

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EFFECT
Presence of Abrasive Material

CAUSE a. Fatigue from excessive bending over small sheaves b. Marten site developed from sliding or striking rope against some object which causes sparking a. Surface wear (creep) b. Collapse of core due to overloading c. Either small sheaves or reverse bends d. Restriction of movement of strands due to pinching gloves e. Vibrations set up by faulty bearings f. Broken sheaves or drums g. Excessive rope speeds h. Corrugated sheaves i. To sudden release of Load Condition starts at some localized area such as dogleg, crushed section, improperly attached end fitting or splices Poor socket design, wrong size wedge used or socket deformed from consistent overloading a. Excessive abrasion b. External or internal corrosion c. Overloading a. Mechanical abuse caused by agents outside the installation or by something abnormal or accidental on the installation itself b. Rope operated with sheaves or drums out of proper alignment

Broken Wires

Bird Caged High Strands

Failure at Socket

Marked Reduction in Diameter

Cut or Sheared Wires

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EFFECT Slide Wear on Rope

CAUSE Sudden application of load to slack rope a. Too rapid acceleration of load b. Jerking c. Impact from sudden stopping the load a. Overloading b. Load allowed to rotate freely

Overstressing

Increase in Lay

3.

APPLYING WIRE ROPE CLIPS

The U-bolts of all clips should always be on the short (dead) end of the rope. Tighten nuts evenly to manufacturers recommended torque. Before lifting, be sure that all clips have been torqued. After lateral lifts, re-torque all clips.

Number and Spacing of U-Bolt Wire Rope Clips ________________________________________________________________________


Number of Clips

Improved plow steel, Rope diameter inches

Drop Forged

Other Material

Minimum Spacing (Inches)

3 4 3 3 4 3- 4 5 4- 4 5 5- 1-0 5 6 6 1- 6 6 6- 1- 6 7 7- 1- 7 7 8- 7 1- 8 9 ________________________________________________________________________

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4. General Precaution for Riggers 1) Know the safe working capacity of all rigging and equipment. Do not exceed this limit. 2) Know the load weight this includes the weight of the rigging. Avoid sudden snatching, swing, or stopping of loads. 3) Inspect all rigging before use and remove any defective equipment from service. 4) When the temperature is below freezing, extreme caution must be exercised to prevent shock loading any rigging. Brittle fracture of the steel can occur at these temperatures. 5) The most frequent killer in rigging is electrocution caused by contacting overhead power lines. Always maintain at least a ten (10) foot safe working distance from any power line. Discontinue operations during thunderstorms. 6) Always keep the load line plumb to maintain a stable load. 7) When using slings: a. Never use kinked or otherwise damaged slings. b. Each sling should be marked with its rated capacity. c. Never sharply bend a sling; it will kink it, permanently weakening it. d. Whenever two or more rope eyes are placed over a hook, use a shackle with the shackle pin resting on the load hook. This will prevent the spread of the sling legs from opening the throat of the hook. 8) Loads must be kept under control at all times. Tag lines should be used to stop spinning or guide the load. 9) Loads must be safely landed and stable before unhooking. Chocks, blocks, or other means must be used to prevent movement of materials while hooking or unhooking. 10) Stay clear of slings when they are being pulled out from under a load. The hook may catch and suddenly fly free. 11) Do not give signals to the operator unless it is an emergency stop or you are the designated signalman.

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12) Always use a double sling when rigging loads like pipe, rebar, or lumber over 12 feet long. 13) Stay out from under suspended loads. 14) Do not swing a load over someone without warning. 15) Keep your hands off suspended loads whenever possible. 5. Rigging Compliance Checklist Safety is a continuing concept, requiring daily attention to every detail. It takes only an instant to become unsafe, and this very instant may cause an accident or injury. The following rigging checklist is an important tool in your daily safety efforts and establishes the minimum requirements to be followed prior to making a lift. All work must be performed in a safe manner. Your safety and the safety of others, depends on YOU. 1) Lifting equipment general condition Inspect all equipment for proper working condition. Check for damaged cables, safety devices, fluid levels, and operator qualifications. 2) Verify load weight know the weight of the load to be lifted. Check vendor drawings or equipment tags for shipping weights. If necessary, estimate weights from material weight charts. 3) Check equipment capacity Calculate motorized equipment capacity from approved load charts. Check equipment tags for rated capacity. 4) All outriggers down and locked Be sure all equipment outrigger are down and locked on mobile cranes. Check for proper outrigger matting when required. 5) All safety latches and guards in place Inspect safety latches for proper operation. Be sure all guards are in place. 6) Shackle capacity Verify shackle size, which is imprinted on the side of the shackle. Use you shackle chart to determine adequate safe load capacity. 7) Rig load for proper balance Calculate load center of gravity. When in doubt, use multiple sling rigging. 8) Position load line over load center Load line position should be such that load cannot swing into personnel or equipment.

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9) Secure the load from swing free When lifting a load free from a previously anchored position, such as cutting out piping that has been in service, removing equipment from foundations, or dismantling structural members, attach a security device such as a come-a-long, chainfall, or rope. 10) Plan the sequence of the work Have your lift planned, including the swing path and laydown area. Review this work sequence with your flagman, operator, and tag line personnel. Make sure all concerned fully understand the sequence of events prior to making the lift. 11) Be sure to maintain at least a 10 foot clearance from any electric service lines. N. HANDLING DRILLING MUDS, CHEMICALS AND TOXIC SUBSTANCES 1. Personal protective equipment must be worn when handling and mixing drilling mud and associated chemical additives. At a minimum, a dust mask and goggles will be worn when mixing basic drilling mud such as barite and gel. When mixing any highly active chemical additives such as caustic, calcium chloride, etc., rubber gloves, a rubber apron and a face shield will also be worn. For respiratory protection refer to personal protective section in this manual. 2. If you ever have any question about the mud or associated chemicals you are handling you should consult the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the chemical(s) you are using. The data sheets include current information and recommendations relative to the handling, storage and utilization of drilling mud and chemicals. The data sheets also contain information relative to necessary use of personal protective equipment, toxicity data and any other hazards associated with the material. It is the employees responsibility to consult these data books if they have any questions about the materials they are handling. The material Safety Data Sheets are provided by the manufacturer. 3. Avoid breathing dusts, vapors and fumes of drilling mud and chemical additives. If any mud or chemicals are spilled on your skin or clothes, wash the chemicals off you skin and remove your clothes as soon as possible because some drilling mud chemicals are toxic and hazardous to you health. 4. Employees involved in operations that require the handling of chemicals must know where eyewash stations are located.

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5. All mud and chemical additive containers must be kept sealed and must be plainly marked. Empty containers must be disposed of in a manner that will not create a hazard to people or the environment. 6. Some drilling mud and chemicals commonly found on drilling locations and their associated hazards are as follows: Gel and barite Breathing in a large amount over a long period of time could cause silicosis or other respiratory problems. May cause serious burns to skin, eyes, nose membranes and lungs. Chromate is absorbed through the skin and will cause heavy metal poisoning just like lead or arsenic.

Caustic, lime, soda ash, Calcium chloride, chlorine Chromate and chrome thinners (Bichromate, Dichromate and thinner like Spersene, Uncial or QBroxin) Polymers and Asbestos Viscosifiers (Flosal, Visbestos, etc.)

Most of these products are prepared so as to eliminate all risks but breathing large amounts might cause respiratory problems.

7.

When missing caustic or any other highly active chemical, always remember this Mix the most active chemical (the caustic) into the least active chemical (the water is poured into the caustic, violent reactions, even an explosion, can occur. NEVER mix caustic in the hopper. Avoid adding any other chemicals along with caustic.

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O.

CHAIN HOISTS, COMEALONG, JACKS 1. CHAIN HOISTS 1) Use the correct size chain hoist for the weight to be lifted. Chain hoists must be legibly marked with the capacity in tons. 2) One man should be able to pull the chain with ease. If not, use a larger china hoist. 3) Loads must not be left suspended for any length of time without using a watchman or taking the necessary precautions to insure against the load being dropped. 4) Load chains must not be wrapped around the load for lifting. Use slings. 5) Do not use a shackle to connect two or more parts of cable. 6) Always put the load in center of the hook NEVER ON THE POINT. (The hook is designed for load weight in the center; using the point to carry the load throws a stress on it for which it was not designed). 7) Inspect chain hoists periodically. Dont oil clutches. Grease and measure chain length as often as use warrants. No cold shuts are to be used to repair chains, if a chain is worn or broken replace the chain. 2. COMEALONG 1) Rig carefully! Keep the hoist chain straight. 2) Dont use cheaters on hoist handles. 3) Dont overload, stay within rated limit. 4) Load hook properly and inspect for open hooks. 5) Dont throw or drop them. 6) Dont use the hoist chain as a sling or choker. 7) Never let the hoist chain gouge the side of the frame keep it aligned with the work.

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8) Bending the hoist chain while it is under stress is prohibited. 9) Make sure of your footing before pulling on the handle in order to avoid slips, falls and strains. 10) Visually inspect for defects prior to each use. 3. USE OF JACKS 1) All jacks should have a rating stamped on them. Make sure when using a jack that it has a rating sufficient to lift and sustain the load. 2) Jacking metal against metal is not recommended. Use wood softeners whenever possible to prevent slipping. 3) Use proper handles for jacks and remove handles form the jack when they are not being used. Jack handles are to be used with the hands only never stand on a jack handle to get additional force. 4) Never leave a jack under a load without having the load blocked up. 5) Care must be exercised to ensure that jacks are properly positioned and the load raised uniformly. This procedure will reduce the tendency of the load to shift unexpectedly.

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P.

CHAINS (SPINNING/ JERK/ DRIVE/ BINDING)

Toolpusher should instruct personnel in the proper use and maintenance of the spinning chains. 1. SPINNING CHAINS 1) The Driller and spinning chain operator should examine the spinning chain before use on each tour to determine the condition of the chain. The spinning chain should not be used when links become stretched out of original design or show excessive wear. 2) After having been shown the correct method, the spinning chain operator should ensure each new spinning chain is properly spaced and connected to the jerk chain. 3) The spinning- chain operator should check the wedge-lock link (connector for the spinning and jerk chains) regularly to ensure the connector remains in good condition and does not work loose. 4) The spinning-chain operator should not permit anyone to connect the jerk and spinning chain by any means other than wedge-lock link. Cold shots, shackles, welding, etc. Are not to be permitted. 5) To ensure a solid connection of the wedge lock, the spinning chain operator should use a new lock each time the spinning chain is replaced. Once the wedge lock is inserted, the link should be placed upside down on a sledge hammer and the wedge tips braded with a ball peen hammer. Eye protection must be used. 6) The spinning-chain operator should keep an eight to twelve inch long tail rope on the spinning chain. The tail rope should not be knotted on the end as it could become lodged in a floor crack and injure someone during pipe makeups. The tail rope should be platted and wrapped on the end with friction tape. 7) The spinning-chain operator should be trained in the correct method of throwing the chain before being permitted to do so alone. 8) The Driller should be alert each time the chain is thrown and not pull the chain any faster than the experience of the chain operator allows.

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9) The spinning-chain operator should throw the chain with the left hand and not chance catching the right palm in the spinning wraps. The left hand fingers will not be caught in the bite of the chain as readily as the palm of the right hand. 10) The spinning-chain operator should coil the chain at the base of the draw works when not engaged in tripping pipe or making connections. When connections are anticipated, the chain should be placed on the drill pipe tong hook provided for that purpose. 11) The Driller should ensure the chain trough or roller guide is secure at all times and free of cracks or sharp edges to prevent the jerk and spinning chain from catching and causing damage. 12) The Driller should not permit anyone to tie onto an object with the spinning chain for the purpose of pulling. 13) The Driller should not pull the spinning chain when a person is in line with the chain and can be struck. 14) Each Floorman should remain alert and not position himself where he can be struck by the moving spinning chain. 15) The spinning-chain operator should always wear good hand protection (gloves) while attempting to operate the chain. 16) As a joint or stand of pipe is made up by the spinning chain, the chain operator should continue holding the coiled chain with his hands wrapped around the chain and tail. Should the chain get loose, it could cause injury to the operator or others working around the rotary table. 17) To prevent hand injury, the Driller should give the chain operator time to place wraps on the tool joint before lowering the stand of pipe to be stabbed. 18) The chain operator should learn to throw the chain up unto the shoulder of the joint or stand of pipe to be spun to prevent breaking the chain when it catches in the tool joint crack. This situation could also cause injury. 19) Should anyone on the rig floor detect that the tail rope or the spinning chain has lodged in a floor crack prior to the Driller engaging the cathead; every attempt should be made to alert the Driller and the chain operator so corrections can be made.

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20) Only manufactured spinning chains can be used as spinning chain. 21) Do not attempt to throw the spinning chain around heavy weight and drill collars; manually wrap the chain around the heavy weight drill collar or use chain tongs. 2. JERK CHAINS Supervisors should instruct personnel in the proper use and maintenance of jerk chains. 1) Each Floorman should make sure the jerk chain is secured in the cathead with the appropriate chain-connecting attachments instead of make-shift devices. 2) Each Floorman should examine the jerk chain each tour to ensure the chain is in good condition and not stretched or worn to the point that it could break under tension. 3) The Rig Mechanic should check the pressure regulators in the cathead periodically to insure the foot-pound pull does not exceed the breaking strength of the jerk chain. 4) The Floorman should check each guard and/ or headache post around the Drillers console on each tour to ensure each is constructively sound. 5) The Floorman should observe the position of the jerk chain on the rig floor before each pull to make certain it is not in a floor crack, around slip handles, or around a piece of equipment. 6) The Driller should remain alert to the possibility of a Floorman straddling or getting too close to the jerk chain while the chain is in operation. The cathead should be stopped and the endangered man informed of the potential hazard. 7) Only manufactured jerk chains may be used as jerk chains.

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DRIVE CHAINS Supervisors should instruct personnel in the proper use and maintenance of drive chains. 1) Rig personnel servicing or working on chain-driven equipment should not place their hands on or physically go inside a compartment where chains are moving. The equipment should first be stopped and the power locked out. 2) Crew personnel should ensure that each guard or inspection cover to the drive chains remain closed to eliminate flying chain fragments should a breakage occur. 3) Personnel working on broken drive chains should use proper equipment such as chain tensioners for fitting chains back together. 4) Personnel removing drive chains from sprockets should devise a method of holding back excessive chain as it is being removed to prevent it from building up momentum and going out of control no one should stand in the direct line of movement of such a chain. 5) Due to the weight of the chain, more than one person should e available to place heavy drive chains on sprockets to prevent mashing of fingers or hands in the process. 6) Most drive chains are packaged by the manufacturer in containers or rolls too heavy for one person to lift. Rig personnel should get help or use lifting equipment when handling such chains. 7) Drive-chain assembly most often requires a drive and backup hammer to remove or place a master link in a chain. Due to the close work involved, the person swinging the hammer as well as all parties in the immediate vicinity should use eye protection. 8) Most drive chain links are held together with keys. Personnel should be aware of cotter key edges which can cut their hands or fingers. Good communications is a must when two or more people are coordinating this job.

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BINDER CHAINS AND BINDERS Toolpusher should instruct personnel in the proper use and maintenance of binder chains and binders. 1) The primary function of the binder chain and binder is to secure objects so they do not move or shift. Rig supervisors should ensure that binding equipment is of sufficient strength for the required 2) Rig personnel working with binder chains should ensure the anchor end of the chain is secured to a solid object. This can be pad eyes, anchor couplings, structural members, etc. 3) Depending on the size, length or shift aspect of the load that is to be bound, the appropriate number of chains to be used should be predetermined. 4) Personnel working with binder chains should see that they are properly stored when not in use, so they will not be left lying in walkways or work areas and can be found when needed. 5) Toolpusher should check all chains periodically to see they remain in satisfactory condition. Chain links should not be stretched or fatigued. 6) Personnel should stand to the side of chain binders or handles when releasing them. 7) Personnel closing a binder should not attempt too great a bite so that over-length cheater bars will be required to close the binder. An individual should not swing on the binder handle and cheater to close the binder. 8) If cables are used instead of binder chains the same procedures should apply.

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ACCIDENT PREVENTION SIGNS AND/ OR MARKINGS PURPOSE: To ensure the safety of all employees by alerting them to possible hazards. GENERAL: Rig work is a demanding occupation. Rig personnel can become preoccupied with their duties during a work tour. Safety signs are, therefore, posted in selected areas to remind employees and to inform visitors of conditions around a drilling rig. The company is concerned with the health and welfare of each employee and visitor. All persons on a drilling rig are expected to observe and comply with all warning and caution signs. When working in a Foreign Country these signs should be duplicated in that language. 1. Accident Prevention Signs The following signs will be posted: There are six basic accident prevention sign formats that are recognized internationally in industry, particularly the drilling industry. They are as follow:

1) DANGER SIGNS are used only where IMMEDIATE HAZARDS EXIST 2) FIRE EXTINGUISHER locations signs are to be located in a manner that will readily allow a person to recognize the location of a fire extinguisher. 3) CAUTION SIGN are to be used ONLY TO WARN AGAINST POTENTIAL HAZARDS OR TO CAUTION AGAINST UNSAFE PRACTICES 4) INFORMATION SIGNS are to be used to CONVEY INFORMATION not necessarily of a safety nature, but to avoid confusion and misunderstanding 5) SAFETY INSTRUCION SIGNS are to be used for GENERAL INSTRUCTION RELATIVE TO SAFETY MEASURES 6) EXIT SIGNS EXIT signs are required in all enclosed areas to eliminate even the slightest possibility of confusion of even the most unfamiliar employee or service person seeking immediate egress.

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Accident Prevention Sign Placement 1. Stairs to Rig Floor 1) DANGER NO SMOKING one at each stairway base. 2) CAUTION HARD HAT AREA one at each stairway base. 3) 2. CAUTION EYE PROTECTION REQUIRED

Rig Floor Doghouse 1) DANGER NO SMOKING one on inside wall

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Change House 1) NOTICE SAFETY HARNESS REQUIRED WHEN WORKING 6 FEET ABOVE THE DECK OR RIG FLOOR 2) EXIT One at each Exit Door

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Mud Pits 1) DANGER NOT SMOKING one at each end of mud pit system

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Mud Hopper 1) CAUTION CORROSIVE MATERIAL eye, face, body protection and respirator required 2) CAUTION DUST MASK REQUIRED WHEN MISING MUD

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Tool House 1) CAUTION EYE PROTECTION REQUIRED WHEN CHIPPING, GRINDING, POURING ROPE SOCKETS, OR USING A HAMMER WHILE CUTTING OR DRIVING EXIT one at each exit door

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Diesel Fuel Tanks 4 Sides 1) DANGER DIESEL FUEL, NO SMOKING 2) FLAMABLE 3) 1993 DOT diamond decal

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Engine Room 1) CAUTION HEARING PROTECTION REQUIRED stairs to engine compound area. 2) DANGER HIGH VOLTAGE electrical panels on stairs to engine compound area 3) CAUTION SHUT OFF POWER BEFORE WORKING ON EQUIPMENT

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Generator Rooms 1) DANGER HIGH VOLTAGE one on each entrance door 2) Caution HEARING PROTECTION REQUIRED one on each entrance door 3) CAUTION DO NOT USE WATER HOSE AROUND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

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Generator Rooms 1) DANGER HIGH VOLTAGE one on each panel

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Fire Extinguisher Location 1) FIRE EXTINGUISHER locations should be identified by a bright red background. One over each fire extinguisher.

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Stretcher 1) STRETCHER one over each stretcher location

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Bench Grinder 1) CAUTION EYE PROTECTION REQUIRED one at each bench grinder

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Rig Floor

1) DANGER NO SMOKING one on each side of drill floor 2) CAUTION EYE PROTECTION REQUIRED WHEN CHIPPING, GRINDING, OR CUTTING OR DRIVING WITH A HAMMER 3) DANGER High VOLTAGE on Driller console if controls are electric 4) DANGER HARD HAT AREA one on each side of rig floor 5) CAUTION SFETY BELT REQUIRED WHEN WORKING SIX FEET OR MORE ABOVE THE DECK OR RIG FLOOR one sign at derrick ladder six feet above floor 6) CLIMBING ASSIST ASSEMPLY MUST BE USED WHEN CLIMBING THE LADDER 15. Mud Pump Area 1) CAUTION SHUT OFF POWER BEFORE WORKING ON EQUIPMENT conspicuously located 16. Monkey Board 1) CAUTION safety belt required while working more than 6 feet above rig floor 2) DANGER NO SMOKING 17. General Signs 1) DANGER THIS EQUIPMENT MAY START AUTOMATICALLY 2) EXIT IN LIVING QUARTERS 3) WHEN LIGHT FLASHES AREA IS GASIFIED 4) DANGER DO NOT USE RADIO TRANSMITTERS WHEN EXPLOSIVES ARE OUTSIDE PROPER STORAGE OF ARE BEING USED 5) CAUTION WATCH YOUR STEP

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6) CAUTION WATCH YOUR HEAD 7) CAUTION WET FLOOR 8) HARD HAT, SAFETY GLASSES AND STEEL TOE BOOTS REQUIRED IN THIS AREA R. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT GENERAL: Personal protective equipment is vital to your safety. The protective equipment should be properly cleaned, inspected after use, and stored properly. Any equipment that no longer provides adequate protection should be repaired, replaced or destroyed. 1. Eye Protection The Company requires that every crew member wear either safety glasses with side-shields or goggles at all times while in the work area. Each rig employee will be furnished a pair of safety glasses and goggles when needed. It is the employees responsibility to wear eye protection under the following conditions and work tasks:

1) When in the work area, all personnel must wear, at minimum, safety glasses with side-shields. 2) Safety goggles must be worn when chipping, scraping, buffing, grinding, hammering, or when engaged in any activity involving hazards to the eye by flying or falling particles or objects. 3) Safety goggles must be worn while working in the area where a sandblasting operation is being performed. 4) Crew members will wear safety goggles when operating a wire line unit. 5) Floorman or other crew members will wear safety goggles ehn moving chemicals. 6) When changing tong dies, crew members must, at minimum, wear safety goggles. For further protection, we suggest using a full face shield.

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7) Splash-proof chemical goggles must be worn when handling hazardous chemical liquids, powders, or vapors. Examples include: 8) Electric arc welding requires the use of welding helmets fitted with shaded lenses. Welders helpers must also wear shaded lenses. 9) An approved cover-glass, impact-type safety goggle for use over corrective glasses may be worn by visitors and third party employees. 10) To ensure maximum protection and comfort, eye protection should be adjusted properly to the face. 11) Various antifogging compounds for lenses and respiratory face masks are available and should be used to maintain clear vision when conditions are conducive to fogging. 12) Employees are not allowed to wear contact lenses while working on rigs. 2. Clothing and Shoes 1) Loose and dangling clothing should not be worn around moving machinery. Each rig worker is required to own and wear sturdy shoes with built-in steel toe caps which meet American Standard Institute Z41.1 STANDARD. Change out o foil-soaked or water-soaked clothing as soon as reasonably possible. Proper shirts should be worn when working. Tank shirts, muscle shirts or sleeveless shirts are not allowed while working on the rig.

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Gloves 1) Wear proper gloves in any work that subjects the hands to possible pinches, burns, blister, bruises, scratches or abrasions. Only a welder, an electrician and an employee missing chemicals should ever wear gloves with gauntlets. Anyone elses gloves are to be short and snug at the wrist.

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Hard Hats 1) Hard Hats must be worn by everyone while in the work area. This provides protection from impact and penetration from falling and flying objects. All personnel must wear Plastic Hard hats that meet the requirements of ANSI Z 89.1-1981, class A & B. Aluminum Hard Hats do not meet the dielectric requirements as stipulated above and shall not be worn by personnel while on Company owned, leased, or rented facilities. Hard Hats shall not be altered in any way that could reduce dielectric or impact qualities. This includes drilling of any holes, carving, etching or painting. The hat suspension system must be maintained and replaced as needed. The suspension bands inside the hat must be adjusted so that the hat shell does not touch the employees head. Test and adjust the hat in such a manner at least once a month, otherwise the hat may got give the protection which it could give, and which the employee needs. Suspension must always be intact. Hard hats will require a chin strap when employees are climbing, working in high wind, or working any other way that would make the hat likely to fall off. Wear a hat liner under your Hard Hat when working in severely cold weather. Several different kinds of liners are available for different needs and preferences.

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Safety Harness and Lines 1) When working six feet or more above a ground a floor, safety harnesses and lines must be worn. An approved safety harness should be worn at all times by personnel working in the derrick. Safety harness should have a wide belt with two front or lateral D rings for the primary safety line(s) and shoulder straps with a D ring for the secondary safety line.

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A waist high belt is to be strung parallel to and over the working edge of any stabbing board or fixed platform aloft when such board or platform is in use. The belting, its fasteners, and supports are to be amply strong enough to hold back anyone who might lean his weight against the belt. All safety belts and lanyards shall be tagged or stenciled to indicate the date they are put into service. One year form that date, the safety belts will be taken out of service and destroyed. This includes the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. Safety Belts (waist type) Body Harnesses Derrickman Harnesses Riding Belts

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It is the users responsibility to be alert for (and report to his Supervisor) any defect in his safety belt and line or their fasteners. All Safety belts shall be inspected prior to their use by the user. It is the Supervisors responsibility to see that any defective safety belt, line, or fastener is repaired, replaced or destroyed before further use. When attaching the lanyard at the work station, the employee should always tie it off at or above his eye level when possible. All Fall Protection must conform to ANSI standards.

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Respirators: 1) Each operating rig is to have at least two (2) respirators and four (4) spare cartridges of the organic vapor type. This device covers the nose and mouth, and has a replaceable filter disc which keeps the wearer from breathing dust, spray particles or organic vapors floating in the air. These respirators are not gas masks and give no protection against poisonous gases or oxygen deficiencies. A dust filtering respirator is to be worn by any employee handling dry cement, handling dry chemical, or doing any other work where the air is laden with dry particles.

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Self-contained Breathing Apparatus: 1) The self-contained Pressure-Demand AIR-PAK is designed to provide maximum mobility and approximately 30 minutes of breathable air to personnel. The apparatus provides using personnel with maximum respiratory protection while performing work in objectionable and toxic atmospheres regardless of concentration or oxygen deficiency. The breathing regulator is equipped with a Pak-Alarm which will warn the user of diminishing air supply by ringing and vibrating, thus allowing sufficient time for egress from the hazardous area. The duration of the apparatus will depend on such factors as: 1. 2. 3. The degree of the physical activity of the user The physical condition of the user The degree to which the users breathing is affected by excitement, fear or other emotional factors The degree of training or experience which the user has had with this or similar equipment Whether or not the cylinder is fully charged at the start of the work period

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Preparation for Use 1) Check cylinder pressure gauge for FULL indication. If indicated cylinder pressure is below FULL, recharge cylinder or replace with a fully charged cylinder. Check that regulator by-pass valve (red knob) is closed (full clockwise), regulator shut-off valve (yellow knob) is open (full counterclockwise) and control level is in OFF position. Do not use tools to open or close the by-pass and shut-off valves, close or open finger tight. Open cylinder valve knob 1- turns. The cylinder gauge and the regulator gauge should indicate the same pressure.

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Connect quick connect coupling to the regulator and breathe from the face piece to ensure proper operation. Check for positive pressure operation by placing the control lever in the ON position. A positive pressure should be sensed in the face piece. Return control lever to OFF position. Disconnect quick connect coupling from the regulator. Push in and rotate the cylinder valve knob clockwise to close the valve. Release residual air pressure by gradually opening the bypass valve (red knob); Pak-Alarm will ring momentarily. After residual air is purged, close by-pass valve.

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Normal Operation 1) Open the carrying case lid, remove the face piece and place on corner of the open lid, exercising care not to scratch the lens. Check cylinder gauge for FULL indication. Stand to the right of the opened case, lean forward and grasp both edges of the back plate just above waist belt area. Swing the apparatus straight up and over the head, keeping your elbow close to your body. Rest the apparatus on your back while still slightly bent over. The shoulder straps will slide along arms and fall into place on shoulders. Connect the chest buckle; then while straightening up pull down on the side straps to adjust the harness to body fit. Connect and adjust the waist belt. Check that control lever is in OFF position. Open the cylinder valve knob 1- turns and don the face piece as follow: 1. 2. Adjust the head straps to a full outward position Hold the head harness out of the way with one hand or back over the lens Place the face piece on the face with chin properly located in the chin pocket

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Pull the head harness over the head and tighten the neck straps by pulling on the two appropriate tabs Stroke the head harness down to the back, using one or both hands Tighten the two temple straps Retighten neck straps, if required In most cases, the top head strap will be tight on the FULL OUT position Check the seal by closing off the breathing tube with your hand and slowly inhale. No leakage should be detected and the face piece should be drawn onto the face

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Connect the breathing tube on the regulator at the quick connect coupling when ready to enter the contaminated area; tighten finger tight. Place regulator control lever in the ON position for positive pressure operation. Check the regulator pressure gauge occasionally for remaining air supply, to allow sufficient time for egress from the contaminated area. Respirators shall not be used when conditions, such as a beard, side burns or glasses prevent a good face seal. After use and when in a safe area, place control lever in OFF Position, uncouple the face piece, push in and rotate the cylinder valve knob clockwise to close the valve. Bleed the residual system pressure by momentarily opening the by-pass valve (red knob).

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Emergency Operation 1) Should the regulator become damaged or inoperative during use, proceed as follows: 1. Open the by-pass valve (red knob) to allow an acceptable flow Depress the locking tab under the regulator shut-off valve (yellow knob) and turn the valve off (full clockwise)

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Adjust the by-pass valve to suite the requirement of the user Tag and remove the apparatus for repair

4. 11.

Cylinder Replacement Procedure 1) Place the control lever in the OFF position, then push in and rotate the cylinder valve knob clockwise to close the valve Bleed residual system pressure by momentarily opening by-pass valve (red knob) Uncouple regulator hose coupling from the cylinder valve Pull the cylinder clamping level down to release the cylinder and valve assembly from the backplate Lift the cylinder and valve assembly out of the backplate and replace with a fully charged cylinder and valve assembly. Start at the top of the backplate and lower until properly positioned. Raise and push cylinder clamping lever up to secure the cylinder and valve assembly Attach and tighten the regulator hose coupling to the cylinder valve; open the cylinder valve The apparatus is ready for re-use

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Stand-by Inspection, Cleaning and Storage 1. Prepare the apparatus for storage and clean after each use as follow: 1) Inspect the equipment for worn or aging rubber parts or damaged components. If in good condition, carefully wash facepiece assembly with warm soap or detergent solution and thoroughly rinse in clean water. Rinse the facepiece by flushing water through the breathing tube and letting it flow out through opening onto lens.

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Disinfect the facepiece by sponging it with a 70% solution of ethyl, methyl, or isopropyl alcohol, a quaternary ammonium solution or a hypochlorite solution Rinse and allow to completely air dry Damp-sponge dirt accumulations from the rest of the equipment Replace the apparatus in the carrying case, making sure all components are thoroughly dry, and that control level is in OFF position

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S.

HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S) 1. GENERAL Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) or sour gas is a poisonous, flammable gas which is frequently encountered in petroleum drilling. Its presence in relatively low concentrations can quickly cause unconsciousness and death. It is essential that all personnel be aware of its hazards and be instructed in the proper safety procedures in order to avoid its effects. The best line of defense against H2S that all employees should know: 1) H2S is generally recognized by its characteristic foul odor, resembling rotten eggs. However, a high concentration of the gas instantly paralyses the sense of smell and prolonged exposure to low concentrations has the same effect. Therefore, the sense of smell is an unreliable way of detecting and monitoring the presence of H2S. Hydrogen sulfide is heavier than air. This makes it especially dangerous, as this property causes the gas to accumulate in low or enclosed areas. H2S forms an explosive mixture in air or oxygen within the range of 4.3 to 46 percent by volume; thus, the gas presents both a toxic and fire hazard to the rig at the same time. H2S is water-soluble, has a boiling point of 76 degrees F., and an ignition temperature of 500 degrees F. H2S irritates the eyes and respiratory system. When high concentrations are present, death caused by lung paralysis can occur in a very short time.

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Physical Effects of H2S 1) How H2S Affects Individuals: When a person breathes in H2S it goes directly through the lungs and into the bloodstream. To protect itself, the body oxidizes (breaks down) the H2S as rapidly as possible into a harmless compound. If the individual breaths in so much H2S that the body can not oxidize all of it, the H2S builds up in the blood and the individual becomes poisoned. The nerve centers in the brain, which control breathing, are paralyzed. The lungs stop working and the person is asphyxiated. 2) The effects of H2S on an individual depend on the following factors: 1. Duration: The length of time the individual is exposed to H2S

2. Frequency: How often the individual has been exposed to H2S 3. Individual Susceptibility: the individuals physiological make-up

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Physical effects of H2S at various concentrations: Various concentrations of H2S have different physical effects of H2S at various concentrations. 10 ppm = 1/1000 of 1% 100 ppm = 1/100 of 1% Can smell. Safe for 8 Hours Exposure Kills Smell in 3 to 15 minutes. May sting eyes and throat. Kills Smell Quickly. Stings Eyes and Throat Loss of sense of reasoning and balance. Respiratory paralysis in 30 to 45 minutes. Needs prompt artificial resuscitation will become unconscious quickly (15 min. maximum)

200 ppm = 2/100 of 1%

5 ppm = 5/100 of 1%

700 ppm = 7/100 of 1%

Breathing will stop and death result. If not rescued promptly immediate artificial resuscitation

1,000 ppm = 1/10 of 1%

Unconscious at Once PERMANENT BRAIN DAMAGE MAY RESULT UNLESS RESCUED PROMPTLY

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There are no pharmaceutical antidotes for H2S poisoning, if a person is overcome by H2S, rescuers using proper breathing equipment should move the victim to a safe area up wind from the contamination. Since H2S deprives the victim of oxygen, it will be necessary to supply fresh, uncontaminated air to the victim. When the victim recovers, he should be observed and immediately transferred to a medical facility for professional attention.

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Pre-Well Planning Safety in hydrogen sulfide environment depends on being fully prepared for an H2S encounter BEFORE it occurs. This involves having a sound contingency plan and ensuring that all personnel are adequately trained in the areas of H2S detection, control, use of personal protection equipment and first aid as applies to H2S. A good H2S contingency plan consists of three parts: 1) H2S Detection: Detection equipment must be effectively placed and properly maintained, and checked at least once every tour Protection: a. b. c. 3) Planned protective measures to implemented

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dont self-contained breathing apparatus secure the well move personnel to assembly points

Evacuation: Planned evacuation procedures for evacuation of nonessential personnel, and all personnel (if the rig crew is unable to control the well)

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Precautionary Measures 1) The drilling rig layout should be planned so that prevailing winds blow any gas away from occupied work and living areas. Breathing apparatus and other safety gear should be positioned up wind of the well bore and should be capable of being relocated in case of shifts in wind direction. There should be several designated assembly areas strategically located so that one will always be up wind. Wind socks or flags should be installed in several visible locations, enabling all personnel to determine wind direction in the event of H2S release. They should be illuminated at night. All electric wiring, devices and lights should be explosion-proof to reduce the possibility of explosion. Any heaters used must be of the flameproof type. All special equipment, such as flare ignition devices, H2S detector devices and breathing equipment must be carefully maintained in operating condition at all times.

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Where H2S is known to be present, H2S drills will be conducted until all parties are satisfied that everyone is properly trained. Once this readiness is achieved, but in no case shall they be held less than once a month in possible H2S areas. The rig should be equipped with an H2S detection system, with sensors located in areas where H2S is most likely to accumulate, such as the shaker pits, the mud pits and the rig floor, the detection system should activate a visual alarm light if H2S concentration reaches 10 ppm, and an audible alarm should sound when H2S concentration reaches 20 ppm.

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Emergency Measures The following are procedures to follow when the presence of H2S is known or suspected: 1) The well should be shut in and all personnel moved out of all low areas. If available, all personnel will don breathing apparatus units. Tests should be made immediately using the portable toxic gas detector to verify the presence and concentration of the gas. Personnel should watch out for each other. Where possible, they should work in pairs. All electrical and flame producing equipment should be turned off. If the presence of a potentially dangerous concentration of H2S is confirmed, all personnel should move to a high, ventilated location, upwind of the well. If the drill crew is unable to control the well, all personnel are to be evacuated. If a man has been overcome, no one should attempt to rescue him without a breathing apparatus; otherwise, the rescuer may also become a victim. Never enter an enclosed place where H2S may have accumulated without wearing proper respiratory protective equipment. If the worker is over an arms length away, a safety belt should be secured to a life line and held by a responsible person who is in the clear. The base office and nearby medical facilities should be notified and standing by.

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Breathing Apparatus 1) When working in an H2S environment, the possibility of exposure to this highly toxic gas always exists. In the event a release of H2S does occur, a safe air breathing apparatus will be required. Then using personal protective equipment, personnel should be properly trained and know thoroughly the capability of the protective equipment they will use in the event of an emergency. There are two types of recommended breathing apparatus suitable for use in an H2S environment. They are: A. B. 3) Hoseline/ Emergency Escape Unit Self- contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)

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Hoseline/ Emergency Escape Unit: 1. The hoseline/ emergency escape unit provides instant emergency respiratory protection for anyone suddenly exposed to an atmosphere immediately dangerous to life or health. This lightweight, compact unit can be used as a self-contained air supply unit, or as a working unit when connected by an air line to a larger capacity, safe air supply. This unit, when used as a self-contained air supply unit, has a 5 minute rated duration, and should be used for emergency egress only. When the unit is connected to and operating from an external air supply, the versatility of the unit is greater. The unit now becomes a work unit, allowing personnel to enter hazardous areas for a longer period of time. The hoseline system is designed to operate with an inlet supply of 60 to 125 PSI, with hoseline lengths between 10 to 250 feet. Some models are available with a life-sustaining break away hose coupling which releases with a 100 lb. pull. This enables the user to move rapidly toward the nearest exit in the even of imminent danger.

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Self-Contained Air Breathing Apparatus (SCBA): 1) A second type of breathing apparatus suitable for use in an H2S environment is a self-contained air breathing apparatus (SCBA). A pressure-demand type of SCBA should be used in an atmosphere immediately hazardous to life or health. This unit utilizes an advanced design regulator combined with a special exhalation valve to maintain positive back pressure in the facepiece at all times, and to supply air on demand. The special exhalation valve is designed to open only when the pressure exceeds the valve setting. Because of the positive pressure, any leakage is outward rather than inward, providing better protection the user. One type of pressure demand SCBA is the 30 minute backpack, as it is frequently called, which is designed to provide a 30 minute duration of safe breathing air when fully charged. The apparatus provides the user with respiratory protection while performing work or rescue in hazardous environments. The unit is equipped with an alarm which warns the user of diminishing air supply thus allowing sufficient time for egress from the hazardous areas.

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Problems in Respirator Use: Special problems are sometimes encountered when wearing a SCBA. These problems are: 1) FACIAL HAIR. Facial hair laying between the sealing surface of the respirator facepiece and the wearers skin can prevent an effective seal. Even one days growth of stubble can permit excessive contaminant penetration. CONTACT LENSES. Contact lenses are a definite hazard and should not be worn while wearing a respirator in a contaminated atmosphere. Policy dictates that contact lenses should not be worn on a rig. CORRECTIVE SPECTACLES. Corrective spectacles with temple bars or straps that interfere with the respirator face seal should not be used because they will permit excessive contaminant penetration. PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTURBANCES. Psychological disturbances, such as claustrophobia, are a definite hazard to the wearer of a respirator.

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DISCOMFORT. An employee wearing a SCBA is going to be subject to some discomfort because breathing is more difficult, sight is somewhat restricted, and employee movement and voice communication may be restricted or lacking. Only through training and familiarization drills can most of these discomforts be reduced to a minimum.

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First Aid for Hydrogen Sulfide The severity and swiftness of the effects of H2S poisoning require IMMEDIATE first aid for H2S victims following these procedures: 1) 2) 3) Remove victim immediately to a fresh air zone. Maintain victim at rest and administer oxygen if available. If patient is not breathing, begin artificial respiration immediately. Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation should be administered until an automatic resuscitation unit is available. Resuscitation of the victim should continue until either the victim begins breathing on his own, or until medical help arrives. Keep patient warm. When breathing is restored, give patient stimulants such as tea or coffee, but DO NOT leave patient unattended. If eyes are affected, wash thoroughly with clear water (for slight eye irritation); cold compresses will help. Patients should be kept under medical observation until the doctor declares them fit to return to work. If a victim is removed to fresh air and normal respiration is restored, rapid recovery may be expected. In cases of slight or minor exposure where the worker has not been totally unconscious and wants to return to work after a short rest period, duty should be postponed until the following day. Reflexes may not have returned to normal and the person should be subject to injury from other work hazards.

4) 5)

6)

7)

8)

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7.

Detecting and Monitoring H2S 1) Current technology, in the field of gas detection instrumentation allows for only a few methods of effectively detecting H2S. The detection method most commonly used employs the use of a solid state electronic H2S sensor. Primary advantages in the use of this detection method include, but are not limited to: A. The capability of multiple points monitoring in relatively compact instrument packages Long sensor life requiring only periodic adjustment of amplifier circuits Location of the sensor in hazardous areas where releases of H2S are most likely to occur

B.

C.

2)

An H2S monitoring system should be implemented when drilling in known or suspected sour gas areas, or when drilling a well where insufficient data exists. The following factors should be considered when implementing an H2S monitoring system. A. B. C. D. Whether a single or multiple channel units will be required Sensor placement use of visual and audible alarms Use of portable monitors

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A.

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM GENERAL: 1. The Respiratory Protection Program will provide the procedure for proper selection, use, and care of respiratory equipment. This program will provide maximum protection to the employee and will meet most respiratory protection requirements. (Also read the Hazard Communication Manual) This program shall not be used as a substitute for accepted engineering control measures against air contaminants. 1) Respirators shall be worn at all times where work is necessary in contaminated or oxygen deficient areas. Employees shall use the provided respiratory protection in accordance with instructions received. Employees shall not be assigned to tasks requiring use of respiratory equipment, unless they have completed the Medical Questionnaires for Respiratory Users and the information evaluated.

2)

3)

2.

Respirators certified by NIOSH/ MSHA must be used to assure the maximum amount of respiratory protection. Respirators shall be used only for the purpose for which they were originally intended and shall not be modified in any way. Air purifying respirators shall not be used for rescue work or for emergency work for the following reasons: 1) These respirators do not supply oxygen and do not protect against possible oxygen deficiencies. Gas masks are for use with no more than 2% by volume of most toxic gases. Chemical cartridges respirators are intended for use in toxic gas range having from .05% to 1% maximum.

3.

4.

2)

3)

5.

Canisters and cartridges shall be specifically selected for the gas and concentrations which may be encountered.

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SELECTION OF A RESPIRATOR: 1. The following are to be considered: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Nature of hazard Extent of the hazard The contaminants present and concentrations Characteristics and limitations of respirators Expected activity of worker

For emergency entry into an immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) atmosphere, units rated for at least 30-minutes time shall be used. 2. Only the following respiratory protective apparatus shall be used in oxygendeficient atmosphere or when the contaminant is immediately dangerous to life: 1) 2) Self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) A combination air-line respirator and self- contained breathing apparatus and air line respirator, either a manual or automatic valve shall be provided to change to the self-contained air supply if the air line supply fails.

Self-contained breathing apparatus shall have a remaining service life Indicator or warning for compressed breathing air. When the device is a combination self-contained breathing apparatus and air line Respirator, either a manual or automatic valve shall be provided to change to the Self-contained air supply if the air line supply fails. Where a contaminant level may be higher than the designated level for an Air-purifying respirator, an air-line respirator will be provided. RESPIRATOR USAGE: 1. An effective seal between face and facepiece to prevent inward leakage must be obtained. Air-purifying respirators, along with demand-type respirators, operate under negative pressure when the wearer inhales, and some inward leakage may be possible. If temple bars of eye glasses extend through the sealing edge of a full face mask, a proper seal cannot be made. 1) The wearers use of spectacles or goggles shall not interfere with a halfmask facepiece.

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2)

A respirator equipped with a facepiece shall not be worn if facial hair comes between the sealing periphery of the facepiece and the face or if facial hair interferes with valve function. The wearer of a respirator equipped with a full facepiece, helmet, hood, or suit shall not wear contact lenses. If a spectacle, goggle, face shield, or welding helmet must be worn with a facepiece, it shall be worn so as not to adversely affect the seal of the facepiece to the face. Anti-fog compounds should be used to coat inside of face piece to help prevent fogging up in low temperatures. Hoses to supply air should be selected to resist chemicals. Pure oxygen shall not be used in supplied-air respirators. Although self-contained breathing apparatus have no concentration limit, many toxic gases are flammable. Working in or near flammable range of a gas or vapor is prohibited.

3)

4) 5) 6)

MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE 1. A centralized maintenance, cleaning, and storage station is most desirable to care for respiratory equipment. 1) Inspection shall be conducted and recorded on a weekly basis on all air purifying respirators during periods of use. The Toolpusher will designate responsible parties. Self-contained breathing apparatus shall be inspected and recorded monthly by competent person(s). This must be done before each use and during period of usage. 2) When replacing worn or deteriorated parts, only those made specifically for the device shall be used, and all maintenance and repair work shall be recorded. Air-purifying cartridges should be replaced according to the time scheduled for the job or at first trace of contaminant odor in the respirator. 3) Respirators issued for the exclusive use of one worker shall be cleaned after each days use, or more often, if necessary. Those used by more than one worker shall be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected after each use. Respirators shall be stored in a convenient, clean, and sanitary location in a protective plastic bag.

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5)

Special procedures for maintaining, cleaning, disinfecting, and storing respirators are as follows: a) Self-contained breathing apparatus Cylinder pressure should be checked at least monthly and brought to rated pressure if necessary. SCBA shall be recharged after each use. b) Hose Masks Check the blower at least monthly for proper operation. Check hose wear and tear after each use and steam clean when necessary. Keep hose capped when not in use to prevent entrance of contaminants. c) Air-Line Respirators The complete system should be checked after each use. d) Self Rescuers Frequent inspection is the most important phase of the maintenance program with this type of equipment, for it must always be ready even though seldom used. e) Chemical Cartridge Respirators Cartridges shall be changed when the wearer detects an odor or the irritating effect of the contaminant. In most cases, the wearer is responsible for discarding and replacing cartridges in his respirator, Respirators issued to individuals should be marked with the individuals name. f) Mechanical Filter Respirator Filters of the Throw Away type should be discarded when the breathing resistance becomes bothersome to the wearer. Some mechanical filter respirators use re-cleanable filter, in which case the filters are cleaned at the same time the respirator is being serviced.

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TRAINING AND RECORDKEEPING: Training the worker in proper use of respirators and their limitations shall be completed by a designated person for the safe use of any respirator. A record of this shall be kept on file. Training shall include discussions of: 1. 2. The respiratory hazard and what happens if the respirator is not used properly. The engineering and administrative controls being used and the need for respirators to provide protection. The reason for selecting a particular type of respirator. The function, capabilities, and limitations of the selected respirator. The method of donning the respirator and checking the fit and operation. The proper wearing of the respirator. Respirator maintenance. Recognizing and handling emergency situations.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

AIR QUALITY: Requirements for air supply and air compressors for air supplied respirator: 1. 2. Air supply shall be free of harmful quantities of contaminants. Compressed oxygen shall not be used in supplied-air respirators or in open circuit self-contained breathing apparatus that have previously used compressed air. Oxygen must never be used with air-line respirators. Breathing air may be supplied to respirators from cylinders or air compressors. Cylinders must have a dated sticker to indicate Certified Breathing Air. The compressor that is supplying the air shall be equipped with necessary safety and standby devices. A breathing air type compressor shall be situated so as to avoid entry of contaminated air into the system. An alarm shall also be installed to indicate imminent compressor failure and/or overheating. If an oil-lubricated compressor is used, it shall have a high-temperature or carbon monoxide alarm to ensure that the air supply meets the specifications.

3.

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5.

Air purifying absorbent filters (water traps) shall be installed between the compressor and user. These filters should be changed periodically and documented. Carbon monoxide monitoring should be in-line continuous audio/ visual alarm. However, if this is not possible, then manual CO testing (Draeger hand Pump, Deadstop Detector, etc.) must be done at least twice daily once at the beginning of the job and also after lunch break. The user must be instructed to stop operations if they experience difficulty in breathing, smell any unusual odors, or experience an ill feeling such as a headache or upset stomach, etc.

6.

AIR RECEIVERS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS: 1. All new air receivers installed shall be constructed in accordance with the current edition of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII. Installation and Equipment Requirements: 1) Installation Air receivers shall be installed so that they are easily accessible. Air receivers should be supported with sufficient clearance to permit a complete external inspection and to avoid corrosion of external surfaces. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground or located in a n inaccessible place. The receiver should be located as close to the compressor or after-cooler as is possible in order to keep the discharge pipe short. Drains and trap- A drain pipe and valve shall be installed at the lowest point of every air receiver to provide for the removal of accumulated oil and water. Adequate automatic traps may be installed in addition to drain valves. The drain valve on the air receiver can be completely drained to prevent the accumulation of excessive amounts of liquid in the receiver. Gauges and valves Every air receiver shall be equipped with an indicating pressure gauge readily visible and with one or more spring loaded safety valves. The total capacity of such safety valves shall be such as to prevent pressure in the receiver from exceeding the maximum allowable working pressure of the receivers by no more than 10 percent

2.

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No valve of any type shall be placed between the air receiver and its safety valves. Safety appliances such as safety valves, indicating devices, and controlling devices shall be constructed, located and installed so that they cannot be readily rendered inoperative by any means including the elements. All safety valves shall be tested frequently and at regular intervals to determine if they are in good operating condition. FIT TEST: 1. Irritant Smoke Test The irritant smoke test can be used for both air-purifying respirators and atmosphere-supplying respirators. When an air-purifying respirator is tested, it should be equipped with a high efficiency filter. The irritant smoke is produced by air flowing through a commercially available smoke tube normally used to check the performance of ventilation systems. Ventilation should be provided when carrying out a test to prevent contaminating the room where the test is carried out with smoke. The respirator wearer should keep his eyes closed during the test, even if the respirator offers eye protection. If the respirator wearer detects the penetration of the smoke into the respirator during the test, the wearer should be permitted to readjust the seal of the respirator. The test operator operated the smoke tube to direct smoke over the respirator, keeping the smoke tube about two feet from the respirator, and watches the reactions of the respirator wearer. If the respirator wearer does not detect penetration of smoke into the respirator, the test operator moves the smoke tube closer to the respirator and observes the reactions of the respirator wearer. When the smoke tube has been moved to within six inches of the respirator and the respirator wearer still has not detected penetration of smoke into the respirator, the smoke may be directed at potential points of leakage in the seal of the respirator to the wearer. If the respirator wearer still does not detect penetration of the smoke into the respirator, the wearer should carry out a series of exercises such as deep breathing, turning head from side to side, nodding head up and down, and talking while smoke is directed at the respirator, if the respirator wearer is unable to detect the penetration of smoke into the respirator, the wearer has achieved a satisfactory fit with the respirator.

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2.

Odorous Vapor Test The odorous vapor test can be used for both air-purifying respirators and atmosphere-supplying respirators. When an air-purifying respirator is test, it should be equipped with a cartridge or canister which removes the test vapor from the air. An odorous material commonly used in the test is isoamyl acetate. If Isoamyl acetate is employed as the test agent, an air-purifying respirator should be equipped with an organic vapor cartridge or canister. The simplest means of carrying out the test is to saturate a piece of fabric or sponge with liquid isoamyl acetate and the move the fabric, sponge, or stencil brush around the respirator worn by a person. The fabric, sponge, or stencil brush should be passed close to the potential points of leakage in the seal of the respirator while the wearer carries out exercises such as normal breathing, deep breathing, turning head from side to side, nodding head up and down, and talking. If the respirator wearer detects the odor of isoamyl acetate vapor during the test, the wearer should be permitted to readjust the seal of the respirator. If the respirator wearer is unable to detect the odor of isoamyl acetate vapor, the wearer has achieved a satisfactory fit with respirator. An improved qualitative respirator-fitting test using isoamyl acetate vapor as the test agent may be carried out using a hood, chamber, or room containing a known concentration of isoamyl acetate in the air. The concentration of isoamyl acetate vapor in air commonly used is 100 parts per million by volume. The respirator wearer enters the enclosure containing the test atmosphere and carries out a series of exercises such as normal breathing, deep breathing, turning head from side to side, nodding head up and down, and talking. If the respirator wearer detects the odor of isoamyl acetate vapor during the test, the wearer should be permitted to readjust the seal of the respirator. If the respirator wearer is unable to detect the odor of isoamyl acetate vapor, the wearer has achieved a satisfactory fit with the respirator. The use of isoamyl vapor as a test agent has the following two major drawbacks: the odor threshold varies widely among persons, although most persons can detect by odor a concentration of isoamyl acetate vapor in air as low as 0.1 parts per million by volume; and olfactory fatigue may cause a person to fail to detect the odor of a low concentration of isoamyl acetate vapor in the air. Before performing this test, all persons should be tested to determine their ability to sense the odor of isoamyl acetate vapor in the air. Since the odorous vapor test is subjective, the validity of the test result depends on honest indication by the respirator wearer as to whether or not an odor was detected during the test.

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FIELD TESTING THE SEAL: The seal of a respirator to a wearer can be tested in the field by procedures recommended by respirator manufactures or by any of the following tests: 1. Irritant or Odorous Test Agent The person wearing a respirator is exposed to an irritant smoke, odorous isoamyl acetate vapor, or other suitable test agent easily detectable by irritation, odor, or taste (an air-purifying respirator must be equipped with the appropriate air-purifying element). If the respirator wearer is unable to detect the penetration of the test agent into the respirator, it can be reasonably assured that the seal of the respirator to the wearer is satisfactory. 2. Negative-Pressure Sealing Test A negative-pressure respirator sealing test can be used on air-purifying respirators equipped with tight-fitting respiratory-inlet coverings and on atmosphere-supplying respirators equipped with tight-fitting respiratoryinlet coverings and breathing tubes which can be squeezed or blocked at the inlet to prevent the passage of air. This test may be difficult or impossible to carry out on valve-less respirators. The inlet opening of the respirators canister(s), cartridges(s), or filter(s), is closed off by covering with the palm of the hand(s), by replacing the inlet seal on a canister(s), or by squeezing a breathing tube or blocking its inlet so that it will not allow the passage of air. Then the wearer inhales gently and holds his breath for at least 10 seconds. If a facepiece collapses slightly and no inward leakage of air into the facepiece is detected, it can be reasonably assured that the fit of the respirator to the wearer is satisfactory. For the respirator equipped with a mouth-piece and nose clamp, if leakage of air into the nose or the mouth cannot be detected, then it can be reasonably assured that the fit of the respirator to the wearer is satisfactory. 3. Positive-Pressure Sealing Test A positive-air-pressure test can be used on respirators equipped with tightfitting respiratory-inlet coverings which contain both inhalation and exhalation valves. This test may be difficult or impossible to carry out on valve-less respirator. The exhalation valve or breathing tube, or both, is closed off and then the wearer exhales gently. The fit of a respirator equipped with a facepiece is considered to be satisfactory if a slight positive pressure can be built up inside the facepiece without the detection of any outward leakage of air between the sealing surface of the facepiece and the respirator wearers face. The fit of a respirator equipped with a

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mouthpiece and nose clamp is considered satisfactory if the respirator wearer senses a buildup of positive pressure and is unable to detect any outward leakage of air through the nose and in the area between the mouth and the mouthpiece. For some respirators, this test method requires that the respirator wearer first remove an exhalation cover from the respirator and then replace it after completion of the test. These tasks often are difficult to carry out without disturbing the fit of the respirator to the wearer. 4. Warning Concerning Negative Pressure and Positive Pressure Sealing Care must be taken in carrying out a negative-pressure or positive-pressure sealing test; otherwise, the results of the sealing test may be unreliable. Thorough training in carrying out these tests should be given to respirator wearer. B. SPRAY PAINING OPERATIONS 1. When health hazardous substances used in spray coating are in a combination of particulate matter and gases or vapors, the respiratory protector shall contain both a mechanical filter and an absorbent. 1) All employees spray painting in areas where the contaminant concentrations are expected to be extremely high shall be provided with an air line respiratory or a fresh air hood. Any employee who enters or works in a spray painting area shall wear appropriate respiratory protection.

2)

2.

Respirators shall be maintained in a sanitary condition. The filtering and the absorbent materials shall be changed as often as necessary to provide the wearer with adequate protection. Where spraying is done in room, or in the open, the employer should provide non-drying oil or barrier creams for the workers for the purpose of anointing exposed parts of the body during spraying operations. The health of persons during spray coating may be jeopardized by inhaling such substances as lead, poisonous solvents, especially benzyl, or finely divided siliceous material. To render complete protection to spray operators from these hazards, employees should be given a thorough physical examination to determine if this type of work would hamper their health or if they can or cannot wear respiratory equipment.

3.

4.

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5.

Due to the anesthetic nature of most modern day paints and thinners, all mixing and cleaning must be done in well ventilated outdoor atmosphere. 1) 2) If this in not possible, adequate respiratory protection is required. At no time will paint mixing or parts cleaning be performed in confined spaces.

6. 7.

All paint storage buildings must have explosion proof lights. Adequate hand washing facilities must be provided with paint removing products that will prevent the need of using thinner to wash hands.

C.

SANDBLASTING OPERATIONS Sandblasting operations must only be attempted by experienced persons and remember these points: 1. Machines and hoses must be inspected daily and replaced immediately upon signs of excessive wear. Nozzles and hose joints must be connected with external metallic connectors which will prevent accidental displacement. A remote control dead man valve must be provided on the nozzle and be functional at all times. Operators shall be provided with heavy canvas or leather gloves and aprons. Safety shoes should also be worn. The operator must wear earplugs under his hood and vortex cooling tubes should be considered during hot weather. A change shack, or other dust free area, should also be provided for breaks and changing. Eye, face, respiratory, and hearing protection must be provided and used by all persons working in the sandblast area. The blasting should be done in a specified zone where dust is visible, and the area should be roped off with signs reading: CAUTION SANBLASTING AREA EYE, HEARING, AND RESPIRATORY PROTECTION REQUIRED BEFORE ENTERING.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

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9.

If a practical substitute with less health hazard than silica sand can be found, it should be used. However, substitute with caution. 1) Expensive silica sand substitutes are reused and an accumulation of toxic dusts from paints and coating may present additional hazards.

10.

The sandblasting operator must be supplied with a fresh air hood designed for sandblasting operations and: 1) Should be equipped with a vortex cooling tube.

D.

HAZARD COMMUNICATION GENERAL: The U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration published the hazard Communications Standard which went into effect May 25, 1988, for all industry. The intent of the Hazard Communication Standard is to ensure that both the health and physical hazards of all chemicals used at the work place are identified and information is given on ways to protect employees while working with these chemicals. A specific Hazard Communication Program has been developed to comply with this standard (See Hazard Communication Program in the Toolpushers Office). HAZARD EVALUTAION: The standard begins with the chemical manufacturer who is responsible for assessing the two types of hazards associated with chemical. These are: 1) 2) Physical hazards -substances that burn easy, explode or react in some way. Health hazards substances that may be irritating, corrosive, sensitive or toxic.

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) will be requested for chemical and products purchased by the Company. We will rely on the evaluation performed by the chemicals and products purchased by the Company. We will rely on the evaluation performed by the chemical manufacturer or importer who originated the MSDS. This information will be maintained in the Toolpushers Office.

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WARNING LABEL: Once the physical hazards and health hazards are identified, the manufacturer is required to communicate these hazards. This is accomplished by labeling containers. These labels can assist the employees by identifying the chemicals hazards in the immediate work area. Safety precautions to be taken when working with the substance are also listed. The label must contain the following: 1) 2) 3) Appropriate hazard warning The contents of the container The name, address, and emergency telephone number of the chemical manufacturer.

Each container of hazardous material in the workplace must have a label, tag, or mark which indicates the appropriate hazard warning. The company will assign an employee to ensure that each container received from the vendor has the proper labeling. When hazardous materials are transferred from one container to another, the new container will be marked appropriately with the hazard warning. MATERIAL SAFETY DATA (MSDS): The MSDS for all hazardous chemicals will be maintained at the Rig site. The MSDS form provides more detail information about a chemical than a label. Copies will be maintained in the Toolpushers Office. The following information will be included on the MSDS: 1) Identification of the Chemical This section gives the chemical name, trade name, and any synonyms. The CAS number and formula are also given. 2) Physical and chemical characteristics of the Hazardous Chemical These sections will help identify the substance by observing its physical properties. It will describe the chemicals, appearance, odor, boiling point, Ph, and other technical data. 4) Fire and Explosion Hazard This section gives information on fire control and flashpoint and flammable limits of the material.

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5)

Reactivity Data This section alerts you to conditions of material to avoid. Some materials will create a dangerous reaction when combined with other material.

6)

Health Hazard Data The T.L.V. and effect of over-exposure will be listed in this section. Emergency and first aid procedures will give methods of treating overexposure.

7)

Spill or Leak Procedures Procedures for clean-up of material are outlined in this section.

8)

Special Protection Recommendations for personal protective equipment are listed in this section. The type of protective equipment varies depending on the chemical and the work that needs to be performed.

9)

Special Precautions This section addresses required handling and storage precautions.

INFORMATION AND TRAINING: Each employee will be required to attend a detailed Orientation / Training session to become familiar with the intent of the Chemical hazard communication Program. The training session will stress the importance of ensuring that every employee receives the necessary information to protect himself from the exposure of the hazardous chemical. The employee will be instructed in the use of personal protective equipment. Documentation on training shall be maintained in Rig files.

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GLOSSARY OF COMMON TERMS: Acute Severe, often dangerous conditions in which relatively rapid changes occur. Acute Exposure An intense exposure over a relatively short period of time. Boiling Point The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals atmospheric pressure or at which the liquid changes to a vapor. The boiling point is usually expressed in degrees Fahrenheit. If a flammable material has a low boiling point, it indicates a special fire hazard. C or Ceiling A description usually seen in connection with a published exposure limit. It refers to the concentration that should not be exceeded, even for an instant. It may be written as TLV-C or Threshold Limit Value Ceiling. (See also THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE.) Carcinogen A substance or physical agent that may cause cancer in animals or humans. C.A.S. Number Identifies a particular chemical by the Chemical Abstracts Service, a service or the American Chemical Society that indexes and compiles abstracts of worldwide chemical literature called Chemical Abstracts. CC Cubic centimeter, a volumetric measurement which is also equal to one milliliter (ml). Chemical As broadly applied to the chemical industry, an element or a compound produced by chemical reaction on a large scale for either direct industrial or consumer use or for reactions with other chemicals. Chemical Reaction A change in the arrangement of atoms or molecules to yield substances of different composition and properties. ( See REACTIVITY) Chronic Persistent, prolonged, or repeated conditions. Chronic Exposure A prolonged exposure occurring over a period of days, weeks, or years.

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Combustible According to the DOT and NFPA, combustible liquids are those having a flash point at or above 100 F (37.8 C ), or liquids that will burn. They do not ignite as easily as flammable liquids. However, combustible liquids can be ignited under certain circumstances and must be handled with caution. Substances, such as wood, paper, etc., are termed Ordinary Combustibles. Concentration The relative amount of a material in combination with another material. For example, 5 parts (of acetone) per million (parts of air). Corrosive A substance that, according to the DOT, causes visible destruction or permanent changes in human skin tissue at the site of contact or is highly corrosive to steel. Dermatitis An inflammation of the skin. DOT The United States Department of Transportation is the Federal agency that regulates the labeling and transportation of hazardous materials. Dyspnea Shortness of breath; difficult or labored breathing. EPA The environmental Protection Agency is the governmental agency responsible for administration of laws to control and/or reduce pollution of air, water and land systems. Erythema A reddening of the skin Evaporation Rate The rate at which a material is converted to vapor (evaporates) at a given temperature and pressure when compared to the evaporation rate of a given substance. For example, the MSDS shows n-Bu-Ac (normal butyl acetate) as the given substance. Its evaporation rate equals 1. Fast evaporating substances show numbers greater than 3. acetone equals 5.6 and thus evaporates fast. Health and fire hazard evaluations of material involve consideration of evaporation rates as one aspect of the evaluation. F Degrees, Fahrenheit; a temperature scale.

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Flammable Liquid According to the DOT and NFPA, a flammable liquid is one that has a flash point below 100 EF. (See FLASH POINT) Flash Point The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapor to form an ignitable mixture and burn when a source of ignition (sparks, open flames, cigarettes, etc.) is present. Two test are used to determine the flash point: open and closed cup. The test method is indicated on the MSDS after the flash point. General Ventilation (Also known as general exhaust ventilation) This is a system of ventilation consisting of either natural or mechanically induced fresh air movements to mix with and dilute contaminants in the workroom air. This is not the recommended type of ventilation to control contaminants that are highly toxic; when there may be corrosion problems from the contaminant; when the worker is close to where the contaminant is being generated; and where fire or explosion hazards are generated close to sources of ignition. Cubic Meter (m) A measure of volume in the metric system. Cutaneous Pertaining to or affecting the skin. Decomposition The breakdown of a chemical or substance into different parts or simpler compounds. Decomposition can occur due to heat, chemical reaction, decay, etc. Dermal Pertaining to or affecting the skin. Hazardous Material Any substance or compound that has the capability of producing adverse effects on the health and safety of humans. Ignitable A solid, liquid, or compressed gas waste that has a flash point of less than 140 F ignitable materials may be regulated by the EPA as a hazardous waste as well. Incompatible The term applied to two substances to indicate that one material cannot be mixed with other without the possibility of a dangerous reaction. Ingestion Taking a substance into the body through the mouth as food, drink, medicine, or unknowingly as on contaminated hands or cigarettes, etc.

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Inhalation The breathing in of an airborne substance that may be in the form of gases, fumes, mists, vapors, dusts, or aerosols. Inhibitor A substance that is added to another to prevent or slow down an unwanted reaction or change. Irritant A substance that produces an irritating effect when it contacts the skin, eyes nose or respiratory. Lethal Concentration 50 ( LC50) The concentration of an air contaminant that will kill 50 percent of the test animals in a group within the first 30 days following exposure. Lethal Dose50 (LD50) The dose of a substance or chemical that will kill 50 percent of the test animals in a group within the first 30 days following exposure. Liter (L) A measure of capacity. One quart equals .9 liter. Local Exhaust Ventilation (Also known as exhaust ventilation.) A ventilation system that captures and removes the contaminants at the point they are being produced before they escape into the workroom air. The system consists of hoods, ductwork, a fan and possibly an air cleaning device. Advantages of local exhaust ventilation over general ventilation include: it removes the contaminant rather than dilutes it; it requires less airflow and thus is more economical over the long term; and the system can be used to converse or reclaim valuable materials. However, the system must be properly designed with the correctly shaped and placed hoods; and correctly sized fans and ductwork. Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) (LFL) (Also known as Lower Flammable Limit). The lowest concentration of a substance that will produce a fire or flash when an ignition source (flame, spark, etc.) is present. It is expressed in percent of vapor or gas in the air by volume. Below the LEL or LFL, the air/ contaminant mixture is theoretically too lean to burn. (See also UEL) Melting Point The temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid. A melting range may be given for mixtures. MSHA The Mine Safety and Health Administration; a Federal Agency that regulates the mining industry in the safety and health area.

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Mutagen Anything that can cause a change (or mutation) in the genetic material of a living cell. Narcosis Stupor or unconsciousness caused by exposure to a chemical. NFPA The National Fire Prevention Association is a voluntary membership organization whose duties are to promote and improve fire protection and prevention. NFPA has published 16 volumes of codes known as the national Fire Codes. Within these codes is Standard No. 704, Identification of the Fire Hazards of Material. This is a system that rates the hazard of a material during a fire. NIOSH The national Institute for Occupational Safety and health is a Federal Agency that among its various responsibilities, trains occupational health and safety professional; conducts research on health and safety concerns; and tests and certifies respirators for workplace use. Odor Threshold The minimum concentration of a substance at which a majority of test subjects can detect and identify the substances characteristic odor. Oral Having to do with the mouth. OSHA The Occupational Safety and Health Administration is a Federal Agency under the Department of Labor that publishes and enforces safety and health regulations for most business and industries in the United States. Oxidation The process of combining oxygen with some other substance or a chemical change in which an atom loses electrons. Oxidizer A substance that gives up oxygen easily to stimulate combustion or organic material. Oxygen Deficiency An atmosphere having less than the normal percentage of oxygen found in normal air. Normal air contains 21% at sea level.

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Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) An exposure limit that is published and enforced by OSHA as a legal standard. PEL may be either a time-weighted-average (TWA) exposure limit (8-hour), a 15 minute short term exposure limit (STEL), or a ceiling (C). The PELs are found in Tables Z-1, Z-2, Z-3 of OSHA regulations 1910.1000 (See also TLV) Personal Protective Equipment Any device or clothing worn by the worker to protect against hazards in the environment. Examples are respirators, gloves, and chemical splash goggles. Polymerization A chemical reaction in which two or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules that contain repeating structural units of the original molecules. A hazardous polymerization is the above reaction with an uncontrolled release of energy. PPM Parts (of vapor or gas) per million (parts of air) by volume. Reactivity A substances susceptibility to undergoing a chemical reaction or change that may result in dangerous side effects, such as explosion, burning, and corrosive or toxic emissions. The conditions that cause the reaction, such as heat, other chemicals, and dropping, will usually be specified as Conditions to Avoid when a chemicals reactivity is discussed on a MSDS. Respirator A device which is designed to protect the wearer from inhaling harmful contaminants. Respiratory Hazard A particular concentration of an airborne contaminant that when it enters the body by way of the respiratory system or by being breathed into the lungs, results in some bodily function impairment. Sensitizer A substance that may cause no reaction in a person during initial exposures, but afterwards, further exposures will cause an allergic response to the substance. Short Term Exposure Limit Represented as STEL or TLV-STEL, this is the maximum concentration to which workers can be exposed for a short period of time (15 minutes) for only four times throughout the day with at least once hour between exposures. Also the daily TLV-TWA must not be exceeded.

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Skin This designation sometimes appears alongside a TLV or PEL. It refers to the possibility of absorption of the particular chemical through the skin and eyes. Thus, protection of large surface areas of skin should be considered to prevent skin absorption so that the TLV is not invalidated. STEL Short Term Exposure Limit Substance Any chemical entity Synonym Another name by which the same chemical may be known. Systemic Spread throughout the body; affecting many of all body systems or organs, not localized in one spot or area. Teratogen An agent or substance that may cause physical defects in the developing embryo or fetus when a pregnant female is exposed to that substance. Threshold Limit Value (TLV) Airborne concentrations of substances devised by the ACGIH that represents conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be exposed day after day with no adverse effect. TLVs are advisory exposure guidelines, not legal standards, that are based on evidence from industrial experience, animal studies, or human studies when they exist. There are three different types of TLVs. They are : Time Weighted Average (TLVTWA), Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL), and Ceiling (TLV-C). (See also PEL) Time Weighted Average (TWA) The average time, over a given work period (e.g., 8-hour workday), of a persons exposure to a chemical or an agent. The average is determined by sampling for the contaminant throughout the time period. Represented as TLA-TWA. Toxicity The potential of a substance to exert a harmful effect on humans or animals and a description of the effect and the conditions or concentration under which the effect takes place. Trade Name The commercial name or trademark by which a chemical is known. One chemical may have a variety of trade names depending on the manufacturers or distributors involved.

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Unstable Liquid A liquid that, in its pure state or as commercially produced will react vigorously in some hazardous way under shock conditions. (i.e., dropping), certain temperatures or pressure. Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) (Also known as Upper Flammable Limit) This is the highest concentration (expressed in percent of vapor or gas in the air by volume) of a substance that will burn or explode when an ignition source is present. Theoretically, above this limit, the mixture is said to be too rich to support combustion. The difference between the LEL and the UEL constitutes the flammable range or explosive range of a substance. That is, if the LEL is 1ppm and the UEL is 5 ppm, then the explosive range of the chemical is 1 ppm to 5 ppm (See also LEL) Vapor The gaseous form of substances which are normally in the liquid or solid state (at normal room temperature and pressure). Vapors evaporate into the air from liquids, such as solvents. Solvents with low boiling points will evaporate readily.

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