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The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international body to promote free trade by persuading countries to abolish import tariffs

and other barriers. It has become closely associated with globalisation and 153 countries become a member of it. It is currently the host to new negotiations, under the Doha Development Agenda launched in 2001. Based in Geneva, Switzerland, it was set up in January 1995, replacing another international organisation known as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). GATT was formed in 1948 when 23 countries signed an agreement to reduce customs tariffs. The WTO has a much broader scope than GATT where it also covers trade in services, such as telecommunications and banking, included intellectual property rights. The key players are United State of America, European Union, and Japan. Its function is to administering WTO trade agreements, handling trade disputes, monitoring national trade policies, technical assistance and training for developing countries and also forum for trade negotiations. The WTO has been the focal point of criticsm from people who are worried about the effects of free trade and economic globalisation such as : i)WTO is too powerful which can effect compel sovereign states to change laws and regulations by declaring these to be in violation of free trade rules; ii)WTO is run by the rich for the rich and does not give significant weight to the problems happened in developing countries; iii)WTO is indifferent to the impact of free trade on workers rights, child labor, the environment and health; iv)WTO lacks democratic accountability.

DOHA WTO MINISTERIAL 2001: MINISTERIAL DECLARATION, NOVEMBER 20, 2001 The November 2001 declaration of the Fourth Ministerial Conference in Doha, Qatar, provides the mandate for negotiations on a range of subjects, and other work including issues concerning the implementation of the present agreements. There are 21 subjects listed in Doha Declaration and among of them are services, agriculture, relationship between trade and investment, anti-dumping and subsidies, electronic commerce, small economies, trade, debt and finance, and trade and technology transfer. Services The negotiations were already almost two years old when they were incorporated into the new Doha agenda. The WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) commits member governments to undertake negotiations on specific issues and to enter into successive rounds of negotiations to progressively liberalize trade in services. The services negotiations started officially in early 2000 under the Council for Trade in Services. In March 2001, the services council fulfilled a key element in the negotiating mandate by establishing the negotiating guidelines and procedures. The Doha Declaration endorses the finished work, reaffirms the negotiating guidelines and procedures, and establishes some key elements on the timetable. The negotiations take place in special sessions of the Services Council and regular meetings of its relevant working parties. Agriculture Agriculture is now part of the single undertaking in which virtually all the linked negotiations are to end by 1 January 2005. The declaration reconfirms the long-term objective already agreed in the present WTO Agreement. Member governments commit themselves to comprehensive negotiations aimed at market access, exports subsidies, and domestic support, without prejudging the outcome. The declaration makes special and differential treatment for developing countries integral throughout the negotiations, both in countries new commitments and in any relevant new or revised rules and disciplines. Minister also concern of the non-trade concerns such as environmental protection, food security, rural development and so on.

Relationship between trade and investment. In the period up to the 2003 Ministerial Conference, the declaration instructs the working group to focus on such as clarifying the scope and definition of the issues and it also spells out a number of principles such as the need to balance the interests of countries where foreign investment originates and where it is invested. It also emphasizes support and technical cooperation for developing and least-developed countries and technical cooperation for developing and least-developed countries and coordination with other international organizations. WTO Rules: Anti-dumping and Subsidies The aim of negotiating is to clarify and improve disciplines while preserving the basic, concepts, principles of these agreements, and taking into account the needs of developing and least-developed participants. Participants first indicated which provisions of these two agreements they think should be the subject of clarification and improvements in the next phase of negotiations. Minister also mention specifically in fisheries subsidies as one sector important to developing countries and where participants should aim to clarify and improve the disciplines of WTO. Electronic Commerce The Doha Declaration endorses the finished work on electronic commerce and instructs the General Council to consider the most appropriate institutional arrangements for handling the work programme, and to report on further progress to the Fifth Ministerial Conference. The declaration also states that members will continue the practice of not imposing customs duties on electronic transmissions until the Fifth Ministerial Conference. Small Economies Small economies face specific challenges in their participation in world of trade, such as lack of economy of scale and limited natural resources. The declaration mandates the General Council to examine the problems and to make recommendations to the next Ministerial Conference in order to improve the integration of small economies. Trade, debt and finance Serious external debt problems and have been through financial crises were faced by many of developing countries. WTO ministers decided in Doha to establish a Working Group on

Trade, Debt and Finance. This working group will report to the General Council which will in turn report to the next Ministerial Conference.

Trade and Technology Transfer The WTO agreements mention the need for a technology transfer to take place between developed and developing countries. However, it is not really clear how it could take place in practice and if specific measures might be taken within the WTO to encourage such flows of technology. To examine the issue, WTO ministers decided in Doha to establish a working group which they will report to the General Council which itself will report to the next Ministerial Conference.