Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 2

JCSF/LINX ENGINEERING REVIEW CENTER

THERMODYNAMICS PRACTICE ROBLEMS 1


1. The pressure of a boiler is 9.5 kg/cm2. The barometric pressure is 768 mm of mercury. Find the absolute pressure in the boiler. 2. On a hypothetical temperature scale X, the ice point is assigned the reading at 40 o and the steam point at 160o. For another scale Y, the assigned values for ice point and steam point are 20o and 180o, respectively. Convert a reading of 20 oX to the Y scale. 3. In one of the research institute proposes a new temperature scale based on the ice point of water at 40 oD and steam point of 160 oD. Determine: a) the oC and oD relationship, and b) the absolute temperature in oR if the thermometer reads 60 oD. 4. A balloon considered spherical in shape is 9.5 m in diameter. The surrounding air is at 16 oC and the barometer reads 762 mm Hg absolute. What load may the balloon lift if it is filled with hydrogen at 20 oC (R = 4.125 kJ/kg-oK) and at atmospheric condition? 5. In a steady flow apparatus, 135 kJ of work is done by each kg of fluid. The specific volume, pressure, and speed of the fluid at the inlet are 0.37 m3/kg, 600 kPaa, and 16 m/s respectively. The inlet is 32 m above the floor, and the discharge pipe is at the floor level. The discharge conditions are: 0.62 m3/kg, 100 kPaa, and 270 m/s. The total heat loss between the inlet and discharge is 9 kJ/kg. In flowing through this apparatus, does the specific internal energy increase or decrease, and by how much? 6. Air at 21 oC is used to inflate an automobile tire to 207 kPag. After being driven, the temperature has risen to 38 oC. What is the resulting pressure if the tire did not stretch? [Ans: 220] 7. Determine the temperature of 10 liters of water at 30 oC after 83.74 kJ of heat have been added to it. [Ans: 32] 8. A pipe with a valve connects two unequal volume vessels A and B. Vessel A contains 0.142 m3 of air at 2758 kPaa and 93 oC. Vessel B of unknown volume contains air at 69 kPaa and 4 oC. The valve is opened, and when the properties have been determined it was found that p mixture = 1379 kPaa and tmixture = 43 oC. a) What is the volume of vessel B? b) Compute the heat transferred. [Ans: 0.1095, 134] 9. The increase of enthalpy of a certain gas is 141.9 kJ when the pressure increases from 103.448 kPaa to 1034.48 kPaa and the volume decreases from 0.4772 m3 to 0.0745 m3. Determine: a) the change in internal energy; b) the final temperature of the gas if the initial temperature is 28 oC. [Ans: 114, 197] 10. One kg of water (cv = 4.2 kJ/kg-oK) is heated by 300 Btu of energy. What is the change of temperature, in oK? [Ans: 75.4] 11. There are 3 lb of air in the rigid container at 25 psi and 100 oF. a) Determine the volume of the container. b) if the temperature is raised to 180 oF, what is the resulting absolute pressure? 12. A reversible nonflow, constant volume process decreases the internal energy by 315 kJ for 2.5 kg of gas for which R = 430 J/kg-K and k = 1.35. For the process, determine: a) the work; b) the heat; c) the change in total entropy. The initial temperature the gas is 205 oC. 13. If 0.17 kg/s of air are compressed isothermally from p1 = 96 kPaa and V1 = 0.13 m3/s to p2 = 620 kPaa, find the work, the change of entropy, and heat for: a) a nonflow process, and b) a steady flow process with V 1 = 15 m/s and V2 = 60 m/s. 14. A closed rigid container has a volume of 1 m3 and holds air at 345 kPaa and 273 oK. Heat is added until the temperature is 600 oK. Determine the heat added and the final temperature. 15. A piston-cylinder containing air receives heat at a constant temperature of 500 K and an initial pressure 200 kPaa. The initial volume is 0.01 m3 and the final volume is 0.07 m3. Determine the heat and work. 16. If 1 kg of air at 250 kPaa pressure and 100 oC were to be expanded at constant pressure in a closed process to twice the original volume, determine: a) the final state of air; b) the amount of heat and work involved in the process. 17. A pump system under steady flow operation delivers water at 25 oC from an inlet pressure of 100 kPaa to an exit pressure of 1200 kPaa. Determine the work done per unit mass. 18. If 2 m3 of air at a temperature of 25 oC and a pressure of 100 kPaa, were adiabatically compressed to a pressure of 400 kPaa, what would be the volume of the compressed air? What would be its temperature?
1

JCSF/LINX ENGINEERING REVIEW CENTER

19. One kilogram of air undergoes a polytropic expansion with n = 1.25 from a state of 0.2 MPaa and 300 oK to a pressure of 0.1 MPaa. How much heat is involved? Is it added or removed? 20. The power output from the steam turbine is 500 kW when the steam flow rate is 1.4 kg/s. The reduction in specific enthalpy of the steam between the inlet and outlet is 380 kJ/kg. Determine the heat flow per second when the inlet and outlet velocities are 20 m/s and 80 m/s, respectively. The inlet is located 800 mm above the outlet. 21. An air compressor takes in air at 20 oC with density 1.2 kg/m3. The inlet pipe has a diameter of 20 mm and the velocity of the air in the inlet pipe is 80 m/s. The outlet air temperature is 160 oC. Assume cp = 1.005 kJ/kg-oK. Determine the power input to the compressor if: a) there is negligible heat flow from the compressor (adiabatic); and b) the heat flow is 20 % of the adiabatic power output. 22. Compressed air with negligible velocity and a temperature of 20 oC enters a nozzle. AT the exit to the nozzle the pressure is essentially atmospheric but the velocity is 250 m/s. Calculate the temperature of the air at the exit, assuming cp = 1.005 kJ/kg-oK. 23. A refrigerant flows through a water-cooled condenser at a rate of 25 kg/min. The specific enthalpy of the refrigerant entering the condenser is 400 kJ/kg, and leaving is 220 kJ/kg. Determine the mass flow rate of cooling water through the condenser for a temperature increase of the water of 10 oC, assuming no external heat exchange. 24. If 1 kg of air at 250 kPaa and 100 oC were to be expanded at constant pressure in a closed process to twice the original volume, determine the following: a) the final state of air; b) the amount of heat involved in the process; and c) the amount of work involved in the process. 25. A group of 50 New Peoples Army (NPA) soldiers attends a secret meeting in a room that is 12 m wide by 10 meters long and a ceiling of 3 meters. The room is completely sealed off and insulated. Each person gives off 150 kcal per hour of heat and occupies a volume of 0.2 m3. The room has an initial pressure of 101.3 kPaa and temperature of 16 oC. Calculate the room temperature after 10 minutes. 26. Consider a 3-process cycle air-standard power cycle in which process 1 to 2 is isentropic compression, 2 to 3 is a constant pressure heat addition, and 3 to 1 is a constant volume heat rejection process. Given that p1 = 100 kPaa, T1 = 330 oK, and p2 = 800 kPaa, determine: a) the work and heat transfer for each process, and the thermal efficiency of the cycle. 27. A Carnot cycle/engine rejects heat at 42 oC. The heat rejected is is 2.42 times the work output. Determine: a) the thermal efficiency; and b) the source temperature. 28. The Carnot cycle/engine has a sink temperature of 45 oC. Its thermal efficiency is 48.2 %. The heat rejected is 742 kJ/min. Determine: a) the source temperature; b) the heat supplied per minute; and c) the power output. 29. Air-standard Carnot cycle is executed in a closed system between the temperature limits of 350 and 1200 oK. The pressures before and after the isothermal compression are 150 kPaa and 300 kPaa, respectively. If the network output per cycle is 400 kJ, determine: a) the maximum pressure in the cycle; b) the heat transfer to air; and c) the mass of air. 30. An air-standard Otto cycle has a compression ratio of 8 and has air conditions at the beginning of compression of 100 kPaa and 25 oC. The heat added is 1400 kJ/kg. Determine: a) the four-cycle state conditions; b) the thermal efficiency; and c) the mean effective pressure. 31. The heat addition process in an air-standard Disel cycle adds 800 kj/kg. The cycle minimum temperature and pressure are 20 oC and 100 kPaa, and the maximum temperature is 1000 oC. Determine the cycle thermal efficiency. 32. An air-standard Diesel cycle has a compression ratio of 20 and a cut off ratio of 3. Inlet pressure and temperature are 100 kPaa and 27 oC. Determine: a) the heat added per kilogram; and b) the network per kilogram. 33. The compression ratio of an engine working on the dual combustion cycle is 10.7. The pressure and temperature of the air at the beginning of compression is 1 bar and 32 oC. The maximum pressure and temperature durting the cycle are 41 bar 1593 oC. Assuming adiabatic compression and expansion, calculate the pressures and temperatures at the remaining cardinal points of the cycle and the ideal thermal efficiency. Take the values, cv = 0.718, and cp = 1.005 kJ/kg-oK. 34. A gas turbine has a maximum pressure and temperature of 420 kPaa and 485 oC, respectively when taking in air at 1.2 kg/s at atmospheric pressure and 15 oC. Assuming a theoretical Brayton cycle, determine: a) the power input to the compressor; b) the power output of the turbine; c) net power output; d) the thermal efficiency.