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Modal Verbs

The Origin of the Universe


Newtons work gave a mathematical basis for the universe on a large scale. However, the data available at his time suggested a static unchanging universe. This could not be explained by the law of gravitation, since all bodies in the universe attract each other by the force of gravity. Newton realized there was only one solution to this problem: in a static universe matter must be uniformly spread throughout an infinitely large space. In 1826, Heinrich Olbers published a paper containing what is known as Olbers paradox: the universe had to be finite and uniform to avoid gravitational collapse. This assumption must have been wrong because it required perpetually bright sky on earth. Both Newton and Olbers incorrectly imagined space to be infinite and independent of the matter it contained. Einstein in his general theory of relativity (1915) proposed that the universe exists in four-dimensional space-time. This space-time is curved by the presence of matter and the matter moves following the resulting curves. The discovery of expanding universe by Hubble in 1929 provided the starting point of our present understanding of the universe. Hubble made his discovery by analyzing the spectra of light from distant galaxies noting redshift, which he explained in terms of the Doppler effect: the sources were moving away from the observer. Moreover, he discovered a pattern in his data: the further away the galaxy, the greater the speed of away motion. This model may seem to place the Earth at the center of the universe again. However, it is the space itself that is expanding and the galaxies are situated in this space like dots in a ring. As the ring expands, the view from any dot is that other dots are moving away at a speed proportional to their distance. No single dot is at the center, but all dots see the same. Hubbles discovery satisfies the cosmological principle that the universe should appear the same no matter where one is. Expansion of the universe also implies that there once must have been a time when space and time were minutely small with all the matter and energy of the universe concentrated in this small volume. Exercise 1. In the above text find modal verbs which say that : - something wasnt possible - something is possible now - we are sure something is true now - we are sure something happened - something is obligatory Exercise 2. In which case does the modal verb express modality (M) and in which case does it express possibility (P) or certainty (C)? Newton couldnt use present-day technologies. He had to rely on observation. He must have been influenced by the data available at his time He might have been mistaken. Today we may rely on high-tech research procedures. The expanding universe may be explained by big bang. Exercise 3. Put the sentences into Past Tense. 1. I must begin now. 2. You dont have to come. 3. You cant mean it. 4. You should help me. 5. The data must be wrong. 6. I cant speak German. 7. We may use calculators at the exam. 8. You may be right.

Exercise 4. Make the following text less resolute using may, might, can, could. The universe originated as a minute but very hot body. The temperature has been continuously falling as the expansion has continued. Variations in background radiation discovered in 1992 explain why the universe formed into galaxies and stars. In a uniform universe there is no reason for a gravitational collapse at any point. The four fundamental forces in the universe originated from a single force. This force existed when the big bang occurred. As the universe cooled, the forces separated. Research into the future is only speculative. The universe will continue to expand indefinitely or an eventual contraction will occur. Exercise 5. Match sentences 1-5 with the explanations in a-e. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. They couldnt / cant have done it. They should have done it. They neednt have done it. They might / may not have done it. They must have done it. a. b. c. d. e. They didnt do it. They did it but it wasnt necessary. I am sure they did it. I dont believe they did it. I am not sure they did it or not.

Exercise 6. Use suitable modal verbs to complete the sentences. 1. However angry you are, you never talk to people like that. 2. This report is urgent you . finish it by four oclock. 3. . I help you with the report? 4. John have gone home, his PC is still on! 5. You .. have checked the data, I did it yesterday. 6. Something bad . have happened to Joan, she has never been late like this. 7. You .. have deleted the file, you need it later. 8. The secretary have already left, but I am not sure. Check her office.

1.

This train travels from London ______ Paris. (at, to) 2. We stood at the back ______ the theater. (of, on) 3. She went to Rome __________ France. (versus, via) 4. The store is open daily ________ Monday to Friday. (for, from) 5. I took my hat ________ the table. (of, off) 6. He looks ________ his brother. (despite, like) 7. The children ran ________ the school. (of, out of) 8. He opened the box ________ a screwdriver. (at, with) 9. I will work _________ five o'clock. (until, up) 10. We walked __________ the restaurant. (despite, past) 11. At three o'clock we reached the top _______ the hill. (of, off)

12. You have delivered all of the papers __________ this one. (between, but) 13. The bank is _________ the school. (opposite, out of) 14. __________ the danger, he decided to climb the mountain. (despite, except) 15. The treasure was hidden __________ the earth. (under, up to) 16. A comes __________ B in the alphabet. (before, behind) 17. I went to work ____________ my umbrella. (out of, without) 18. When it is heated, water changes _________ steam. (in, into) 19. Nocturnal animals usually sleep __________ the day. (during, underneath) 20. The squirrel ran _________ the wall. (along, among) 2. Paying attention to the uses of the prepositions among, at, beside, besides, between, for, in, on and since, fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions chosen from those given in brackets. For example: They live __ 359 Southdale Avenue. (at, on) They live at 359 Southdale Avenue. The We meeting will take place __ Tuesday. (at, on) The meeting will take place on Tuesday. have been traveling ___ several days. (for, We have been traveling for several since) days.

She has been working _____ six o'clock this morning. (for, since) She has been working since six o'clock this morning. 1. He lives ______ 19 Tower Road. (at, on) 2. We will be gone ________ two days. (for, since) 3. Tom and his friend will divide the money ___________ themselves. (among, between) 4. They will be returning ______ November. (in, on) 5. I have known him ________ three years. (for, since) 6. Many foods ____________ milk contain calcium. (beside, besides) 7. I will arrive ______ six o'clock. (at, in) 8. He has been gone __________ Friday. (for, since) 9. The store is located ______ North Street. (at, on) 10. She is leaving ______ five minutes. (at, in) 11. Bridget, Leslie and Sarah will discuss the matter _________ themselves. (among, between) 12. I have known her __________ last year. (for, since) 13. We expect them ______ Wednesday. (in, on) 14. The cat was sitting ___________ the stove. (beside, besides) 15. The play begins ______ seven thirty. (at, on) 16. We waited __________ fifteen minutes. (for, since) 17. Columbus crossed the Atlantic ______ 1492. (at, in)

18. There are many possibilities __________ the ones I have mentioned. (beside, besides) 19. She will call us ______ half an hour. (at, in) 20. His birthday is ______ the 8th of January. (in, on)

Fill in the blanks with these words: although, and, because, but, or, since, so, unless, until, when.

1 Things were different _____ I was young.


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2 I do it _____ I like it.


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3 Let us wait here _____ the rain stops.


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4 You cannot be a lawyer _____ you have a law degree.


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5 That was years _____ years ago.


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6 She has not called _____ she left last week.


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7 I saw him leaving an hour _____ two ago.


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8 This is an expensive _____ very useful book.

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9 We were getting tired _____ we stopped for a rest.


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10 He was angry _____ he heard when happened.


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11 Walk quickly _____ you will be late.


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12 He had to retire _____ of ill health.


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13 We will go swimming next Sunday _____ it's raining.


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14 I heard a noise _____ I turned the light on.


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15 Would you like a coffee _____ tea?


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16 Do you know _____ she will arrive?


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17 _____ the car is old it still runs well.


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18 Do you want a pen _____ a bit of paper?


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19 I would like to go _____ I am too busy.


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20 She will die _____ the doctors operate immediately.


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Tvrdam deka pravilno go izvr{iv prevodot od angliski na makedonski jazik Ovlasten sudski preveduva~ za angliski jazik,Osnoven Sud - Prilep

I hereby certify that this is a true translation from English into Macedonian. Authorized court interpreter of English ,Primary Court - Prilep.

28.06.2013.

______________________________ Ana Angeleska