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Chapter-1


INTRODUCTION















2



INTRODUCTION

The distribution system constitutes a significant part of a total power system. A distribution system is
one from which the power is distributed to various users through feeders distributors and service mains.
Feeders are conductors of large current carrying capacity, carrying the current in bulk to the feeding
points. Power losses in the lines account for the major portion of the distribution system losses. These
power losses mainly depends on the type of conductor and its resistance, size and length. To meet the
present growing domestic, industrial and commercial load day by day, effective planning of radial
distribution network is required. Increasing costs of energy and costs of generating capacity are
encouraging the electric utility to spend capital to improve the efficiency of the distribution system. The
objective of distribution system planning is to assure that the growing demand for electricity, in terms of
increasing growth rates and high load densities, can be satisfied in an optimum way by additional
distribution systems.

1.1 Distribution Systems
An electric distribution system, or distribution plant as it is sometimes called, is all of that part of an
electric power system between the bulk power source or sources and the consumers service switches.
The effectiveness with which a distribution system fulfills this function is measured in terms of voltage
regulation, service continuity, flexibility, efficiency, and cost. The cost of distribution is an important
factor in the delivered cost o electric power. The bulk power sources are located in or near the load area
to be served by the distribution system and may be either generating stations or power substations
supplied over transmission lines. Distribution systems can, in general, be divided into six parts, namely,
subtransmission circuits, distribution substations, distribution or primary feeders, distribution
transformers, secondary circuits or secondaries, and consumers service connections and meters or
consumers services.
Figure 1.1 is a schematic diagram of a typical distribution system showing these parts.

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1.1.1 Subtransmission Circuits

The subtransmission circuits extend from the bulk power source or sources to the various distribution
substations located in the load area. They may be radial circuits connected to a bulk power source at
only one end or loop and ring circuits connected to one or more bulk power sources at both ends. The
subtransmission circuits consist of underground cable, aerial cable, or overhead open-wire conductors
carried on poles, or some combination of them. The subtransmission voltage is usually between 11 and
33 kV.


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1.1.2 Distribution Substation
Each distribution substation normally serves its own load area, which is a subdivision of the area served
by the distribution system. At the distribution substation the subtransmission voltage is reduced for
general distribution throughout the area. The substation consists of one or more power-transformer
banks together with the necessary voltage regulating equipment, buses, and switchgear.

1.1.3 Primary Feeders
The area served by the distribution substation is also subdivided and each subdivision is supplied by a
distribution or primary feeder. The three-phase primary feeder is usually run out from the low voltage
bus of the substation to its load center where it branches into three phase sub feeders and single-phase
laterals.

1.1.4 Distribution transformers
Distribution transformers are ordinarily connected to each primary feeder and its sub feeders and
laterals. These transformers serve to step down from the distribution voltage to the utilization voltage.
Each transformer or bank of transformers supplies a consumer or group of consumers over its secondary
circuit. Each consumer is connected to the secondary circuit through his service leads and meter. The
secondaries and service connections may be either cable or open-wire circuits.

1.2 Classification of Distribution Systems
A distribution system may be classified according to:
(i) Nature of current: According to nature of current, distribution system may be classified as
(a) d.c. distribution system and (b) a.c. distribution system. Now-a days a.c. system is
universally adopted for distribution of electric power as it is simpler and more economical
than direct current method.
(ii) Type of construction: According to type of construction, distribution system may be
classified as (a) overhead system and (b) underground system. The overhead system is
generally employed for distribution as it is 5 to 10 times cheaper than the equivalent
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underground system. In general, the underground system is used at places where overhead
construction is impracticable or prohibited by the local laws.
(iii) Scheme of connection: According to scheme of connection, the distribution system may be
classified as (a) radial system, (b) ring main system and (c) interconnected system. Each
scheme has its own advantages and disadvantages.


1.3 Connection Scheme of Distribution System
There are three fundamentally different ways to lay out a power distribution system used by electric
utilities, each of which has variations in its own design:
1. Radial Feeder System
Most power distribution systems are designed to be radial, to have only one path between each customer
and the substation. The power flows exclusively away from the substation and out to the customer along
a single path, which, if interrupted, results in complete loss of power to the customer. Radial design is by
far the most widely used form of distribution design. Its predominance is due to two overwhelming
advantages: it is much less costly than the other two alternatives and it is much simpler in planning,
design, and operation. In most radial plans, both the feeder and the secondary systems are designed and
operated radially. Each radial feeder serves a definite service area. Many radial feeder systems are laid
out and constructed as networks, but operated radially by opening switches at certain points throughout
the physical network configuration so that the resulting configuration is electrically radial. Each service
transformer in these systems feeds power into a small radial system around it, basically a single
electrical path from each service transformer to the customers nearby. Regardless of whether it
uses single-phase laterals or not, the biggest advantages of the radial system configuration, in addition to
its lower cost, is the simplicity of analysis and predictability of performance. Because there is only one
path between each customer and the substation, the direction of power flow is absolutely certain and
thus voltage profiles can be determined with a good degree of accuracy without resorting to exotic
calculation methods, equipment capacity requirements can be ascertained exactly; fault levels can be
predicted with a reasonable degree of accuracy; and protective device: breaker, relays and fuses can be
coordinated in an absolutely assured manner,
without resorting to network methods of analysis. On the debit side, radial feeder systems are
less reliable than loop or network system because there is only one path between the substation
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and the customer. Thus, if any element along this path fails, a loss of power delivery results.



2. Loop Feeder System
A loop system has two paths between the power sources (substations, service transformers) and each
customer. Equipment is sized and each loop is designed so that service can be maintained regardless of
where an open point might be on the loop. Because of this requirement, whether operated radially (with
one open point in each loop) or with closed loops, the basic equipment capacity requirements of the loop
feeder design do not change. In terms of complexity, a loop feeder system is only slightly more
complicated than a radial system - power usually flows out from both sides toward the middle, and in all
cases can take only one of two routes. Voltage drop, sizing, and protection engineering are only slightly
more complicated than for radial systems. But if designed thus, and if the protection (relay-breakers and
sectionalizers) is also built to proper design standards, the loop system is more reliable than radial
systems. Service will not be interrupted to the majority of customers whenever a segment is outaged,
because there is no "downstream" portion of any loop. The major disadvantage of loop systems is a
higher capacity cost than purely radial distribution. A loop must be designed to meet all power and
voltage drop requirements when fed from either end. It needs extra capacity on each end, and the
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conductor must be large enough to handle the power and voltage drop needs of the entire feeder if fed
from either end.
3. Distribution Network
Distribution networks are the most complicated, but most reliable, and in very rare cases also the most
economical method of distributing electric power. A network involves multiple paths between all points
in the network. Networks provide continuity of service (reliability) far beyond that of radial and loop
designs: if a failure occurs in one line, power instantly and automatically re-routes itself through other
pathways. Most distribution networks are underground systems, simply because they are employed
mostly in high density areas, where overhead space is not available. Rarely is the primary voltage level a
network, because that proves very expensive and often will not work well. Instead, a "distribution
network" almost always involves "interlaced" radial feeders and a network secondary system - a grid of
electrically strong (i.e., larger than needed to just feed customers in the immediate area when everything
is functioning) conductor connecting all the customers together at utilization voltage. In this type of
design, the secondary grid is fed from radial feeders through service transformers, basically the same
way secondary is fed in radial or loop systems. The feeders are radial, but laid out in an interlaced
manner none has a sole service area, but instead they overlap.
The interconnected system has the following advantages:
It increases the service reliability.
Any area fed from one generating station during peak load hours can be fed from the other generating
station. This reduces reserve power capacity and increases efficiency of the system.
Networks have one major disadvantage. They are much more complicated than other forms of
distribution, and thus much more difficult to analyze and operate.
1.4 Requirement of a Distribution System
A considerable amount of effort is necessary to maintain an electric power supply within the
requirements of various types of consumers. Some of the requirements of a good distribution system are:
proper voltage, availability of power on demand, and reliability.
(i) Proper Voltage: One important requirement of a distribution system is that voltage
variations at consumers terminals should be as low as possible. The changes in voltage are
generally caused due to the variation of load on the system. Low voltage causes loss of
revenue, inefficient lighting and possible burning out of motors. High voltage causes lamps
to burn out permanently and may cause failure of other appliances. Therefore, a good
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distribution system should ensure that the voltage variations at consumers terminals are
within permissible limits. The limit of voltage variations is 10% of the rated value at the
consumers terminals. Thus, if the declared voltage is 230 V, then the highest voltage of the
consumer should not exceed 244 V while the lowest voltage of the consumer should not be
less than 216 V.
(ii) Availability of Power Demand: Power must be available to the consumers in any amount
that they may require from time to time. For example, motors may be started or shut down,
lights may be turned on or off, without advance warning to the electric supply company. As
electrical energy cannot be stored, therefore, the distribution system must be capable of
supplying load demands of the consumers. This necessitates that operating staff must
continuously study load patterns to predict in advance those major load changes that follow
the known schedules.
(iii) Reliability: Modern industry is almost dependent on electric power for its operation. Homes
and office buildings are lighted, heated, cooled and ventilated by electric power. This calls
for reliable service. Unfortunately electric power, like everything else that is man-made, can
never be absolutely reliable. However, the reliability can be improved to a considerable
extent by (a) inter-connected system, (b) reliable automatic control system and (c) providing
additional reserve facilities.
1.5 Design Considerations in Distribution System
Good voltage regulation of a distribution network is probably the most important factor responsible for
delivering good service to the consumers. For this purpose, design of feeders and distributors requires
careful consideration:
(i) Feeders: A feeder is designed from the point of view of its current carrying capacity while
the voltage drop consideration is relatively not important. It is because voltage drop in a
feeder can be compensated by means of voltage regulating equipment at the substation.
(ii) Distributors: A distributor is designed from the point of view of the voltage drop in it. It is
because a distributor supplies power to the consumers and there is a statutory limit of voltage
variations at the consumer terminal ( 10% of rated value). The size and length of the
distributor should be such that voltage at the consumers terminals is within the permissible
limits.

9























Chapter-2


OPTIMUM CONDUCTOR SELECTION















10


2.1 Assumptions-

It is assumed that the three- phase radial networks are balanced and can be represented by their
equivalent single line diagram. Line shunt capacitance is negligible at the distribution voltage levels.












11

2.2 load flow analysis

2.2.1 Forward backward sweep method

The Distribution system (DS) is usually radial network with high line resistance to reactance ratio
(R/X). It is well known to power system researchers that the Load Flow (LF), used in analyzing a power
system, based on Newton-Raphson and Gauss-Seidel methods, may not be able to solve a large level
Radial Distribution System (RDS) with high value of (R/X > 5). Therefore, the importance of
Distribution Load Flow (DLF) becomes more being a main tool to calculate the DS parameters.
Several load flow approaches for transmission- and distribution-system have been suggested due to
their key features in power system. Several impressive approaches have been suggested for distribution
load flow using Forward/Backward Sweep (F/BS) method. Several planning have been carried out using
Newton-Raphson or Gauss-Seidel based load flow methods but those approach may not converge for
typical practical DS. However, it appears in the literature that very less work incorporated the DG in
DLF as PV model but these approaches involved several complications. Therefore, it is little bit difficult
to incorporate DG node as PV model in the DLF study. To ease of such burden a Golden Section Search
(GSS) approach based DLF is proposed, this is the first work reported which uses GSS method for F/BS
method utilizing the network topology in the DLF.
The proposed approach gives an easy way to incorporate PV node. This can easily be implemented with
other optimization methods due to its simplicity. The Proposed Method (PM) is very suitable in planning
and online application due to its accuracy, robustness. It can be used with any small-, medium- and
large-size DS.
A three phase balanced network with n
b
nodes is considered. The Sub-Station (SS) bus has been
considered as slack bus. The DG is considered as either PQ or PV node model.
Golden Section Search Optimization Technique
The Golden Section Search (GSS) algorithm is one of the classical optimization techniques. The GSS
method guaranteed gives solution if the solution lies in the bracket of the two limits.
The GSS method has few standard steps as following.
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1. It uses a factor,
(3 5)
2

_ = , which requires in the algorithm.


2. Compute ( ), a b o =
1
( ), a a = +_o
1
( ) b b = _o and evaluating the fitness of the objective function at a
1

and b
1
. Here, a is the lower bound of the search value and b is the upper bound of the search value.
3. If
1 1
( ) ( ) F a F b s go to next step. Else keep b

= a
1
and a
1
=b
1
solving for fitness of the function at this
value. Compute

1
( ), b a a b = o then fitness of the function and go to step-5.
4. Take a=b
1
and evaluate the fitness. Set b
1
=a
1
and evaluated the fitness of the function. Compute
Else keep b

= a
1
and solving for fitness of the function at this value. Compute
1
( - ), a b a b = +_ then
fitness of the function.
5. Check ( ) a b > c , if yes, go to Step-2. Otherwise set optimal variable value as a and compute
corresponding optimal value of the function.
Load Model
The DS has various types of loads viz. constant power, constant current, constant impedance,
small/large industrial, domestic, commercial, etc. The typical load characteristics have significant
impact on the load flow solutions. The active and reactive powers are generally expressed in polynomial
or exponential form.
0( ) 0
( / )
p
li l i i
P P V V =
(1)

0( ) 0
( / )
q
li l i i
Q Q V V = (2)
where,
li
P and
li
Q are the active and the reactive power load demand at the bus-i bus for bus voltage (V
i
)
at bus-i with respect to the nominal voltage (V
0
) whereas p and q are the exponents for the voltage
dependent loads, whereas P
lo(i)
and Q
lo(i)
are constant real power and reactive power load demand at bus-
i.
Distribution Load Flow including DG
The FBS based DLF method can broadly be classified into two parts based on- (i) Kirchhoffs
formulation (ii) Bi-quadratic equation algorithms .In some work, the bi-quadratic method is used in
modified way as per the need arises viz. computational time, simplicity of the algorithm, weekly mesh
network, etc . The convergence criteria were used in the literature as tolerance in active power/reactive
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power/voltage/current mismatch at each node irrespective of the nature of the load either balance or un-
balanced.


At bus-i, the complex load demand can be expressed as,

; 2,3...
li li li b
S P jQ i n = + =
(3)


The equivalent current injection is given as,
*
; 2, 3,...
li li
li b
i
P jQ
I i n
V
| | +
= =
|
\ .
(4)
02 03 04 05 06
07
01
SS
L1 L2 L3 L4 L5
L6
I2
I4 I5
I6
I3
I7

Fig.2.2.1 Radial Distributed System (RDS)
The bus-injection to branch-current matrix, the branch current to bus-voltage matrix and equivalent
current injections are formed similarly. A small DS of seven buses as shown in Fig.2.2.1 is considered
for the sake of simplicity. The relationship between the bus current injection and the branch current is
expressed as,

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1 2
2 3
3 4
4 5
5 6
6 7
1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 1 1 1 0
0 0 1 1 1 0
.
0 0 0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
M I
M I
M I
M I
M I
M I
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
=
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (

(5)

[M]=[BIBC][I] (6)

where, [M] and [I] are branch current and bus injection matrices, respectively. The network topological
matrix BIBC is the bus injection to line current matrix. Following expression in (7) is written using
Kirchhoffs voltage law in Fig. 1,

2 12 1 1
3 12 23 2 1
4 12 23 34 3 1
5 12 23 34 45 4 1
6 12 23 34 45 56 5 1
7 12 27 6 1
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0
.
0 0
0
0 0 0 0
V Z M V
V Z Z M V
V Z Z Z M V
V Z Z Z Z M V
V Z Z Z Z Z M V
V Z Z M V
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
=
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
( ( ( (

(7)

Above matrix expression can be written as,

[ ] [ ].[ ] V BCBV M A =
(8)


15

where,
12
12 23
12 23 34
12 23 34 45
12 23 34 45 56
12 27
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0
0
0 0
[
0
]
0
Z
Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z Z
Z Z
BCBV
(
(
(
(
(
(


=
(
(
(



[ ] [ ].[ ].[ ] V BCBV BIBC I A =
(9)

[ ] [LFM].[ ] V I A =
(10)

Where , BCBV is the branch current to bus voltage matrix. The equation (4) is used to determine current
vector [I] at every bus in K
th
iteration and it is used in (8) to determine [ ] V A vector for K
th
iteration. The
following expression will be used to determine voltage in (K+1)
th
iteration.
1 0 1
[ ] [ ] [ ]
K K
V V V
+ +
= + A (11)

2.3 Constraint-
2.3.1 Voltage drop criterion: The percent voltage drop at each end node of the network must be less
than an acceptable limit. This limit depends on the kind of system consumers. The voltage drop is
calculated using the node voltages, which are computed by a load flow analysis method convenient for
radial networks. This method is a repetitive procedure, based on the Kirchhoffs laws. The steps of this
procedure, for a network having nj nodes except of the source node, where the voltage vector is constant
and equal to U
source
, are:
Calculation of the node currents ii according to the relation:

where:
Pi, Qi the active and reactive power of the node i correspondingly
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the voltage of the node i, which has been calculated during the previous repetition. If


Calculation of the segment currents Ij in every network segment j according to the relation:

Calculation of the node voltages Ui according to the relation:

where:
_ Up the voltage at the origin of the segment j
_ Zj the impedance of the segment j
Calculation of the active and reactive power deviation in every node i, according to the relations:

Repetition of the method steps until the above deviations are inside predetermined limits. The repetitive
procedure could be alternatively thought as converging if the absolute difference between the voltage
meters and angles, resulting from the successive repetitions, are under the limits Ulim and dlim
correspondingly for all the network nodes. That is:

After the calculation of all the node voltages it is examined
if:

17

where:
the voltage at each end node of the network
the acceptable percent voltage drop.


2.4 Algorithm for optimal type of conductor selection

























OPTIMIZATION
ALGORITHM
Network Recording
Feeding Line Data
And Bus Data
Load Flow Analysis
Is voltage Drop criterion
satisfied? (drop% < 5)

Technical solution
Reconductoring
process
yes
no
Find violating
branches
18






The percent voltage drop along each network path leading to a network end node is calculated using the
node voltages, which have been computed during the previously mentioned load flow analysis method.
If any of these voltage drops exceeds the acceptable limit, a reconductoring process begins until the
voltage drop criterion is satisfied, if possible.

Reconductoring process-
The aim of the reconductoring process is the satisfaction of the voltage drop criterion or the protective
earthing condition or both of them. Every combination of conductor replacements, which satisfies the
above given conditions, is a solution to the problem.

















Result
End
Replacement of conductor
with different values of
resistance and reactance
19



















Chapter-3


INPUTS AND OUTPUTS









20





3.1 Inputs Table no. 3.1.1 - Line Data
S.No.
Sending
Node
Receiving
Node
Line
Resistance
Line
Reactance Susceptance
1 1 2 0.00795 0.00407 0
2 2 3 0.01828 0.01789 0
3 3 4 0.02721 0.01836 0
4 4 5 0.02721 0.01836 0
5 5 6 0.02721 0.01836 0
6 6 7 0.02721 0.01836 0
7 7 8 0.02721 0.01836 0
8 8 9 0.02829 0.01909 0
9 9 10 0.02448 0.01653 0
10 10 11 0.04098 0.01708 0
11 11 12 0.04098 0.01708 0
12 10 15 0.03916 0.01632 0
13 15 16 0.04554 0.01898 0
14 16 17 0.04554 0.01898 0
15 4 13 0.03643 0.01518 0
16 13 14 0.03643 0.01518 0
Table no. 3.1.2 - Bus Data
S.No. Type of Bus
Initial
Voltage at
node Angle P
G
Q
G
P
L
Q
L

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 1 0 0 0 7.5 4.65
4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
5 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
6 0 1 0 0 0 7.5 4.65
7 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
8 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
9 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
10 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
11 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
12 0 1 0 0 0 7.5 4.65
21

13 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
14 0 1 0 0 0 4 2.48
15 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
16 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
17 0 1 0 0 0 11 6.82

3.1.1 MATLAB Programming

3.1.1.1 LoadFlow.m

function[minVm,Vm1,drop_per,n]=LoadFlow(basemva,basevoltage,busdat,li
nedat)
rx=linedat(:,2:6);
ep = 1e-004;
P0=busdat(:,7)/basemva;
Q0=busdat(:,8)/basemva;
Sg=(busdat(:,5)+busdat(:,6)*sqrt(-1))/basemva;
np=busdat(:,9);
nq=busdat(:,10);

%BIBC Matrix
n=max(max(rx(:,1)), max(rx(:,2))); % bus number
[nb ll]=size(rx); % nb branch number
fromb=[];
BIBC=zeros(nb,n-1);
for i=1:nb
fromb=[];
tob=rx(i,2);
BIBC(i,tob-1)=1;
fromb=[fromb; rx(i,2)] ;
for k=i+1:nb
if isempty(find(fromb==rx(k,1)))
else
tob=rx(k,2);
BIBC(i,tob-1)=1;
fromb=[fromb; rx(k,2)];
end
end
end
BIBC;
%
V=ones(n,1);
I=zeros(n,1);
eps=1;
it=0;
while eps>ep
22

it=it+1;
Vpr=V;
for ii=1:n
Pa(ii)=P0(ii)*(abs(V(ii))^np(ii));
Qa(ii)=Q0(ii)*(abs(V(ii))^nq(ii));
S(ii)=Pa(ii)+j*Qa(ii);
end

for ii=1:n
I(ii)=conj((S(ii)-Sg(ii))/V(ii));
end
Inew=I;
Inew(1)=[];
B=BIBC*Inew;
Vnew=V;
Vnew(1)=[];
Snew=conj(B).*Vnew;
for i=1:n-1
s=rx(i,1);
r=rx(i,2);
rz=rx(i,3);
xz=rx(i,4);
V(r)=V(s)-B(r-1)*(rz+j*xz);
end
eps=max(abs(V-Vpr));
end
% load flow analysis forward backward sweep approach based on
network
% topology
% load flow output data
it;
Vm1=abs(V);
Va=angle(V)*180/pi;
LineCur=B*basemva*1000/basevoltage;
SLoad=S.'*basemva;
Lineloss=abs(B).^2.*(rx(:,3)+j*rx(:,4))*basemva;
loss=sum(Lineloss);
Sline=Snew*basemva+Lineloss;
[minVm, minVmno]=min(Vm1);

RefV=ones(n,1);
drop_per=(RefV-Vm1)*100;

figure(1);
plot(Vm1,'-b','MarkerSize',4,'LineWidth',2,'Color',[0 0 0]);
xlabel('Bus No.','FontSize',10,...
'FontName','Times New Roman');
23

ylabel('Voltage (pu)','FontSize',10,...
'FontName','Times New Roman');
grid on
hold on

figure(2);
plot(drop_per,'-b','MarkerSize',4,'LineWidth',2,'Color',[0 0
0]);
xlabel('Bus No.','FontSize',10,...
'FontName','Times New Roman');
ylabel('Voltage Drop (per)','FontSize',10,...
'FontName','Times New Roman');
grid on
hold on


% %-----------------------------%Results
% disp('Algorithm Name: '),disp('Backward-forward sweep based
load flow method for distribution system');
% disp('System Bus No.: '),disp(n);
disp('branch current:'),disp(abs(B));
disp('Power Loss :'),disp(loss);
% disp('Min.Voltage : '),disp(minVm);
% disp('at bus No.: '),disp(minVmno);
% disp('Real Power loss : '),disp(real(loss));
% disp('Reactive Power loss: '),disp(imag(loss));



3.1.1.2 Reconfig.m

clear all;
clc;
close all;
%Power (MVA) and voltage base (kV) should be taken appropriatly and
bus injection and line parameters should be converted to pu in the
both data matrices.
% basemva = 0.01;% for 12-bus system.
basemva = 100;
% basevoltage = 11;
% basemva = 100;
basevoltage = 23;
% basemva = 100;% for 41-bus system,30-bus system,69-bus system,141-
bus system,85-bus system.
% basevoltage = 11;% for 12-bus system,30-bus system,33-bus system,
85-bus system.
24

% basevoltage = 12.66;% for 33-bus, 69-bus system.
% basevoltage = 33;% for 41-bus system.
% basevoltage = 12.47;% 141-bus system
% basevoltage = 12.47;% 141-bus system
[busdat] = xlsread('busdat16.xls');
[linedat] = xlsread('linedat16.xls');


[minVm,Vm1,drop_per,n]=LoadFlow(basemva,basevoltage,busdat,linedat);

% disp('Algorithm Name: '),disp('Backward-forward sweep based load
flow method for distribution system');
% disp('System Bus No.: '),disp(n);
% disp('Power Loss :'),disp(loss);
disp('Min.Voltage : '),disp(minVm);
disp('Node Voltages : '),disp(Vm1);
disp('Drop ()% Node Voltages : '),disp(drop_per);
i=0;
j=0;
for n=1:n
if drop_per(n,1)>5
j=j+1;
RNODE(j,1)=n;
%check the sending end node
for N=1:n-1
if n==linedat(N,3)
i=i+1;
SNODE(i,1)=linedat(N,2);
else
end
end
end
end

% disp('SNODE : '),disp(SNODE);
V_violate_SR=[SNODE RNODE];
disp('V_violate_SR : '),disp(V_violate_SR);
disp('length of V_violate_SR : '),disp(length(V_violate_SR));
%Replacing the limit violation lines with less resistive lines
for x=1:length(V_violate_SR)

for N=1:n-1
if V_violate_SR(x,:)==linedat(N,2:3)
% resis=input('enter new line resistance for violating
line')
linedat(N,4)= .0001;
25

% react=input('enter new line reactance for violating
line')
linedat(N,5)= .0001;
else
end
end

end
[RminVm,RVm1,Rdrop_per,n]=LoadFlow(basemva,basevoltage,busdat,linedat
);
disp('Min.Voltage after reconfig : '),disp(RminVm);
disp('Node Voltages after reconfig : '),disp(RVm1);
disp('Drop ()% Node Voltages after reconfig :
'),disp(Rdrop_per);

% disp('at bus No.: '),disp(minVmno);
% disp('Real Power loss after reconfig : '),disp(real(Rloss));
% disp('Reactive Power loss after reconfig: '),disp(imag(Rloss));


3.2 Outputs

branch current:
0.4711
0.4711
0.3814
0.3324
0.3324
0.2395
0.2395
0.2395
0.2395
0.0969
0.0969
0.1425
0.1425
0.1425
0.0490
0.0490
26


Power Loss :
2.5527 + 1.7245i

Min.Voltage :
0.9080

Node Voltages :
1.0000
0.9958
0.9840
0.9715
0.9606
0.9497
0.9419
0.9340
0.9259
0.9188
0.9145
0.9103
0.9660
0.9604
0.9128
0.9104
0.9080

Drop ()% Node Voltages :
0
0.4192
1.5956
2.8466
27

3.9368
5.0270
5.8124
6.5979
7.4145
8.1212
8.5462
8.9710
3.4018
3.9569
8.7183
8.9570
9.1958

V_violate_SR :
5 6
6 7
7 8
8 9
9 10
10 11
11 12
10 15
15 16
16 17

length of V_violate_SR :
10

branch current:
0.4566
28

0.4566
0.3669
0.3180
0.3180
0.2263
0.2263
0.2263
0.2263
0.0917
0.0917
0.1346
0.1346
0.1346
0.0489
0.0489

Power Loss after reconfiguration:
1.2095 + 0.9017i

Min.Voltage after reconfig :
0.9619

Node Voltages after reconfig :
1.0000
0.9959
0.9845
0.9725
0.9621
0.9620
0.9620
0.9620
29

0.9619
0.9619
0.9619
0.9619
0.9673
0.9620
0.9619
0.9619
0.9619



Drop ()% Node Voltages after reconfig :
0
0.4063
1.5465
2.7501
3.7932
3.7975
3.8007
3.8038
3.8069
3.8100
3.8113
3.8125
3.2742
3.7983
3.8119
3.8125
3.8132

30

>>


31


Figure 3.2.1 Graph between % voltage drop Vs bus no.







Figure 3.2.2 Graph showing voltage before and after reconfiguration
32

















Chapter-4


CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK











33




4.1 Conclusions
It is very challenging to select an optimal set of conductors for designing a distribution system. In this
thesis work, an algorithm has been proposed for selecting the optimal branch conductor based on load
flow technique. The proposed method selects the optimal branch conductor by minimizing the sum of
cost of energy losses and depreciation cost of feeder conductor. In addition the algorithm keeps the
maximum current carrying capacity and minimum voltage within prescribed limit. The proposed
algorithm has been implemented on 16-node radial distribution systems in India.

4.2 Future Scope of Work
After carrying thesis work in optimal conductor selection for Radial distribution systems, the presented
work can be extended in the area by:
Weather conditions
Sag & Tension
as conductor parameters depend upon these things.













34




REFERENCES

1. H.N. Tram, D.L. Wall (1988) Optimal conductor selection in radial distribution systems IEEE
Transactions on PAS, 3: 200-206.

2. Z Wang, et al., A Practical Approach to the Conductor Size Selection in Planning Radial
Distribution Systems , IEEE Transactions on Power delivery, Vol. 15, No. 1,January 2000.

3. Mandal S,Pahwa A Optimal Selection of Conductors for Distribution Feeders, IEEE
Transactions on Power systems, Vol. 17, No. 1, February 2002.

4. Das.D, H.S Nagi and DP Kothari, Novel method for solving Radial Distribution System ,IEE
Proc. Gener.Trans.Distrib,1994,141:291-298.

5. S. Ghosh and D. Das, Method for load-flow solution of radial distribution networks, IEE Proc.
Gener. Transm. Distrib., vol. 146, no. 6, pp. 641-648, Nov. 1999.

6. Salama MMA, Chikhani AY. A simplified network approach to the Var control problem for
radial distribution systems. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 1993;8(3):152935.

7. Ranjan R, et al., Optimal Conductor Selection Of Radial Distribution Feeders Using
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